Who's Online

We have 883 guests online

Popular

303 readings
DESTABILIZING VENEZUELA- RAMIFICATIONS ON LATIN AMERICA, AND TIME LINE PDF Print E-mail
Justice News
Posted by Joan Russow
Monday, 23 July 2018 12:12
 
By joan Russow PhD
Global Compliance Research Project
 
Image result for venezuelan cartoon of us intervention
 
 
Notes for a presentation August 17, 2018 NOTE ARTICLE UNDER CONSTRUCTION
 
 
A. Destabilization of Venezuela
B. Use of destabilization in Venezuela in elections in Latin America
C. Brief time line in Bolivia, Colombia, Chile  Honduras, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala Mexico,  Nicaragua Venezuela  
 
A. DESTABILIZING VENEZUELA-
 
1.Spreading  and imposing a concept of democracy based on the US  requirement of  a two-term limit and decrying Chavez as a dictator because he ran in 1998, had a referendum in 1999, re-elected in 2006, and 2012.of course if he participating a war there is a US precedent, during the second world war, for more than two terms. 
 
2 Searching for foreign-educated opponents of the government, such as Leopoldo Lopez. (By Greg Grandin The nation http://www.thenation.com/article/leopoldo-lopez-is-not-venezuelas-savior) 
 
3. Working with opposition  to organize rallies and instigate conflict resulting in the international condemnation of the government.
 venezuela’s highly unusual presidential election Gregory Wilpert
https://newint.org/features/web-exclusive/2018/05/15/venezuela-presidential-election
 
4.Funding  NGOs like Freedom House  to intrude into Venezuela state to declare that the state is denying freedom of speech and of the press and citing article 9 of  the 1994 Declaration of Chapultepec, 
 
5.Funding US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI). which includes “over 300 Venezuelan civil society organizations”,for the  “penetrating of Chavez’s political base ... dividing Chavismo ... protecting vital US business ...[and] isolating Chavez internationally”.
 
6. Funding  Development Alternatives Inc. (DAI).In 2002, DAI worked with the National Endowment for Democracy  (NED) to fund a right-wing propaganda campaign during the 2002 oil industry lockout that sought to bring down Chavez’s government.
 
7.Since 2009 establishing military bases, in Colombia, along the  border with Venezuela.  Using pretext for military intrusion into adjacent state, Ecuador; this action posed a threat to Venezuela’s sovereignity. 
 
8.  Founding  credible sounding international organizations such as UN Watch which exudes legitimacy, but  targets socialist countries especially Venezuela and those that act against Israeli interests; Venezuela was also attacked for recognizing Palestine and for expelling the Israeli ambassador in 2009. (russow, The NGO, UN Watch, targets specific states like Venezuela and leaders, such as Hugo Chavez and ignores the failings of other states, such as the US, Canada and Israel.http://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8981:the-ngo-un-watch-targets-specific-states-like-venezuela-and-leaders-such-as-hugo-chavez-and-ignores-the-failings-of-other-states-such-as-the-us-canada-and-israel&catid=74:ijustice-news&Itemid=216
 
9. Circulating a biased report by Human Rights Watch (HRW); HRW has been criticized for its close ties to the US government (a revolving door policy), In May, 2018, a letter signed by two Nobel Peace Prize Laureates and over 100 academics, journalists, and human rights activists was circulated against HRW. https://www.theodysseyonline.com/human-rights-watch-imperialist-propaganda
 The letter called on the organization to end its exchange of personnel with the U.S. government, arguing that the relationship has affected HRW’s research and advocacy against human rights abuses, particularly those committed by the U.S. government. A revolving-door policy of Human Rights Watch is one in which high-level U.S. foreign policy staff—those who have crafted and executed U.S. foreign policy—are allowed into Human Rights Watch as staffers, advisory committee members, and as board members. Human Rights Watch has lobbied for long time for Israel to be part of the influential negotiating group JUSCANS, and has finally been successful. Israel now member of the UN regional group JUSCANS (japan US  Canada, Australia, new  Zealand, and now Israel) which has a disproportionate influence in the negotiation process at the United  Nations. 
Critique of Human Rights Watch Report
https://truthout.org/articles/latest-human-rights-watch-report-30-lies-about-venezuela/
 
10. Amnesty International has been criticized for being silent on economic impacts by US in Venezuela (Amnesty International Winks at Trump’s Economic Attack on Venezuelans https://www.counterpunch.org/2018/03/02/amnesty-international-winks-at-trumps-economic-attack-on-venezuelans/
 
11.Dismantling infrastructure, particularly energy systems in Venezuela so that the citizens will blame the government for negligence and inefficiency; 
 
12 Imposing sanctions to  further cripple the Venezuelan economy that has already been affected by the oil industry collapse
 
