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SUBMISSION TO THE COPENHAGEN CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE: TIME TO BE BOLD PDF Print E-mail
Justice News
Posted by Joan Russow
Saturday, 01 August 2015 08:56

 

 

 

SUBMISSION TO THE COPENHAGEN CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE: TIME TO BE BOLD  

 

THIS VERSION WAS THE ONE THAT WAS ON THE WEBSITE www.ClimateChangeCopenhagen.org , WHICH  WAS REMOVED 

 

Original: December 2007, updated November 11 2009 

With extracts/contributions, which best address the urgency, from the statements of governments, NGOs, and scientists.

Global Compliance Research Project

CONTACTS: Joan Russow (PhD) Canada, ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it )

Richard Levicki (MSc) England

( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it )

www.ClimateChangeCopenhagen.org  

OVERVIEW  2- 5

PREAMBLE 6 - 15

OPERATIONAL CLAUSES 16 – 26

ANNEX: 27-28 – Tables showing failure to discharge UNFCCC obligations

 

OVERVIEW

The time for procrastination about climate change has long since passed; the world is in a state of emergency and further inaction is gross negligence. The actual and anticipated impacts of climate change as well as the unintended consequences of climate change, and  the short-term and long-term effects that are known and yet to be known have all contributed to the state of emergency. Any denial of the state of emergency, is eclipsed by the moral imperative, and legal obligation to abide by the precautionary principle.

Solutions for the state of emergency depend upon the political will to address climate change within the complexity and interdependence of issues related to: guaranteeing human rights, including the human right to food, to drinking water, to sanitation and to health; ensuring social justice; protecting and conserving the environment and ecosystems; reducing the ecological footprint and moving away from the current over-consumptive model of development; and preventing war and conflict. 

While the threat of climate change has been obvious to most scientists for five decades, the industrialised world - the major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions - has refused to acknowledge, let alone address the urgency of the crisis. Industrialised nations have been heavily influenced by financial, media and industrial corporations, corporate front groups, industry-funded academics, as well as by citizens that deny the science, all of which have tried to cast doubt on the reality of human-caused climate change.

 

As stated in the precautionary principle in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing methods to address the threat. All member states of the United Nations have a legal obligation to abide by the precautionary principle. There is consensus among scientists that the threat to climate change is caused by anthropogenic activity, and that there is a global emergency. THIS CONSENSUS IS SUFFICIENT to justify invoking the precautionary principle. 

 

Corporate-controlled states have failed not only to address the urgency of the crisis by enacting effective legislation, but also to even seriously consider - let alone invest in - the resources needed to protect their own coasts and citizens as well as the poorest and most vulnerable states and people from the current and future impacts of climate change.


In addition, those who have created and most benefited from the carbon economy have failed to consider the need to assist the low-lying states and small island developing states that have already been impacted by climate change. They have also failed to acknowledge any responsibility, or to provide compensation for the widespread displacement of people resulting from climate change. These impacts are all considered externalities by policy-makers who continue to subsidize fossil fuels while ignoring the burgeoning economic health, environmental and social costs of climate change.

In Copenhagen, rather than adopting a minimalist lowest common denominator approach to setting climate targets and time frames, member states of the United Nations must acknowledge the science of dwindling glaciers, increasing atmospheric turbulence, desertification, ocean warming and acidification and rising sea levels, and adopt strong, effective, and mandatory targets and time frames to address the urgency.

The UNFCCC is ratified by 192 countries – representing near universal membership – it commands near universal support and its legitimacy is unquestioned.The UNFCCC stated: “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere must be at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. This level equates to a target of below 1°C, which is the point at which global systemson land, water and air will be so affected as to create vicious feedback cycles and destabilise many ecosystems and human societies.

Because of the global urgency, there must be the political will to strive to contain the rise in temperature to less than 1°C above pre-industrial levels. and strict time frames must be imposed, so that overall global emissions will begin to be reversed as of 2010. There must be a target of 30% below 1990 levels by 2015, 50% below by 2020, 75% by 2030, 85% by 2040 and 100% below by 2050, while adhering to the precautionary principle, the differentiated responsibility principle, and the fair and just transition principle. Under the Framework Convention, every state signatory incurred the obligation to conserve carbon sinks; thus the destruction of sinks, including deforestation and elimination of bogs must end.

Most scientific work today has become tied to the failing negotiations and is based on keeping the risk of a rise in temperature above 2 °C at about  5-40%. The proposal submitted, here, by the Global Compliance Research Project is based on trying to avoid a rise in temperature above 1 °C and returning atmospheric CO2 back to 278ppm in line with the obligations outlined in the UNFCCC by 2050 and bringing risk down to a minimum.

 

If the dangerous level is to be avoided, emission pathways to eliminate CO2 must arrive at the pre-industrial level of 278 ppm at least by 2050.

 

Currently under consideration as a targetin brackets

 

[Only if the CO2 levels are not beyond 278 ppm will the rise in temperature be maintained below 1°C which has been assessed by many scientists as being the danger level. To succeed in being below the dangerous 1°c, member states of the United Nations must commit to  remove  between 1105.62GTCO2 and 1842GT CO2 from the atmosphere (see table 4). The initial removal phase should start in 2010 and run to 2020, with a research program to determine the required GT GHG to be removed to achieve 278ppm of CO2 by 2050 and socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound methods of CO2 reduction. By the latest in 2020, between 36.85 GT CO2 yr-1 and 61.42 GT CO2 yr-1 must be removed. In the period 2010-2020 natural carbon sinks must be restored.

Emission reductions should be based on global caps for emissions of GHG and must follow a smooth path as shown in Graphs 1, 2 and 3. Carbon elimination must not be used to offset reduction targets, and must be done through socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound methods. Greenhouse Gas Emissions resulting from Destructive land use practices including in the rural, the urban and peri-urban environment must end. Deforestation must end and developing nations whose development will be affected must be compensated. There must be caps on yearly emissions of GHG as per table 3 and graphs 2 and 3 and as required for the 1°C target. Current research only shows cumulative emission budgets for a 2 °C target, the targets in this submission are based on trying to not be above a 1 °C target.]

 

The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental needs of developing countries and of present and future generations. All states must embark immediately on time-bound phasing out of fossil fuels and of subsidies for fossil fuel. The unconventional extraction of oil from Bitumen, such as in the process in the tar/oil sands, is a major contribution to greenhouse gas and must be prohibited. In addition there must be a phase-out of biofuel and nuclear energy and an end to the subsidizing of biofuel and of nuclear energy, and a time-bound commitment to conservation, and to subsidizing and investing in socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc. options, that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 

 

The transition to a zero carbon society should meet the needs of all nations and people in an equitable fashion and should be based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibility, human rights and social justice. To achieve this end the industrialized states and major greenhouse gas producers must be prepared to enter into binding obligations not only through targets and time frames but also through funding mechanisms. This fund could be named Fund for the Implementation of the UNFCCC, and it would fund socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound energy renewable energy, transportation, agriculture and forestry. This fund would replace the GEF as the main source of funding for the UNFCCC.

 

The dominant greenhouse gas-producing and emitting states should be compelled to finance this international fund. Funds traditionally distributed not only through the GEF but also through the Bretton Woods institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and  additional bilateral funds, such as those in the German Fund for International Climate Initiative, should be channelled through this global fund. This fund would be indispensable for preventing climate change, and for achieving the objectives of the UNFCCC.