13.Hoarding food products, by supermarkets affiliated with the Venezuelan opposition so they can resell them at higher prices. Redirecting produce from the public to the private sector, and re-selling the produce to Venezuelans living close to or in Colombia. 
Blaming socialism: US distorts food crisis 
https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/blaming-socialism-us-media-distorts-venezuelas-food-crisis- 
. But the biggest impact from Venezuela’s currency woes came from Procter & Gamble. The world’s largest consumer products maker on Thursday announced a $2.1 billion charge against earnings, reflecting the company’s inability to convert Venezuela’s currency or pay dividends.
Beginning in the third quarter, P&G will exclude the operating results of its Venezuelan subsidiaries from its consolidated financial statements.
Hits to U.S. corporate profits in Venezuela accelerated in February when the President Nicolas Maduro devalued the bolivar by 70 percent via a new currency system known as Simadi. Previously, many U.S. companies valued their monetary and non-monetary assets at the most preferred rate of 6.3 bolivars to the dollar. But under Simadi, the exchange rate has been around 200 bolivars.
 
14. Undermining, Venezuelan election in May 2018
Henri Falcón, was told by US officials that the Trump administration would consider financial sanctions against him if he entered the presidential race. The US has backed the main opposition coalition decision to boycott the election. Rubio is a hard-liner who does not seem interested in an electoral or solution to Venezuela’s political crisis. On February 9, he appeared to support a military coup when he tweeted: “The world would support the Armed Forces in Venezuela if they decide to protect the people & restore democracy by removing a dictator.” Rubio/Trump strategy to be to try to worsen the economic situation and increase suffering to the point where either the military, or the insurrectionary elements of the opposition, rise up and overthrow the government. That appears to be the purpose of the financial sanctions that Trump ordered on August 24, 2017. This was not done previously because it would hurt US oil refining interests that import Venezuelan oil. But the administration has floated the idea of tapping the US strategic petroleum reserves to soften the blow. All this to overthrow a government that nobody can claim poses any threat to the United States. The main opposition coalition, the Democratic Unity Roundtable (MUD, by its acronym in Spanish), has as of now decided to boycott the elections.. Working (Excerpts from Mark Weisbrots Trump Administration tries to Torpedo the Election Regime 
Trump administration tries to torpedo the election regime 
http://cepr.net/publications/op-eds-columns/trump-administration-tries-to-torpedo-venezuelan-elections-as-it-intensifies-regime-change-effort
 
15. In 2018, Irwin Cotler a director UN Watch, was a member of the 
three- person committee that wrote a report leading to  a complaint to  Ocambo , the former head of the International Criminal Court against Venezuela for crimes against humanity. When he was the head of ICC, Ocambo had refused to take on a case against Israel.
 
16. Instituting debilitating sanctions.” Rubio/Trump strategy to be to try to worsen the economic situation and increase suffering to the point where either the military, or the insurrectionary elements of the opposition, rise up and overthrow the government. That appears to be the purpose of the financial sanctions that Trump ordered on August 24, 2017. This was not done previously because it would hurt
 
17. US oil refining interests that import Venezuelan oil. But the administration has floated the idea of tapping the US strategic petroleum reserves to soften the blow.
 
18.Threatening an invasion and regime change.  Pompeo recently admitted that the US would like to see regime change in Venezuela, the country with the largest oil reserves on earth.
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-07-26/cia-and-sen-marco-rubio-accused-plotting-regime-change-venezuela
 
19.In May 2018, the Lima Group—comprising Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Guyana, ...– supporting U.S. neo-liberal objectives – announced they wouldn’t recognize the results of Venezuela’s presidential elections set for April 22.  Polling data gives President Maduro a 55 percent advantage 
2018 President Maduro elected for another six years and Lima group refused to recognize the election
 
B. USE OF THE DESTABILIZATION IN VENEZUELA IN ELECTIONS IN LATIN AMERICA
 
BOLIVIA
 
Oscar Ortiz Santa Cruz de la Sierra Bolivia responds to the  situacion inVenezuela Óscar Ortiz, was elected president of the Union of Latin American Parties (UPLA), to work internationally in the defense of democracy in the Latin American region, with special emphasis on solidarity with the suffering of the Venezuelan and Nicaraguan peoples, in which “the authoritarian regimes are running over to the most fundamental right, as is the right to life”. 2018The US state department expressed “deep concern” over the ruling, and some Bolivian opposition leaders, warning of an imminent “Venezuelan-Cuban-style” dictatorship, have called for street demonstrations, although few expect serious unrest.In Venezuela, President Nicolás Maduro’s leftist government recently banned the three biggest opposition parties from running in a presidential election this year, following a deadly crackdown against protesters (New York Times).2018 Bolivia scrambles to maintain unity amid US support for right wing. Given the clearly right wing nature of the parties in the countries that withdrew from  Union of South American Nations(UNASUR), the move can be seen as the latest blow against a fading trend of left wing governments and a result of the increasing bitter inter-state swirling around Venezuela’ s future. (Elliot Gabriel).
 
CHILE 
1. Fear of “Chilezuela”
The electoral campaign covered most of 2017, resembling the US model of extended political competition with its own dynamics and logics.
 
Chilean experts employed much of their capacity to explain the impact generated by the vague fear of middle-class, centrist voters and conservative segments that a triumph of Guillier would lead Chile down Venezuela’s path towards unprecedented political and economic chaos.
 
 
Fears of Venezuela-style political and economic chaos helped Piñera’s campaign (Andrés E. Azpúrua, CC BY-ND 2.0)
 
In retrospect, it was a politically astute move for Piñera’s team to brand any leftist constellation as “Chilezuela“. On social networks there was a viral spread of content that compared Guillier with Venezuela’s president Nicolás Maduro and claimed that a Guillier government would ultimately generate similar results – though this was of course highly unlikely. Numerous media contributions also suggested links between a Piñera defeat, the risk of communism, the end of social order, and general democratic degeneration.
 
The upshot is that Piñera’s second term will face a public sphere characterised by heated political rhetoric, conspiracy theories, and outlandish historical analogies. One of the president’s main challenges in the first half of his mandate will be mitigating, pacifying, and rationalising Chile’s political debate. This will require Piñera to adopt postures beyond party politics in an attempt to become a kind of meta-partisan president for all Chileans, but this could damage his links to to his own political alliance 
 
 
 
 
COLOMBIA
 
The situation in Venezuela was used by the right wing in the Colombian election. Time magazine reports on what is described as “the specter of Venezuela’ Petro’s anti-corruption platform has turned him into a real contender in this election. But he has the misfortune of running at a time when neighboring Venezuela is imploding. More than 200,000 Venezuelans streamed into (and through) Colombia last year to escape crushing poverty and lack of basic goods and medicines, a six-fold increase from the year before. The perpetually looming collapse of Venezuela is a constant reminder to. Hundreds of thousands of Venezuelans have sought refuge in Colombia as their own country has descended into economic chaos. And while Venezuelans cannot vote here, their advocacy, activism — and calls for divine intervention — may help push Duque over the finish line on Election Day. (Miami herald).  Ivan Duque has compared Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's management of his country to a man who beats his wife and children, saying that Colombia has a moral responsibility to speak out against his government. At the same time, right-wing candidates have used the crisis against the leftist Gustavo Petro, a vocal supporter of Venezuela's former leader Hugo Chavez, warning that his leftist policies could turn Colombia into a "second Venezuela".
 
 
ECUADOR
 
Ecuador pro-business candidate Guillermo Lasso has doubled down on accusations that government-backed candidate Lenin Moreno would turn the Andean country into Venezuela, alluding to a recent Supreme Court move there to neuter the national assembly that foes denounced as a lurch into dictatorship.
“A coup annulling the national assembly! Is that what you want?” right-wing challenger Lasso told a crowd of supporters at a rally in the Guayaquil this week. “then let’s go for change! Change is avoiding Venezuela’s suffering.” 
 
EL SALVADOR
 
2004,the Salvadoran media and certain US government and non-government officials stoked fears amongst the voters regarding the consequences of an FMLN victory by again linking the FMLN to the Venezuelan socialist. In 2009 civic associations not registered as political parties carried out media campaigns associating the FMLN with Chávez in order to stir up support for ARENA. In 2014 even before the election there were articles criticizing Venezuela and especially ALBA.  Sanchez Ceren's may need to enter into a coalition with Tony Saca to assuage fears that the FMLN will pursue communist or ‘Chavista’ policies and Sánchez Cerén need to demonstrate that Venezuela’s influence and money can be kept at arm’s length. (Diana Negroponte).The ARENA candidate used the reported situation in Venezuela to support his campaign, "we do not want our country to fail as Venezuela has".  There were constant references in the right wing paper the Prensa Graphic and TV reports profiling suffering Venezuelans and warning .Salvadorians not to vote for the FMLN candidate. A full page about US and Venezuela. Head line Venezuela falls short in human rights; the United States put Cuba Venezuela and Ecuador in a list of countries that do not respect human rights, citing corruption, impunity, the lack of judicial independence, restrictions on freedom of speech as problems in all of Latin America. Head line senators urge sanctioning repression. Head line they warn that the Venezuelan crisis could affect ALBA.    Negative publicity about ALBA and especially about Venezuela to support ARENA. ARENA candidate warned that the FMLN Sanchez Ceren would follow the path of Venezuela’s socialist government, which has taken over private businesses, and promised he would not allow others to send El Salvador down the road of Venezuela. In  the Prensa  Grafica. February 28, 2014 front page the Venezuelan crisis worsens information about Venezuela in 5 other pages. 
 
GUATEMALA
 
US congratulates Jimmy Morales from Guatemala for supporting Jerusalem as capital of Israel and for opposing Venezuela and the crisis in Venezuela and its abusive dictator (translated from Spanish CNN, meeting with Trump and US UN representative. 
 