Additional funds mustbe derived from reallocation of global military expenses, including budgets and arms production and sales. Part of this fund could be allocated to compensate states damaged in any way by the failure of industrialized states to discharge obligations under the UNFCCC and other legal obligations.

 

Other budgetary sources for this Fund would be the redirecting of subsidies from socially inequitable and environmentally unsound non-sustainable energy to socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc.

 

In addition, measures to alleviate the impacts of climate change must include the cancellation of the outstanding debt of developing states, and the implementation of the minimal long-standing commitment of 0.7% of GDP being transferred to Overseas Development (ODA). The ODA must serve the needs not of the developed states but of the developing states. Any shortfall in funding should be bolstered by increased ODA by nations that inequitably gain an advantage from historical emissions or reduction scenarios that are not in line with the principle of equity.

 

All these funding measures could only just begin to compensate for the “emissions debt” owed, by the developed states to the developing states.

The impact, of climate change on the world's poor, on indigenous peoples, vulnerable communities, and especially low-lying states will be the greatest, and they must be assisted by Industrial states, which have a legal and moral imperative, to provide funds for socially equitable and renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc. 

 

In addition, major greenhouse gas-producing states must be forced to implement the actions that would discharge the obligations incurred when they signed and ratified the UNFCCC (provisions of the UNFCCC have become international peremptory norms and as such are binding) and be forced to repay the emission debt. Historic emissions should be calculated and an assessment made of the degree of dereliction of duty in the implementation of the UNFCCC. From these assessments, provisions must be made to compensate the states that have been most damaged by the failure, of the major greenhouse gas emitting states, to discharge obligations under the Convention. In such cases, a fund should be set up to assist vulnerable states in taking delinquent states to the International Court of Justice. 

 

“Market-based” or “market centre” approaches, which are being proposed by developed states must be opposed because they will serve neither the needs of developing states nor the objectives of the UNFCCC

 

The mandate of the Commission on Sustainable Development has been eroded. Its mandate was originally to ensure effective follow-up to Agenda 21, and other UNCED obligations and commitments. The Commission on Sustainable Development, in light of the failures of its current format, should be upgraded to a Council, which would be able deal with new or emerging environmental threats, and with on-going threats, such as climate change, which requires continuous intervention. Also too often at the Commission on Sustainable Development, serious polices, which would address the urgency are thwarted by the requirement to reach consensus, and serious consideration must be given to a different negotiation process and requirements.

 

Entrenched immovable national interests that have impeded the Commission on Sustainable Development must be prevented from blocking the adoption, in the UN General Assembly, of a strong legally binding agreement on climate change, Article 18 of the Charter of the United Nations reads: “Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting. These questions shall include recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security.” Undoubtedly, the impact of climate change could be deemed to fall under this category. In Copenhagen, given the urgency of the issue of climate change, and its potential effects on the global population and on the political, economic, ecological and social global systems, the requirement for consensus must be waived, and a binding agreement on all states will be deemed to exist, if66 %of the states concur. It is possible that a majority of the member states could agree to a strong legally binding “Copenhagen protocol” to the UNFCCC. A strong Protocol to the UNFCCC could then be used against the delinquent states, and a case could be taken to the International Court of Justice under the UNFCCC., which has been signed and ratified by 192 states, even most of the delinquent states including Canada and the US, have signed and ratified the UNFCCC. 

In addition, the practice of anglocentricity must end, and full translation in the six official languages must be provided, not only in the plenary but also  in all working and negotiating groups. In the working groups and in the plenary, the disproportion of interventions and domination by the umbrella groups and individual nations must no longer be permitted.

 

 

 

 

 

 PREAMBLE

 

Years of unheeded warnings  
 
AWARE THAT as far back as 1958, scientists began to acknowledge the potential threat of climate change, and subsequently in 1988, scientists, politicians and members of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) met at the Changing Atmosphere Conference in Toronto to address the issue of climate change and warned that:  
 
"Humanity is conducting an unintended, uncontrolled, globally pervasive experiment whose ultimate consequence could be second only to a global nuclear war. The Earth's atmosphere is being changed at an unprecedented rate by pollutants resulting from wasteful fossil fuel use ... These changes represent a major threat to international security and are already having harmful consequences over many parts of the globe.... it is imperative to act now."  
 
In the Conference Statement from the 1988 Conference, the participants, scientists, government representatives, industry, other organizations called for:  
 
"The stabilizing of the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is an imperative goal. It is currently estimated to require reductions of more than 50% from present [1988] emission levels. Energy research and development budgets must be massively directed to energy options which would eliminate or greatly reduce CO2 emissions and to studies undertaken to further refine the target reductions."  

In view of this important and accurate statement made at a major conference, the developed world cannot deny that it had been warned.

 

ENDORSINGthe statement, to the United Nations, from the Maldives, made after pointing out that year after year the Maldives has raised the alarm: 

“From now on, we will no longer be content to shout about the perils of climate change. Instead, we believe our acute vulnerability provides us with the clarity of vision to understand how the problem may be solved – very crystal clear to us: the objectivity to say that it is in all of our interests to aggressively pursue that solution; and the courage and the determination to lead by example by walking the path ourselves. In return, we ask assembled world leaders to discard those habits that have led to twenty years of complacency and broken promises on climate change, and instead to seize the historic opportunity that sits at the end of the road to Copenhagen.”

 

Dereliction of duty failure to discharge obligations  

 

Deeply disturbed that changes in world climate would have serious impacts on human health. The World Health Organisation estimated, in its "World Health Report 2002", that climate change was responsible in 2000 for approximately 2.4% of worldwide diarrhoea, 154 000 deaths and affected 5.5 million peoples health. More than 84% of this burden occurred in developing countries. If this is the case with less than 1 °C increase in temperature the trend will dramatically worsen at 2 Degrees and beyond and will have serious effects on child mortality, life expectancy, and under 5 mortality rates which means the death of millions of the worlds most disadvantaged men, women and children.

 

AWARETHAT member states of the United Nations have been warned about climate change, and have been incurring obligations and making commitments related to climate change through a range of Conventions, Conference Action Plans and General Assembly Resolutions. These instruments form a central strand in both national and International peremptory norms; the time for procrastination has long since passed.

 

NOTING WITH CONCERNTHAT after Rio many states set up a multisectoral round table consensus based- decision-making process which glorifies conflict of interest through the participation of corporate vested interests. 

 

NOTINGWITH INCREASING CONCERN THAT STATES have often devolved their power and responsibility by forming “public private partnerships” which often, through the profit motive, undermine the state obligations to the commons


AWARE THAT the IPCC scientists, because of the mandate of the IPCC to neither prescribe nor proscribe, have been prevented from revealing the real state of global emergency, and if a global emergency were declared global emissions would be reversed in a year

 

NOTING WITH CONCERNTHAT many international NGOs are beholden to the military, fossil fuel, nuclear, biofuel, large-scale - hydro etc. industries through having corporate members on their boards and through receiving corporate funding

 

NOTING WITHCONCERN AS WELL THAT many politicians in developed countries “receive political donations” from the military, fossil fuel, nuclear, biofuel, large-scale - hydro etc. industries, and when no longer in politics sit on the boards of these industries

 

NOTING WITH CONCERNthat the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) has failed to achieve its mandate which was to fund projects that would contribute to the discharging of the obligations under the UNFCCC.

 

CONCERNED THAT bilateral funding, often with funder-interest conditions, creates a disorganized and power susceptible system of tackling climate change.

 

ACKNOWLEDGING THATatthe 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was negotiated and signed; it was subsequently ratified by most Member States of the United Nations including many who have not ratified the Kyoto Protocol, 
 
ACKNOWLEDGING ALSO
THATthe UNFCCC called for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the preservation of carbon sinks such as old-growth forests and bogs, with a final objective of stabilizing emissions to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interferences within mandatory time frames, and that there was an obligation incurred to reduce greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the end of the century (the year 2000)

 

AWARETHAT the defining point at which the term dangerous should be used in terms of the targets and time frames is below 1°C degrees. Since this is the point at which GLOBAL SYSTEMS, ON LAND, WATER AND AIR will be so affected as to destabilise societies; 

AWARE ALSOTHAT scientists now know with total confidence that any global warming target above 0.8°C is planetary suicide because of events happening to the Arctic, the oceans and coral reefs today at today's warming of 0.78°C. Today's warming is projected to double by today's atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and last for over 1000 years. The published science for several years shows that additional methane is being emitted as carbon feed back to global warming from warming Northern peat lands thawing permafrost and melting subsea Arctic methane hydrates obviously. This methane Arctic carbon feedback has always been recognized as the greatest single danger from atmospheric greenhouse elevation and global warming. Another reason we know this is the state of the world’s coral reefs and the opinion from scientists that it may already be too late to prevent their practical total loss from global warming and acidification (N.B. irreversible damage to natural ecosystems under FCCC). Realistically it may be too late now to avoid losing the great coral reefs and to avoid runaway global heating. (Dr. Peter Carter, personal communication, 2009).

 

RECOGNISING,the vital role of the depletion of water as a both as a       contributor to and a consequence of climate change

 

CONCURRING WITHReport prepared for the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues THAT The International Panel on Forests cites, among others, discriminatory international trade, trade distorting policies, structural adjustment programmes (SAPs), external debt, market distortions and market failure, perverse subsidies, undervaluation of wood and non-wood forest products, and poorly regulated investments as the international underlying causes of deforestation  (2007: Victoria Tauli-Corpuz and Parshuram Tamang  Report to Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues)

CONCURRING AS WELL with theReport prepared for the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues that “The environmental justice approach which strikes at the underlying causes of global warming was defeated when the Convention took a more market-based approach as seen in the proposals of the Kyoto Protocol.” Annex 1 countries (38 industrialized countries) pledged that by 2012 they will reduce their emissions by an average of 5.2 percent below the l990 levels by buying “carbon credits” from less polluting countries or corporations and by investing in projects which “sequester” or “store” carbon. None of the three market-based “flexible mechanisms” tackle directly the physical root causes of global warming: the transfer of fossil fuels from underground, where they are effectively isolated from the atmosphere, to the air”
And with a further statement in the Report: The flexible mechanisms allow Northern countries to avoid or delay reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows Northern countries to finance projects in the South to mitigate climate change in return for credits, which are banked and ultimately used to license continued pollution at home. Joint Implementation means that Northern countries can finance projects aimed at mitigating climate change in other Northern (often Eastern European) and Southern countries, receiving credits accordingly. With these in place, traders and bankers have started establishing carbon exchanges in those countries where major stock exchanges are based. (2007: Victoria Tauli-Corpuz and Parshuram Tamang Report to Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues)

 

CONDEMNING the use of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) as a means of discharging obligations in energy generation projects; the CDMs have been deemed neither to have benefited the developing countries nor to be in accordance with the principles of the UNFCCC.

 

CONCURRINGwith the developing states at the climate change meeting in Bangkok (Bangkok climate change talks:28 September - 9 October 2009)that “market-based” or “market centre approaches. which are being proposed by developed states must be opposed because they will not serve the needs of developing

Convinced that market-centre approaches are neither an efficient nor an equitable framework for the achievement of the UNFCCC objectives.

RECALLINGTHAT the Climate Change Convention came into force in the Spring of 1994. Under the Convention, the signatories of the Convention were bound to invoke the precautionary principle that reads: 
"Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing such measures, taking into account that policies and measures to deal with climate change should be cost-effective so as to ensure global benefits at the lowest possible cost" (Article 3. Framework Convention on Climate Change).          
This obligation to invoke the precautionary principle complemented the broader Rio Principle:  
 
”Where there is the threat of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to prevent the threat."  
Note: But there was the call for measures. It appears that rather interpreting "measures" to involve "prevention" [as was the case in the version of the precautionary principle in the Rio Declaration), many member states of the UN have embraced after-act "mitigation" - not preventing something from happening but anticipating or developing a clean-up technology, and then unfortunately, now, many member states are settling for adaptation - mitigation and adaptation should not be the foci of climate change negotiations. The foci should be prevention.

 

AWARE THATwhile the threat of climate change has been obvious to many scientists for  five decades, the industrialised world as the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions have refused to address the urgency of the crisis. Largely coerced into this position by developed-world industry, industry front groups, industry-funded academics and industry-controlled states, member states have failed not only to address the urgency of the crisis through enacting effective legislation, but also to even consider the sufficient resources that will be required to protect the poor and most vulnerable from the current and future impacts of climate change. In addition, they have failed to consider the need to assist low-lying states and Small Island developing states that have already been impacted by climate change, and to compensate the global displacement of people resulting from climate change.  

Deeply disturbed that the main victims of climate change will be the worlds poorest nations and communities, and appalled  that when per capita emissions are considered it is the high emitting rich who will suffer least while they inflict these emissions on the poor who emit less.

 

Disregarding of peremptory norms  
 
DISMAYED THAT the exploitation of human and natural resources by developed states, in developing states, and states in transition has undermined the ability of the latter states to address the impact of climate change  
 
RECALLING
THATobligations enunciated in the Framework Convention on Climate Change "to protect the climate system for present and future generations” have been disregarded; the rights of future generations will be violated if the global community fails to act now to prevent the devastating impacts of climate change, which could also threaten international peace and security .

CONCURRING withthe fundamental principle of intergenerational equity, including the rights of future generations to their cultural, natural heritage and to a safe environment, and affirming the obligation in the Framework Convention on Climate Change "to protect the climate system for present and future generations."  

 

CONCURRING AS WELL A Human Rights Council panel has emphasized that a successful outcome of climate change negotiations matters for human rights. The human rights perspective is indispensable to the ongoing negotiations leading to the year-end Copenhagen Climate Change Conference.

 

“As you engage in those negotiations, you must bear in mind the grave human rights consequences of a failure to take decisive action now,” said Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights Kyung-wha Kang when she opened the panel on 15 June.

 

“A successful outcome of ongoing climate change negotiations matters for human rights. A new climate change agreement must be fair, balanced and sufficiently ambitious to be effective.

 

“Climate change is related not only to environmental factors but also to poverty, discrimination and inequalities – this is why climate change is a human rights issue,” said Kang, adding that the human rights perspective is particularly well suited to analyzing how climate change affects people differently.

 

 “climate change has many implications for the effective enjoyment of human rights, and for Nations human rights obligations and commitments”.

 

AWARE THAT at the Habitat II Conference every member state made a commitment to move away from car dependency 

 

Ignoring commitment made to socially equitable, environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc.  