 
HONDURAS
 
President, Barack Obama, showed a desire to end the "gringo bully" image by condemning the June coup which ousted the leftist leader, Manuel Zelaya. But the White House backtracked when congressional Republicans supported the de facto government as a bulwark against Venezuela's Hugo Chávez... It was said he had ignored court rulings that made his referendum unconstitutional and was seeking to perpetuate his presidential term like his ally, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, had already done in Venezuela on numerous occasions. Behind “the 2009 coup” in Honduras was the specter of Venezuela. Zelaya had turned to leftist coalitions and unions for support of his agenda and to the horror of the political elites, he joined petrocaribe and the Bolivarian alternative for the Americas (Alternativa Bolivariana Para las Americas – ALBA), Chavez’s regional economic and political alliance, which acted as a counterweight to the US-led trade agreements in the region. 
 
MEXICO
Obrador  has recently said that, if elected, he will return to Mexico’s old-guard foreign policy of “non-intervention” in other countries’ affairs. “Non-intervention” is the excuse used by totalitarian states such as Cuba and Venezuela — as well as by Mexico’s authoritarian governments in the 20th century — to justify their support for other dictatorships and to defend themselves against outside criticism of their human-rights abuses. There’s bad news for supporters of democracy in Latin America: Andrés Manuel López Obrador, the front-runner in Mexico’s July 1 presidential election, plans to appoint foreign-policy dinosaurs to his cabinet. And his would-be appointees say they will not criticize Venezuela’s dictatorship. López Obrador announced recently that, if elected, he would appoint as his foreign minister Hector Vasconcelos. Vasconcelos subsequently said that he would put an end to Mexico’s current activism in diplomatic efforts to restore democracy in Venezuela. What’s more, Vasconcelos said he wouldn’t even criticize Venezuela’s regime. . (Miami herald)
 
NICARAGUA
Nicaraguans are encouraged by the supportive language of U.S. administration officials and congressional lawmakers in both house — and of both parties. But they want the United States to not only “talk the talk,” but to “walk the walk,” too. They fear that if the United States doesn’t raise the ante in Nicaragua, the country will slide into the chaos in which Venezuela finds itself (Miami, herald)
Despite the US and international organisations having voiced concern about Mr. Ortega’s stranglehold on power, the World Bank acknowledges that poverty has fallen almost 13 percentage points under his rule. A substantial part of those gains have been funded by Venezuelan petrodollars that have underpinned social programmes, helped private business and slashed energy costs. 2017 the US ambassador Laura Dog said `the US government has noted which countries support Venezuela ‘stating that Nicaragua does not have many friends in Washington for the support it gives to Venezuela 
 
VENEZUELA
Chavez had been criticized as being a dictator because he was in for more than two terms
 
C. BRIEF TIME LINE
 
BOLIVIA
 
 
 
1952. Undermining the 1952 Revolution
In 1952, a popular uprising against a rightist military regime led to the left-leaning nationalists of the Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (MNR) coming to power promising political freedom and radical economic reform. As with Morales and MAS, his political party, that revolutionary government had  support from militant worker and peasant political movements. Also, like today, the new government’s policies were nationalistic, particularly about country’s natural resources, in which U.S. investors had substantial interests.
1964.  René Barrientos, who seized power in a military coupwas backed by foreignors. The CIA and U.S. Special Forces played a key role in suppressing a leftist peasant uprising that followed. 
1967.  Murder of Che Guevara 
1970.  When leftist army officer Juan José Torres came to power in October of 1970, Nixon called for his ousting. When an attempted coup by rightist general Hugo Bánzer Suárez
1971. By August of the following year in a bloody uprising, also with apparent U.S. support. Thousands of suspected leftists were executed in subsequent years.
1982. The United States largely supported Bánzer and subsequent dictators in the face of a series of protests, general strikes and other largely nonviolent pro-democracy uprisings, which eventually led to the end of military rule by 1982.
1982.  The coming to office of the left-leaning president Hernán Siles Zuazo.
Despite the restoration of democracy, the strict austerity programs pushed by the United States and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) resulted in the Bolivian people, more than two-thirds of whom live in poverty, even though the majority of the population is indigenous, the country’s leaders continued to be white or mestizo (of mixed-race heritage).
2005. The election of Evo Morales, a left-wing activist and the first indigenous leader in the nearly 500 years since the Spanish conquest, marked a major shift in Bolivia’s politics.
Under Morales, Bolivia has attempted to strengthen the Andean Community of Nations and the signing last year of a “People’s Trade Treaty” with Venezuela, Nicaragua, and Cuba is indicative of the desire to strengthen working economic and political alliances outside of direct U.S. influence in order to be better able to stand up to Washington.
2011. The Current Uprising
It’s this very ability to better withstand the kind of economic pressures the United States had until recently been able to exert, either directly or through international financial institutions, which has led to recent violence in Santa Cruz and elsewhere in the wealthier white and mestizo-dominated eastern sectors of the country. As a result of the reduced leverage of their friends in Washington, which had previously enabled them to rule the country, certain elite elements now appear willing to violently separate themselves and the four eastern provinces in which they are concentrated. With much of Bolivia’s natural gas wealth located in the east, and taking advantage of the endemic racism of its largelwhite,and mestizo population against the country’s indigenous majority, now in positions of political power 
2018.  Yet Bolivia, along with Nicaragua, is now the only presidential democracy in the Americas to place no limits on re-election. Last month, a senior minister shared an image of a placard which invited Morales to stay in power until 2050.
Óscar Ortiz da su postura ante situación de Venezuela Santa Cruz de la Sierra Bolivia
 Óscar Ortiz, was elected president of the Union of Latin American Parties (UPLA),
 to work internationally in the defense of democracy in the Latin American region, with special emphasis on solidarity with the suffering of the Venezuelan and Nicaraguan peoples, in which “the authoritarian regimes are running over to the most fundamental right, as is the right to life”. When he first entered office, Mr. Morales, part of a group of leftist leaders in Latin America who rose to power at a time of high commodity prices, sought to tackle a history of inequality in Bolivia. He strong-armed foreign energy companies to share more profits with the state, investing the proceeds in education and health care while rewriting the country’s Constitution to speed his reforms.
2018.  Support for Morales
The above momentum has top officials in La Paz arguing that now is not the time to cut short a productive presidency on what they argue are the mere technical grounds of term limits. “From being a republic of classes, castes, skin colours, Bolivia today has become a country that by law has to be inclusive,” said Valeria Silva Guzmán, 27, a Mas congress woman. 
Through slashing school truancy, infant and maternal mortality, and old-age poverty, she argued, Morales has “definitively changed the everyday reality of Bolivians”.
 