 

CONCURRINGwith the commitment made under Chapter 9 of Agenda 21 - the section onAtmosphere, which calls for environmentally sound renewable energy:  
 New and renewable energy sources are solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, hydro, ....geothermal, ocean, animal and human power, as referred to in the reports of the Committee on the Development and Utilization of New and Renewable Sources of Energy, prepared specifically for the Conference 2? (See A/CONF.151/PC/119 and A/AC.218/1992/5) 


 CONCERNED THAT often labour engaged in non-renewable resource extraction, including the fossil fuel industry and the nuclear industry are reluctant to oppose the continued existence of industrial practices that are harmful to human health and the environment, and that labour would not be so reluctant if there were the implementation of the fair and just transition principle; and that often the call by labour for a fair and just transition to socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound energy is ignored by industry and governments.

RECOGNIZING THAT the developing countries are aware that there are many barriers to transfer of technology to developing countries. Intellectual Property Rights are one such barrier particularly where the transfer involves development of domestic capacities to absorb, innovate based on the knowledge and commercialization of the results. (Third World Network, 2009)

 

In light of the imminent challenges posed by climate change and the patenting trend (with ownership of technology focused in industrialized nations, a trend likely to continue more robustly in coming years), there is need for action on the part of members negotiating at the UNFCCC to agree to measures that overcome the IP barriers and facilitate transfer of technology as well as associated skills and know-how.

 

It is crucial that nothing prevent governments from taking steps to deal with climate change, this includes intellectual property rights that pose an absurd barrier to the implementation of the UNFCCC 

 

Condoning institutions that undermine true solutions and proposing solutions that are worse than the problem they are intended to solve  

AWARE THATthe Breton Woods Institutions, since their inception, have been responsible for unfortunate policies such as the IMF Structural Adjustment programmes and many unsustainable mega projects such as those funded by the World Bank)

AWARE ALSOTHAT International Trade agreements, such as GATT, and the subsequent WTO, along with regional trade agreements, have undermined international resolve to seriously address unsustainable practices, and to enforce regulations that would advance and in many cases have been used to undermine development, by sovereign states, of socially equitable environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc.  

CONCERNEDTHAT Global Environmental Facility is involved in funding climate change projects, which involve biofuels, nuclear and crop (genetic) engineering. The GEF is a developed world instrument, it does not implement policies with the ultimate goals of the UNFCCC in mind, AND IT is undermined since it is embedded in industry interests, and as such cannot function under its title as the funding mechanism for the UNFCCC.

 

CONCERNED THAT bilateral funding, often with funder-interest conditions, creates a disorganized and power susceptible system of tackling climate change.

 

CONCERNED THAT solutions proposed to address the issue of climate change would have in themselves serious irreversible consequences, such as those arising out of the use of genetically engineering technology, of biofuels, as they impact land, water use and food security, and food sovereignty. The impact of biofuels on indigenous peoples was outlined in the Report submitted to the permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues:

“The recommendations adopted ....on global warming are a classic case of providing a solution to one specific problem while simultaneously creating a host of other problems. Expanding plantations for biofuels or energy crops and for carbon sinks are recreating and worsening the same problems faced by indigenous peoples with large-scale mono-cropping, agricultural and tree plantations....” (2007: Victoria Tauli-Corpuz and Parshuram Tamang Report to Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues)

CONCERNED THAT in some of the poorest regions of the world, agricultural land that should be used for local food production is instead used for biofuels to offset emissions from the developed world.

AFFIRMING ALSOTHAT nuclear energy is not a solution to climate change because, although promulgated by proponents, as "safe, clean, and cheap”, there is clear and valid scientific evidence of its inherent dangers: lack of safety (emissions into both air and ground water), security-linked issues, unresolved (and likely irresolvable) waste disposal problems. And finally ”there is the inextricable link between civil nuclear energy and the development of nuclear arms.” (Dr. Fred Knelman, author of "Nuclear Energy: The Unforgiving Technology".)


 NOTING WITH DISMAY THATthe serious equity, health, and security consequences, especially on the land of indigenous peoples and marginalized communities of large-scale biofuel and large-scale hydroelectric projects, and ecologically and socially unacceptable location of small-scale hydro projects  

CONCURRING WITH the rapporteur of the Permanent Forum of Indigenous Peoples: “Unfortunately, the mitigation and adaptation processes that are now being proposed under the Kyoto Protocol are producing adverse impacts on indigenous peoples. The impact of biofuels and monocrop plantations on indigenous lands for expansion of land to produce biofuels, to supposedly be alternative fuels, has caused dislocation and expropriation of indigenous peoples.” (Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, rapporteur for Permanent Forum of Indigenous Peoples, 2007, DPI Conference at the UN)

 

AWARE of the importance of Traditional Knowledge and practices in developing strategies to address climate change.

 

TAKING INTO ACCOUNT the principle of common but differentiated responsibility and accepting that all member states have adopted Principle 3 of the Rio Declaration (1992); and that "the right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations." Industrialised nations must work cooperatively, and in the best interests of those nations and peoples with the least resources to support those nations in developing strategies for conservation and the development of alternative sources of energies uniquely suited to their circumstances; these sources should be socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound energy." The impact on the world's poor, on indigenous peoples, vulnerable communities, and especially low-lying states will be the greatest.

 

Ignoring the impact of militarism on climate change 
 
BECOMING more and more aware of the dangers related to climate change, and the potential security implications related to resource conflict, and militarism,  
 
DEEPLY CONCERNED THAT foreign refusal to supply fossil fuel for the consumption of developed states could be deemed to violate "strategic national interest" of developed states and result in military intervention,  

 

DEEPLY CONCERNEDTHAT in violation of international law, some developed nations, in the pursuit of resources, are flagrantly engaging in war crimes under the guise of “human security”, “humanitarian intervention”, “responsibility to protect” or the “will to intervene”; these guises have been used to justify the policy of “preventive/pre-emptive military strikes which contravenes the ultimate international crime of aggression. 

 

REAFFIRMING THAT warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development" (Rio Declaration, Principle 24, UNCED, 1992), and that there must be rigorous adherence to and enforcement of the [1978] Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD),  
 
REAFFIRMING
THAT the commitment made in Chapter 33 of Agenda 21, to reallocate resources presently committed to military purposes, and the importance of implementing this commitment made, and to transfer part of the peace dividend to assist the developing states in thedevelopment of socially equitable environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc. These resources should be put into a fund for the implementation of the UNFCC.


NOTING THAT in Agenda 21, there was an estimate of the annual cost of implementing all the AGENDA 21 provisions each year, and that a reallocation of the GLOBAL military budget could begin to seriously facilitate implementation of these commitments,  

AWARE THATat the September, 2007 DPI/NGO Conference, the Chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change was presented with a declaration calling for the IPCC to include a full analysis of the contribution of militarism to greenhouse gas emissions.

AWARE THAT states adopted Principle 24 in the 1992 Rio Declaration, UNCED: this principle affirms that “Warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development.”. This principle confirms that military actions create a barrier to sustainable development .