CHILE
 
 
 
COLOMBIA
 
 
 
 
1959. Under Eisenhower, US sent a Survey Team comprised of experts with “irregular warfare” experience to Colombia to assess the condition of the nation after a civil war, known as La Violencia that had ravaged the countryside. In Colombia, counterinsurgency, or low-intensity conflict (LIC) operations, have been in practice since long before the infamous Plan Colombia, and US recommendations have shaped the landscape of battle.
1962. A follow-up US Army Special Warfare team, led by the head of the Army Special Warfare Center, Yarborough, emphasized the need for more developed intelligence systems (critical for counter-insurgency operations), and for increased security measures. Yarborough established grounds for the formation of paramilitaries, which would come to be one of the deadliest forces throughout the conflict. Civilians and military members should be covertly selected to develop an underground civil and military structure.
1962. Kenney launched the Alliance for Progress in 1962. This plan was advertised as an “economic development strategy for Latin America” that combined a “bullets and beans” strategy, heavy on the bullets. Colombia created a similar plan entitled Plan Lazo that drew from the US` previous recommendations. Under Plan Lazo, Colombia attempted to eliminate independent republics communist guerrillas had established, improve intelligence structures, increase unconventional warfare capabilities, and enact military civic action programs to regain the trust of the populace. Focused heavily on military intervention with few resources or administrative structures directed towards social reforms, it was largely unsuccessful. The majority of funding and focus of Plan Lazo and the Alliance for Progress was on military control of citizens and situations. Under the Kennedy administration, US Special Forces troops were expanded and counter-insurgent strategies prevailed. As it became clear that nuclear weapons were not enough to deter alternative opinions about the veracity of the status quo, the US began a significant shift in its use of counter-insurgent strategy. Though counter-insurgent strategy continued fail throughout the 60’s, military tacticians began again to tout its effectiveness at the dawn of the 21st century, welcoming a new era of COIN warfare in Colombia. Yet, for many Colombian citizens there is no liberation from the fear. The pause in action, is sustained and impacts livelihoods, health, and psychological well-being. The US trains and funds these Colombian troops.
1965. Following this recommendation, decree 3398 was passed in 1965 to allow Colombian authorities to organize citizens into militia groups. It stated that “all Colombians, men and women…will be used by the government in activities and work that contribute to the reestablishment of order”.
 