Eroding  of the Commission on Sustainable Development

NOTING that the General Assembly Resolution A/RES/47/191 states that the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) should ensure effective follow-up to Agenda 21, and other UNCED obligations and commitments  

CONCERNED THAT the CSD failed in this role in its current format as shown by the failure of negotiations at CSD15, especially to produce a negotiated outcome on climate change and other issues. This failure was also evident in the weak document emerging from CSD 17

DISMAYED THAT government and non-governmental organisations have embraced the backward-looking agreement made at WSSD and are building on this agreement which is not an appropriate mechanism for instituting a socially equitable and environmentally sound world 

DISMAYED THAT since its conception in 1992, changes in how CSD functions have progressively affected its ability to fulfill its mandate in its original form 

CONCERNED THAT at CSD 11 (UN E/2003/29, E/CN.17/2003/6) it was decided that in order to fulfill the CSD mandate the work of the Commission will be organized in a series of two-year action-oriented implementation cycles, which will include an evaluation of progress in implementing Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, while focusing on identifying constraints and obstacles in the process of implementation with regard to the selected thematic cluster of issues for the cycle

MINDFUL THAT this has not worked, issues wait for long periods of time to be addressed, this in itself in fundamentally flawed. For example climate change waited three years and in its two-year cycle no adequate agreement was reached. Now in the subsequent meetings on for example water any agreements may be undermined by the lack of action on climate. The current issues as they relate to sustainable development may be irreversible and this procrastination will only mean that the delay is more critical than it already is. This delay also prevents the CSD from performing its role as outlined in General Assembly Resolution A/RES/47/191.

 

 

MEMBER STATES ARE URGED TO AFFIRM (AND TO ACT):

(1) THAT given that most states have signed and ratified the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the obligations in the Convention, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and conserve carbon sinks, have to be discharged immediately;

 

(2) THAT the Framework Convention on Climate Change came into force in 1994, and that climate change is a threat to our future and is thus a legally binding document reflecting international peremptory norms; 
 
(3) THAT there are thus provisions for states to launch cases in the ICJ against the egregious greenhouse gas-producing states that are signatories of the UN Convention on Climate Change;  
 
(4) THAT there is an Environment section of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) set up to address the failure of states to comply with obligations incurred under the UNFCCC;  

 

(5) THAT ‘after the fact mitigation” of and “adaptation” to climate change should not be used to justify inaction in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and in conserving of carbon sinks and to undermine the resolve to prevent dangerous climate change.
 
(6) THAT major greenhouse gas-producing states be forced to implement the actions that would discharge the obligations incurred when they signed and ratified the UNFCCC. In addition, historic emissions should be calculated and an assessment made of the degree of dereliction of duty in the implementation of the UNFCC. From these assessments, provisions must be made to compensate the states that have been most damaged by the failure to discharge obligations under the Convention (the climate debt). In such cases, a fund should be set up to assist vulnerable states in taking delinquent states to the International Court of Justice. These resources should be put into a fund for the Implementation of the UNFCCC;

(7) THAT there are entrenched immovable national interests that will serve to block serious binding instruments in Copenhagen; these national interests must be prevented from blocking  the adoption, in the General Assembly, of a strong legally binding agreement on climate change. Article 18 of the Charter of the United Nations reads: “Decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting. These questions shall include recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security.” Undoubtedly, the impact of climate change could be deemed to fall under this category. in Copenhagen, given the urgency of the issue of climate change, and its potential effects on the global population and on the political, economic, ecological and social global systems, the requirement for consensus must be waived, and a binding agreement on all states will be deemed to exist, if66 %of the states concur. It is possible that a majority of the member states could agree to a strong legally binding “Copenhagen protocol” to the UNFCCC. A strong Protocol to the UNFCCC could then be used against the delinquent states, and a case could be taken to the International Court of Justice under the UNFCCC, which has been signed and ratified by 192 states, Even most of the delinquent states including Canada and the US, have signed and ratified the UNFCCC. 

In addition, the practice of anglocentricity must end, and full translation in the six official languages must be provided, not only in the plenary but also  in all working and negotiating groups. In the working groups and in the plenary, the disproportion of interventions and domination by the umbrella group must  no longer be permitted.

 

(8) THAT the need for independence in matters of factual science on this crucial issue for humanity is essential. It is thus critical that the IPCC must be independent of national, economic or political vested interests and that an assessment of the independence of members must be carried out, and any member who has  been shown to be currently funded by the fossil fuel, military, nuclear, biofuel industry must step down. Members of the IPCC who do not base their analysis on planetary science and facts must be deemed to be negligent and in dereliction of duty and subject to legal recourse;

 

(9) THAT scientists, involved with climate change, must move away from the current tendency to be constrained by  the political barriers that have delineated the criteria for their research, and return to advocating solutions based on the climate science. That requires agreement that dangerous climate warming levels are below 1 degree and that targets and time frames must follow this pathway;

 

(10) THAT the mandate of the IPCC must change and IPCC scientists must be permitted to fully acknowledge the urgency and be able to prescribe solutions and proscribe spurious solutions;

 

(11) THAT there must be a formal acknowledgement from IPCC scientists submitted to the UNFCCC Secretariat that the world is beyond dangerous climate interference facing a real and rapidly rising risk of (never ending) global climate catastrophe which is a state of dire planetary emergency – this is required to generate genuine political will to act to address the emergency;

 

(12) That if governmental and non-governmental organizations fail to take bold and adequate action and if they undermine efforts to address the issue of climate change they should face the appropriate charges under national and internal law;

Committing to substantial reductions of greenhouse gas emissions and to socially equitable and environmentally sound and safe energy

 

 (13)THAT states must support at a less than the minimum of the recommendation of the President of the Maldives:

1. Developed nations must acknowledge their historic responsibility for global warming and they must accept ambitious and binding emission reduction targets consistent with an average temperature increase of below 1.5  [as stated the minimum must be BELOW 1 DEGREE] degree Celsius compared to pre-industrial levels.

2. If developed countries do act decisively, we in the developing world must be ready to jump, by accepting binding emission reduction targets under the principle of common but differentiated responsibility - - providing that the rich world give us the tools to do so, namely the technology and finance to help us reform our economic base and pursue carbon-neutral development; (JOAN

 

(14) THAT there must be a formal acknowledgement from a group of climate scientists submitted to the UNFCCC Secretariat that the world is beyond dangerous climate interference facing a real and rapidly rising risk of (never ending) global climate catastrophe which is a state of dire planetary emergency – otherwise it will be a barrier to instigating the political will for any genuine response;

 

(15) THAT the mandate of the IPCC must change and IPCC scientists must be permitted to fully acknowledge the urgency and be able not only to prescribe solutions and projects that are integrated into the local ecosystems, working within the structure of the natural environment and  but also to proscribe actions that could be socially inequitable and environmentally unsound;

(16)THAT all states should follow the lead of the Tuvalu in making firm commitments;

 

It is reported that “the tiny Pacific island nation of Tuvalu has set a target of having all its energy needs provided by renewable sources by 2020. (“Tiny Tuvalu to be wholly powered by sun and wind by 2020”; 2009, Yvonne Chan, Business Green);

 

(17)THAT rather than descending to the lowest common denominator in assessing climate targets in all international negotiating arenas, the strongest percentage target advocated to best address the crisis be adopted.

Because of the global urgency, there must be the political will to strive to contain the rise in temperature to less than 1°C above pre-industrial levels. and strict time frames must be imposed, so that overall global emissions will begin to be reversed as of 2010. There must be a target of 30% below 1990 levels by 2015, 50% below by 2020, 75% by 2030, 85% by 2040 and 100% below by 2050, while adhering to the precautionary principle, the differentiated responsibility principle, and the fair and just transition principle. Under the Framework Convention, every state signatory incurred the obligation to conserve carbon sinks; thus the destruction of sinks, including deforestation and elimination of bogs must end.