1976 HABITAT I Mr. Enrique Penalosa, Secretary-General of the Conference, stated that the crisis now confronting the world was not merely of the 'built environment of mankind', but of adequate transport systems, urban pollution and congestion. It was a crisis of social organization and of civilization itself. He stressed three major issues before the Conference. (1) Spiralling population growth and the resulting rural/urban imbalances caused by migration to the cities; (2) the growing disparities in income and opportunity within societies and regions; and (3) the lack of adequate controls over land use and urban growth
2000. The US has provided about $9.4 billion in aid to Colombia, of which about 6.8 billion has been in the form of military and police assistance. The US government throws words like security, democracy, and development and assumes that their definition is universal, correct, and infallible. Despite significant evidence to the contrary, the State Department certified that the Colombian government was in compliance with the human rights standards required by the US in order to receive full annual funding. This certification allows Colombian Armed Forces to receive all of its allotted aid from the US. For many in Colombia, security does not come in the form of a weapon, democracy is not delivered on the backs of military forces, and development is not something that comes by way of a military uniform. Counterinsurgency is neither enlightened warfare nor humanitarian.
2008.  The intrusive bombing set off a serious diplomatic crisis. Chávez called Colombia “a terrorist state” and moved troops to the border, as did Ecuador. Nicaragua broke off relations. Uribe, under pressure, apologized to Ecuador. U.S. national security lawyers viewed the operation as an act of self-defense. In the wake of 9/11, they had come up with a new interpretation of the permissible use of force 
2013.  Colombia initiated the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which were adopted universally by the United Nations
2018
The situation in Venezuela was used by the right wing in the Colombian election. Time magazine reports on what is described as “the specter of Venezuela’ Petro’s anti-corruption platform has turned him into a real contender in this election. But he has the misfortune of running at a time when neighboring Venezuela is imploding. More than 200,000 Venezuelans streamed into (and through) Colombia last year to escape crushing poverty and lack of basic goods and medicines, a six-fold increase from the year before. The perpetually looming collapse of Venezuela is a constant reminder to. Hundreds of thousands of Venezuelans have sought refuge in Colombia as their own country has descended into economic chaos. And while Venezuelans cannot vote here, their advocacy, activism — and calls for divine intervention — may help push Duque over the finish line on Election Day. (Miami herald).  Ivan Duque has compared Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's management of his country to a man who beats his wife and children, saying that Colombia has a moral responsibility to speak out against his government. At the same time, right-wing candidates have used the crisis against the leftist Gustavo Petro, a vocal supporter of Venezuela's former leader Hugo Chavez, warning that his leftist policies could turn Colombia into a "second Venezuela".
 
 
2018. Duque won the election Duque is in the same party as Alvaro Uribe, who is under investigation for ties to paramilitaries and whose terms in office triggered the heightened militarization of Colombia and a spike in the killings of social leaders.
 
 
ECUADOR
 
BACKGROUND
 
For More Than 50 Years. CIA Went Deep into Ecuadorean Society. {telesur)
Among the agency’s less known activities include the infiltration of hundreds of its agents into diplomatic offices, political parties and military forces in Ecuador. Agents at airports would report on passengers traveling to socialist countries such as Cuba and Russia, and mail sent to these countries was opened and recorded for the CIA to analyze. Any “special interest” guest in a hotel would be surveyed constantly. The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), according to declassified documents and testimonies of previous agency officials, had a permanent operation to intervene in political and social decisions of Ecuador.
 
1960 Starting from the 60s, the CIA infiltrated governments, police, civilian groups, and NGOs to advance U.S. interests in the country, and continues to fight for its power and influence in the region. it had for South and Central America, as well as the impact on the new world order. In the early 1960’s, nationalist Ecuadorean President Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra and his later successor, Vice President Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy, were pressured by the agency to break diplomatic relations with the new socialist government of Fidel Castro in Cuba. When both refused to isolate Castro’s government, both were successively ousted by the country’s military forces, backed by CIA operations. The agency’s main targets at the time were the young socialist or communist political groups in universities. The Revolutionary Union of Ecuadorean Youth (URJE) was considered the most dangerous organization and the main target for destabilization, along with its parent party, the Communist Party of Ecuador.
 
1970 Ecuador, like other South American countries, was part of the U.S.-backed Operation Condor in the 1970s. This plan endorsed state-sponsored terror to control what was perceived to be the threat of communism and eliminate subversive sectors of society. Operation Condor’s targets were activists, organizers, and opponents of the dictatorships the U.S. helped set up in the region. Ecuador’s president Jaime Roldos, opposed U.S. measures. He was killed  in a plane crash. Investigators continue to believe that his death is tied to a CIA operation in the country,. Agents would infiltrate social groups and systematically work to discredit their popularity while fabricating or planting evidence to ensure that leaders were falsely prosecuted for crimes such as the bombing of right-wing political headquarters or even churches. The CIA counted on the support of right-wing media outlets that published false information and didn’t question the sources or veracity of facts. Agents would infiltrate social groups and systematically work to discredit their popularity while fabricating or planting evidence to ensure that leaders were falsely prosecuted for crimes such as the bombing of right-wing political headquarters or even churches. The CIA counted on the support of right-wing media outlets that published false information and didn’t question the sources or veracity of facts. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) are seen by many as tools used by the U.S. government to advance their political, economic and social interests. Many opposition groups and media networks in Latin America are funded by USAID, the NED or other U.S. based private and public institutions. In addition to Ecuadorean President Rafael Correa, other leftist presidents have denounced that these institutions are operating to destabilize their governments as was the case with the late Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and NED funding to opposition groups, 
 
2007-Corea elected as president 
 
2009. An early general election was held on 26 April 2009 in Ecuador following the approval of a new constitution in a referendum held on 28 September 2008.
 
2013 Corea was re-elected as well as the National Assembly, Provincial Assemblies and members of the Andean Parliament.[Some reports indicated that Correa could be targeted by the CIA, given his strong opposition to U.S. intervention in the country and region., He closed a U.S. military base in Manta and said, “US could have a base if he could have one in Miami”, and expelled two U.S. diplomats who worked for the CIA.  
2017 report 
Education: The Key to Developing and Diversifying the Economy
Correa has said “quality, free public education is the basis of a real democracy, and” the path away from a Third World raw material export dependent economy lies in raising the educational and skill level of the population. Education free, including university, and to reduce barriers for low-income students the government provides free school supplies, books, uniforms, and meals. Ecuador is completing a program of building 14 schools focused on teaching and preserving the country’s various ancestral ethnic languages. Free education is a human right, guaranteed through university. 
Social Programs to Fight Poverty
 Minimum wage has more than doubled.  A living wage policy, enforced and income inequality, slashed. The labour of homemakers is now legally recognized, and so their families, now receive social security benefits, including disability compensation and a pension. Major investments in infrastructure and economic development, have reduced the poverty rate from 37.6% in 2007 to 22% today. Rural poverty has been reduced from 61% to 35%. Extreme poverty has been cut in half,
Health Care
Health care is free. Thirteen new hospitals have been constructed, with 18 more underway around the country. 34,000 medical professionals and visits to the doctor have tripled 
Environmental Protection
The UN recognizes only eight countries in the world as meeting the two minimum criteria for sustainable development including reducing the ecological footprint. Ecuador is one of them.   
Ecuador made major advances in converting to renewable energy Ecuador now counts on 95% renewable energy, By 2015 Ecuador had cut the rate of deforestation in half, and pays communities, mostly in the Amazon, to protect forests.
 
2017 after two terms Corea stepped down and Lenin Moreno was elected president
 
EL SALVADOR
 
2004,the Salvadoran media and certain US government and non-government officials stoked fears amongst the voters regarding the consequences of an FMLN victory by again linking the FMLN to the Venezuelan socialist. In 2009 civic associations not registered as political parties carried out media campaigns associating the FMLN with Chávez in order to stir up support for ARENA. Ln 2014 even before the election there were articles criticizing Venezuela and especially ALBA.  Sanchez Ceren's may need to enter into a coalition with Tony Saca to assuage fears that the FMLN will pursue communist or ‘Chavista’ policies and Sánchez Cerén need to demonstrate that Venezuela’s influence and money can be kept at arm’s length. (Brocking Institute Diana Negroponte).The ARENA candidate used the reported situation in Venezuela to support his campaign, "we do not want our country to fail as Venezuela has".  There were constant references in the right wing paper the Prensa Graphic and TV reports profiling suffering Venezuelans and warning .Salvadorians not to vote for the FMLN candidate. A full page about US and Venezuela. Head line Venezuela falls short in human rights; the United States put Cuba Venezuela and Ecuador in a list of countries that do not respect human rights, citing corruption, impunity, the lack of judicial independence, restrictions on freedom of speech as problems in all of Latin America. Head line senators urge sanctioning repression. Head line they warn that the Venezuelan crisis could affect ALBA.    Negative publicity about alba and especially about Venezuela to support ARENA .ARENA candidate warned that the FMLN Sanchez Ceren would follow the path of Venezuela’s socialist government, which has taken over private businesses, and promised he would not allow others to send el Salvador down the road of Venezuela. In  the Prensa Grafica. February 28, 2014 front page the Venezuelan crisis worsens information about Venezuela in 5 other pages. 
 
BACKGROUND;
 