Most scientific work today has become tied to the failing negotiations and is based on keeping the risk of a rise in temperature above 2 °C at about  5-40%. The proposal submitted, here, by the Global Compliance Research Project is based on trying to avoid a rise in temperature above 1 °C and returning atmospheric CO2 back to 278ppm in line with the obligations outlined in the UNFCCC by 2050 and bringing risk down to a minimum.

If the dangerous level is to be avoided, emission pathways to eliminate CO2 must arrive at the pre-industrial level of 278 ppm at least by 2050.

Currently under consideration as a targetin brackets

[Only if the CO2 levels are not beyond 278 ppm will the rise in temperature be maintained below 1°C which has been assessed by many scientists as being the danger level. To succeed in being below the dangerous 1°c, member states of the United Nations must commit to  remove  between 1105.62GTCO2 and 1842GT CO2 from the atmosphere (see table 4). The initial removal phase should start in 2010 and run to 2020, with a research program to determine the required GT GHG to be removed to achieve 278ppm of CO2 by 2050 and socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound methods of CO2 reduction. By the latest in 2020, between 36.85 GT CO2 yr-1 and 61.42 GT CO2 yr-1 must be removed. In the period 2010-2020 natural carbon sinks must be restored.

Emission reductions should be based on global caps for emissions of GHG and must follow a smooth path as shown in Graphs 1, 2 and 3. Carbon elimination must not be used to offset reduction targets, and must be done through socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound methods. Greenhouse Gas Emissions resulting from Destructive land use practices including in the rural, the urban and peri-urban environment must end. Deforestation must end and developing nations whose development will be affected must be compensated. There must be caps on yearly emissions of GHG as per table 3 and graphs 2 and 3 and as required for the 1°C target. Current research only shows cumulative emission budgets for a 2 °C target, the targets in this submission are based on trying to not be above a 1 °C target. ]

(18) AND THAT, based on current knowledge and current changes happening to practically all ice masses, especially the Arctic, the goal as defined in the UNFCCC as dangerous should be to get the global temperature back down , below a 1C rise in temperature (Bill Hare, State of the World, Worldwatch 2009); Since this is the point at which global systems, on land, water and air will be so affected as to destabilise societies; 

(19) THAT time frames should be imposed to exclude any risk of global climate catastrophe from Arctic methane carbon and other feedback triggered mechanisms that will cause runaway global heating. This today means nothing less that an all-out global emergency response to reduce global emissions at the greatest possible speed to return to 280 ppm CO2 And that All states must embark immediately on time-bound phasing out of fossil fuels and of subsidies for fossil fuel. Theunconventional extraction of oil from Bitumen, such as in the process in the tar/oil sands, is a major contribution to greenhouse gas. and must be prohibited. In addition there must be a phase-out of biofuel and nuclear energy and an end to the subsidizing of biofuel and of nuclear energy, and a time-bound commitment to conservation, and to subsidizing and investing in socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc. options, that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 

 

(20) THAT the follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol or any other policy agreement/legal instrument directed towards reducing climate change related emissions should move towards an equitable international system that protects not prejudices the world’s poor or politically disadvantaged men, women and children at risk;

 

(21) THAT emissions budgets should use a context of the carbon footprint of a nation and THAT all emissions should be linked to the country where the goods or services are used. Exporter manufacturing imports and overseas based business enterprises should all be linked to the originator countries’ greenhouse gas emissions.

Committing to instituting support for socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc.  

 

(22) THAT all states must embark immediately on time-bound phasing out of subsidies for fossil fuel, for biofuel, for nuclear energy and other non sustainable energy sources, and a time-bound commitment to conservation, and to subsidizing and investing in socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc. options, that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These funds should flow into and out of the Fund for the Implementation of the UNFCCC. AND  THAT The United Nations should establish by the end of 2010 transparent mechanisms to ensure the disclosure of detailed and accurate national GHG emissions data, including data related of greenhouse gas emissions from military activities . This data should be collected by independent UN appointed scientists, who should determine whether full disclosure has taken place. Where there has not be full disclosure then enforcement mechanism should be in place.

 

(23) THAT governments and international organizations must adopt at the national level, policies leading to timetables for progressively disclosing and phasing out the energy subsidies that inhibit sustainable development. And to establish by the end of 2010 transparent mechanisms within the United Nations system to receive and publicize annual reports from all governments and intergovernmental bodies, that would detail:
a.  data on all energy-related governmental and intergovernmental subsidies, and
b. data on the phasing out of harmful subsidies to reflect their environmental impacts; and calls upon governments at the national level to establish transparent national mechanisms for collecting and reporting data on energy-related subsidies provided by all levels of government in that country;

c. Data related to nationsal greenhouse gas emissions including data related to greenhouse gas emissions from military activities must be disclosed,  by 2010 and assessed by the United Nations.. This data should be collected by independent UN appointed scientists, who should determine whether full disclosure has taken place. Where full transparency and disclosure have not occurred, enforcement mechanisms must be invoked.

 

(24) THAT the member states should institute a fair and just transition program for workers and communities affected by the sunsetting of fossil fuel, biofuel and nuclear industries. This program would involve re-training and compensation for workers; 

 

(25) THAT there is need for action on the part of members negotiating at the UNFCCC to agree to measures that overcome the International Intellectual property barriers and facilitate transfer of technology as well as associated skills and know-how; AND nothing should prevent governments from taking steps to deal with climate change, this includes intellectual property rights that pose an unconscionable barrier to the implementation of the UNFCCC; 

 

(26) THAT all members of society, and institutions must be called upon to invest in socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc. that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions. And that the concept of ‘due diligence’ has to be reversed so that rather than financial managers, of pensions and other funds, being deemed guilty for not exercising due diligence if they invest in socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound renewable energy and transportation and transportation, the financial managers will in the future be guilty of failure to exercise due diligence if they invest funds in the fossil fuel, nuclear, biofuel, and large hydro industries; ANDthere could be a new global transport system; in this system the use of roads for cars for individuals would be phased out, the roads would be replaced by natural habitats and much smaller surface areas used for communal transport mechanisms as far as is possible, these would be able to cater for all human needs . This would create a major carbon sink, considerably increase quality of life, protect biodiversity, increase the spread of transport from A to B and create major cost and efficiency benefits for nations and business, as well as having a major impact on greenhouse gas emissions.

 

 (27) THAT “market based” or “market centre approaches. which are being proposed by developed states must be opposed because they will not serve the needs of developing states. (Third World Network, 2009);

 

Acknowledging and addressing the impact of militarism on climate change

 

(28) THAT the advocating of nuclear energy, along with large-scale hydro, biofuel, carbon capture as a solution to climate change must be condemned - no proposed course of action should either continue or exacerbate serious environmental or health problems, and/or contribute to global destabilization by undermining disarmament;
 
(29) THAT Overseas Development Aid (ODA) must not be linked to military purchases, or to the acceptance of socially inequitable and environmentally unsound practices or technologies, and THAT foreign military bases must be converted; 

 

(30) THAT the following is drawn from the Declaration that was prepared by members of the Peace Caucus and the Anti-militarisation Caucus at the DPI-NGO 2007 Conference on Climate Change:  
 
- the member states of the United Nations must act on the commitment in Chapter 33 of Agenda 21, to reallocate military expenses.  
 
- States must implement the commitment made in Agenda 21 to "the reallocation of resources committed to military purposes" (33.18), and to transfer the peace dividend to seriously address the urgent issue of climate change and other serious sustainable development issues

 
- the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change must investigate and estimate the full impact on greenhouse gas emissions by the military and demand that each state release information related to the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of all weapon systems, military exercises, from war games, weapons testing, military aviation, environmental warfare, troop transfer, military operations, waste generation, and reconstruction after acts of violent interventions etc.  
 
- NATO, whose collective activities have contributed to not only the perpetuation of the scourge of war and the violation of international peremptory norms, but also the substantial release of greenhouse gas emissions, must be disbanded.  
 
- the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must discontinue its promotion of nuclear energy - the most hazardous and expensive form of energy known - as the solution to climate change

(31)  that the agreement, of silence, between WHO and IAEA must end, and the World Health Organization (WHO) must acknowledge and address the short and long-term impacts on health of nuclear power generation.

 

Committing to the conserving of carbon sinks

(32) THAT worldwide deforestation must end, including the logging of old-growth/original forests, which are major carbon sinks; and THAT all global carbon sinks such as peat bogs, the oceans etc. must be rigorously protected as a major priority

 

(33) THAT spurious arguments that, in the name of climate change, attempt to legitimize the replacement of old-growth forests by advancing the argument that there is a point where and when old-growth forests are no longer efficient sinks and that they should be replaced with fast-growing young trees end.
 
Releasing new source of funding;

 

(34) THAT a Fund for the Implementation of the UNFCCC be established and financed by funds as suggested in this submission.

 

(35) That this fund would take an holistic and scientific approach to tackling climate change. It would have as its core an ideology of participatory planning, by local people,  of locally adapted projects within an overarching framework of principles to undergird the implementation of the UNFCCC legal obligations "to protect the climate system for present and future generations”. The fund would also have as a final objective of stabilizing emissions, within mandatory. time frames. to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interferences, while most importantly protecting the worlds poor and the global ecosystem. The Fund will be governed NOT by market demands but by scientific facts which will dictate what needs to be done to achieve the implementation of these objectives;

 

(36) THAT funds MUST BE redirected NATIONALLY from THE SUBSIDISING OF unsustainable practices, to supporting conservation and SUBSIDISING socially equitable environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc.;

 

(37) THAT funds from the subsidising of  unsustainable energy generation practices, must be redirected internationally to the fund for the implementation of the UNFCCC for the purpose of assisting in the conservation of energy, and of subsidising socially equitable environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc.;

 

(38) THAT the Global Environmental Facility funding should be transferred into the proposed fund for the Implementation of the UNFCCC, whose purpose is to fund socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound renewable energy; this fund would never be used to fund nuclear, biofuels or crop (genetic) engineering, or large corporate hydro projects. The UNFCCC fund with the ultimate aims of the UNFCCC in mind would not base its philosophy on the markets but on planetary science and social needs of current and future generations;

 

(39) THAT funds from the IMF, World Bank, including theWorld Bank Climate Investment Fund,and FROM all bilateral and multilateral funds for climate change such as the German Fund for International Climate Initiativeshould be transferred into the proposed fund for implementation of the UNFCC, Fund, whose purpose is to fund socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound renewable energy; this fund would never be used to fund nuclear, biofuels or crop (genetic) engineering, or large scale corporate hydro projects;

 

.

(40) THAT the dominant greenhouse gas-producing states should be compelled to finance The Fund for the Implementation of the UNFCCC. This international fund should be used for socially equitable environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry etc. and for supporting energy conservation and projects in low-income areas of developing countries and economies in transition;

 

(41) THAT developed nations must act on the minimal long-standing commitment of 0.7% of GDP being transferred to Overseas Development (ODA), a part of these funds should go to the Fund for the Implementation of the UNFCCC. Any shortfall in funding should be bolstered by increased ODA by developed nations;

 

(42) THAT to alleviate the impacts of targets and time frames on developing nations the outstanding debts of developing states must be cancelled immediately;

 

(43) THAT Developed countries have an environmental debt to the world since they are responsible for 70% of historical carbon emissions into the atmosphere since 1750. Developed countries should pay off their debt through payments to the Fund for the Implementation of the UNFCCC;

 

(44) THAT at the 1992 United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development, all agreed to the reallocation of military expenses. At the Copenhagen Conference, member states should agree to transfer at least 50% of the current over $1.5 trillion/€1,024 trillion global military budget. This reduction in military expenses. will release over $750/€507 billion per annum. These funds will be transferred to establish a fund for sustainable development, most importantly part of the resources should be directed to The Fund for the Implementation of the UNFCCC that will fund socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound renewable energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry  etc. 


(45) THAT funds for ODA should not be administered by World Bank-type organisations, instead these should be managed by independently-minded bodies whose sole aim is to succeed in implementing a sustainable and equitable world social system. The basis of aid should be properly evaluated and be socially equitable and environmentally safe and sound, and be sustainability-need based;

 

(46) THAT the polluter pay principle must be enforced against dominant greenhouse gas-producing states and their “overseas” operations (military and corporate) and that charters and licences of transnational corporations that have contributed to greenhouse gas emissions, must be revoked to prevent further pollution. This principle should be retrospective. The polluter pays principle is one of the most significant environmental legal instruments used in developed countries, on that basis these countries cannot hide from the implementation of this same principle in their relations with the developing world.

Embracing a different lifestyle

(47) THAT at the 1992 United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development there was a firm commitment to move away from the current model of over-consumption;
 
(48) THAT it is imperative to reverse the shift from vegetable protein to animal protein, which requires a substantial increase in resources for production; 

 

(49) THAT the human right to water must be guaranteed, which would involve the mandatory conservation of water, the prohibition of the privatization of the water supply, and the ending of the depletion of water resources especially those linked to the fossil fuel industries and the spurious climate change solutions such as nuclear and biofuel.

(50) THAT the current trend for public/private partnerships in United Nations sustainable development policy be reversed since it inherently compromises participants and for these funds to be channelled into their appropriate international arenas. In terms of energy directed to The Fund for the Implementation of the UNFCCC.

 

(51) THAT the Anchorage Declaration that calls upon the Parties to the  UNFCCC to recognize the importance of Traditional Knowledge and practices shared by Indigenous Peoples in developing strategies to address climate change, must be respected.

 
Changing the Commission on Sustainable Development
 
(52) "We recommend that the Commission on Sustainable Development, in light of the failure in negotiations of CSD15 to produce a negotiated outcome on climate change and other issues, be upgraded to a Council, that would be able to convene at any time to deal with new or emerging environmental threats. This Council should be based outside the US, for example in Switzerland, and governments must send mandated experts to negotiate real solutions to the issues." It should be an umbrella organisation that overseas the sustainability debate monitoring and intervening where and when international negotiations are failing. In terms of climate change this is now a crisis issue requiring intervention. International agreements should be designed within the context of a prevailing philosophy that should be outlined within the context of a CSD umbrellaagreement on all the major issues. This document should be the basis of future negotiations at CSD, and should build on UNCED agreements and others pre-WSSD, which was a step backwards; 

(53) THAT there should be no privileges and immunities for individuals serving on constituted bodies established under the Kyoto Protocol or any other protocols and GO or NGO bodies, in regards to dispensing their duties to society under the law. (Please refer to SUBSIDIARY BODY FOR IMPLEMENTATION, Thirtieth Session, Bonn, 1–10 June, 2009, Thirtieth Session, Item 14 (d) of the provisional agenda);
 
(54) THAT there should be set up an International Court of Compliance, linked to the International Court of Justice, where citizens could take evidence of state and corporate non-compliance.

AT THE 2009 COPENHAGEN CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY MUST BE BOLD AND MOVE BEYOND NATIONAL STATE AND CORPORATE VESTED INTERESTS TO PROVIDE A BINDING AGREEMENT WITH EFFECTIVE ENFORCEABLE MECHANISMS.

 

ANNEX I CHG Emmision Trends

CO2, CH4, N2O, PFCs, HFCs, SF6

Metric tons CO2equiv. (GHG) Per Person

Country

1990

2007

Change

Avg. Annual Growth

Total Growth

Luxembourg [1]

34.4

26.9

-7.4

-1.40%

-21.70%

Australia

24.4

25.8

1.4

0.30%

5.60%

United States of America

24.4

23.6

-0.8

-0.20%

-3.20%

Canada

21.3

22.7

1.4

0.40%

6.40%

New Zealand

17.9

17.9

-0.1

0.00%

-0.40%

Estonia

26.7

16.4

-10.3

-2.80%

-38.60%

Ireland

15.8

15.9

0.1

0.00%

0.30%

Russian Federation

22.4

15.4

-7

-2.20%

-31.10%

Finland

14.2

14.8

0.6

0.20%

4.20%

Czech Republic

18.8

14.6

-4.2

-1.50%

-22.30%

Iceland

13.3

14.4

1.1

0.50%

8.00%

Netherlands

14.2

12.7

-1.5

-0.70%

-10.70%

Denmark

13.7

12.5

-1.2

-0.60%

-9.00%

Belgium

14.4

12.4

-2

-0.90%

-14.00%

Greece

10.4

11.8

1.4

0.70%

13.40%

Norway

11.7

11.7

0

0.00%

-0.20%

Germany

15.3

11.6

-3.7

-1.60%

-24.00%

Japan

10.3

10.8

0.5

0.30%

4.70%

Austria

10.3

10.6

0.3

0.20%

3.20%

United Kingdom

13.5

10.5

-3

-1.50%

-22.40%

Poland

12.1

10.5

-1.6

-0.80%

-13.20%

European Community

11.6

10.4

-1.3

-0.70%

-10.90%

Slovenia

9.3

10.3

1

0.60%

10.50%

Bulgaria [1]

13.5

9.9

-3.6

-1.80%

-26.70%

Spain

7.4

9.9

2.4

1.70%

32.80%

Ukraine [2]

17.8

9.4

-8.5

-3.70%

-47.50%

Italy

9.1

9.3

0.2

0.10%

2.30%

Slovakia

13.9

8.7

-5.2

-2.70%

-37.30%

France

10

8.7

-1.3

-0.80%

-12.90%

Belarus [1]

12.7

8.2

-4.4

-2.50%

-34.90%

Portugal

6

7.7

1.7

1.50%

28.80%

Hungary

9.6

7.6

-2

-1.40%

-21.00%

Lithuania [1]

13.3

7.3

-5.9

-3.40%

-44.80%

Croatia [1]

6.6

7.3

0.7

0.60%

11.20%

Sweden

8.4

7.2

-1.3

-0.90%

-14.90%

Romania

10.5

7.1

-3.4

-2.30%

-32.50%

Liechtenstein [1]

--

6.9

--

--

--

Switzerland

7.9

6.8

-1.1

-0.90%

-13.50%

Latvia [1]

10

5.3

-4.7

-3.70%

-46.90%

Turkey [1]

3

5.1

2.1

3.10%

68.30%

Monaco

--

3

--

--

--

[1] PFC data not available. [2] SF6 data not available.

Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT UNFCCC) Version 3.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2009).

Source: http://cait.wri.org/, CAIT-UNFCCC features data for the 40 Annex I countries plus the European Community only, Date taken 15/Oct/2009

 

 

 

CO2, CH4, N2O, PFCs, HFCs, SF6

Growth in Total GHG Emissions, 1990-2007

Country

1990

2007

Change

Avg. Annual Growth

Total Growth

United States of America

6,084.50

7,107.20

1,022.70

0.90%

16.80%

European Community

4,232.90

4,052.00

-180.9

-0.30%

-4.30%

Russian Federation

3,319.30

2,192.80

-1,126.50

-2.40%

-33.90%

Japan

1,269.70

1,374.30

104.6

0.50%

8.20%

Germany

1,215.20

956.1

-259.1

-1.40%

-21.30%

Canada

591.8

747

155.2

1.40%

26.20%

United Kingdom

774.1

640.2

-133.9

-1.10%

-17.30%

Italy

516.3

552.8

36.5

0.40%

7.10%

Australia

416.2

541.2

125

1.60%

30.00%

France

565.5

535.8

-29.7

-0.30%

-5.30%

Spain

288.1

442.3

154.2

2.60%

53.50%

Ukraine [1]

926

436

-490

-4.30%

-52.90%

Poland

459.5

398.9

-60.6

-0.80%

-13.20%

Turkey [2]

170.1

372.6

202.6

4.70%

119.10%

Netherlands

212

207.5

-4.5

-0.10%

-2.10%

Romania

243

152.3

-90.7

-2.70%

-37.30%

Czech Republic

194.7

150.8

-43.9

-1.50%

-22.50%

Greece

105.6

131.9

26.3

1.30%

24.90%

Belgium

143.2

131.3

-11.9

-0.50%

-8.30%

Austria

79

88

8.9

0.60%

11.30%

Portugal

59.3

81.8

22.6

1.90%

38.10%

Belarus [2]

129.1

80

-49.1

-2.80%

-38.00%

Finland

70.9

78.3

7.5

0.60%

10.60%

Hungary

99.2

75.9

-23.3

-1.60%

-23.50%

Bulgaria [2]

117.7

75.8

-41.9

-2.60%

-35.60%

New Zealand

61.9

75.6

13.7

1.20%

22.10%

Ireland

55.4

69.2

13.8

1.30%

25.00%

Denmark

70.4

68.1

-2.3

-0.20%

-3.30%

Sweden

71.9

65.4

-6.5

-0.60%

-9.10%

Norway

49.7

55.1

5.4

0.60%

10.80%

Switzerland

52.7

51.3

-1.4

-0.20%

-2.70%

Slovakia

73.3

47

-26.3

-2.60%

-35.90%

Croatia [2]

31.4

32.4

1

0.20%

3.20%

Lithuania [2]

49.1

24.7

-24.3

-3.90%

-49.60%

Estonia

41.9

22

-19.9

-3.70%

-47.50%

Slovenia

18.6

20.7

2.2

0.60%

11.60%

Luxembourg [2]

13.1

12.9

-0.2

-0.10%

-1.60%

Latvia [2]

26.7

12.1

-14.6

-4.60%

-54.70%

Iceland

3.4

4.5

1.1

1.60%

31.80%

Liechtenstein [2]

--

0.2

--

--

--

Monaco

--

0.1

--

--

--

Total

22902.40

22164.10

-738.20

 

-3.22%

[1] PFC data not available. [2] SF6 data not available., Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT UNFCCC) Version 3.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2009).

Source: http://cait.wri.org/, CAIT-UNFCCC features data for the 40 Annex I countries plus the European Community only, Date taken 15/Oct/2009

 

 

 

 

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