1893-1932. Farabundo Marti was a revolutionary leader who was dedicated to the cause of the peasants, indigenous peoples and workers In El Salvador, Nicaragua and Guatemala 
1932.  In January 1932, the Salvadoran people along with the Communist Party under Marti`s leadership rose up against the dictatorship of Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez . The regime responded with brutal repression , killing 10,000 and 40,000 people. Marti was sentenced to death on January. 31, 1932 and was executed by firing squad the following day. It is reported that his cry of, “Long live socialism!” was interrupted by the impact of the bullets.
1980.  October 10, the FMLN (Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front)`In March, Archbishop Oscar Romero and four nuns were murdered. Roberto D’Aubuisson, right-wing death-squad leader was suspected.
1981. Roberto D’Aubuisson co-founded and became the first leader of the Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) 1982-83 D’Aubuisson  became president; 1981  El Salvador’s military leaders began “scorched earth” tactics against left-wing guerrillas, 
and US-trained Atlacatl Battalion carried out an operation in the mountainous region of northeastern part  and the military massacred over 700 civilians at El Mozote—and Reagan’s officials dismissed it as “propaganda.”In El Salvador, more than 75,000 lost their lives during the civil war. the FMLN committed atrocities, but the UN Truth Commission, found that more than 85 percent of the killings, kidnappings, and torture had been the work of government forces, including paramilitaries, death squads, and army units trained by the US
1992 Peace Agreement of civil war
2004 2004,the Salvadoran media and certain US government and non-government officials stoked fears amongst the voters regarding the consequences of an FMLN victory by again linking the FMLN to the Venezuelan socialist
2006.  During the Salvadorian election  Bush arranged for El Salvador to become an associate of NATO which would give them access to NATO, weapons; and ARENA won
2009, The right-wing media in El Salvador played up links between the FARC and the FMLN, alleging that the FMLN had not left its terrorist past behind and that its members were involved in arms trafficking and organized crime. The EU delegation, similar to the Transparency International monitors, found that “election news coverage was generally biased not meeting international democratic standards, exacerbating the uneven playing field in favour of ARENA and an observer report estimated that ARENA spent over twice as much as the FMLN in advertising) and that  media ownership concentration was held by the influential families, associated with ARENA, had  distorted the level playing field of electoral politics.
In 2009 civic associations not registered as political parties carried out media campaigns associating the FMLN with Chávez in order to stir up support for ARENA.
2012.  FMLN observer commented that the FMLN has suffered from the well-funded campaigns (by outside sources, mainly the USA government,) of its opponents 
2014.  those residing outside could now A representative from the Bush era hinted in a panel discussion that if a certain party were elected the US would have to think twice about assisting el Salvador with funds. 
2014.  Second round election March 5
2014. Prensa Graphica was violating Article 9 of the 1994 Declaration of Chalpultepec  
Article 9. The credibility of the press is linked to its commitment to truth, to the pursuit of accuracy, fairness and objectivity and to the clear distinction between news and advertising. The attainment of these goals and the respect for ethical and professional values may not be imposed. These are the exclusive responsibility of journalists and the media. In a free society, it is public opinion that rewards or punishes
2014. March  second  round 
Front page of the Prensa Grafica was Norman (ARENA) signing the 1994 declaration of Chalpultepec inside a full page about his signing as well as the full Declaration. The impression was given that Sánchez Cerén would not sign the declaration; hidden away in a subsequently article was mention that both parties had signed on. 
Ln 2014 even before the election there were articles criticizing Venezuela and especially ALBA.  Sanchez Ceren's may need to enter into a coalition with Tony Saca to assuage fears that the FMLN will pursue communist or ‘Chavista’ policies and Sánchez Cerén need to demonstrate that Venezuela’s influence and money can be kept at arm’s length. (Brocking Institute Diana Negroponte).The ARENA candidate used the reported situation in Venezuela to support his campaign, "we do not want our country to fail as Venezuela has".  There were constant references in the right wing paper the Prensa Graphic and TV reports profiling suffering Venezuelans and warning .Salvadorians not to vote for the FMLN candidate. A full page about US and Venezuela. Head line Venezuela falls short in human rights; the United States put Cuba Venezuela and Ecuador in a list of countries that do not respect human rights, citing corruption, impunity, the lack of judicial independence, restrictions on freedom of speech as problems in all of Latin America. Head line senators urge sanctioning repression. Head line they warn that the Venezuelan crisis could affect ALBA.    Negative publicity about alba and especially about Venezuela to support ARENA .ARENA candidate warned that the FMLN Sanchez Ceren would follow the path of Venezuela’s socialist government, which has taken over private businesses, and promised he would not allow others to send el Salvador down the road of Venezuela. In  the Prensa Grafica. February 28, 2014 front page the Venezuelan crisis worsens information about Venezuela in 5 other pages. 
 
2014.  Right wing media claimed outside influence and the electoral tribunal failed to restrain ALBA Petróleos actions despite the fact that Section 67 of the electoral law prohibits contributions to political parties from government institutions or businesses The US government and its Embassy claim that they have remained neutral observers. 
2014. March  Salvador Sanchez Ceren of the FMLN was declared winner but ARENA contested the results, alleging fraud.2014 press conference in San Salvador where ex pats were discussing the fact that, on a technicality, ARENA nullified 400 votes from the exterior.  
2015. March 5 The (ARENA) party took control of El Salvador’s legislature ARENA won 32 out of 84 seats in congress. The FMLN) won 31 seats. In the new congress, both ARENA and FMLN will have to negotiate in order to pass bills since neither party will have a simple majority.
 
GUATEMALA
 
Background
1944**THE RED SCARE
Following its 1944 revolution, which brought democratically elected leftist governments to power; Bolivia faced an increasingly hostile neighbour to the north, the United States. Guatemala's treatment of US-based corporations, especially the United Fruit Company, in expropriating land and other assets, did nothing to improve relations. Elites in Guatemala helped persuade US journalists and members of Congress, and the executive branch, that their government was veering further and further leftward toward Communism 1950s.Late in the Truman presidency, the US government aborted an attempt to support Guatemalans who aimed to overthrow President Jacobo Arbenz. President Eisenhower, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, and DCI Allen Dulles persuaded themselves that the Guatemalan government was "red." The CIA leader said, "The Communists now effectively control the political life of Guatemala." 1 A deal made by Arbenz's government to purchase Soviet-made armaments from Czechoslovakia sealed the matter in the US leaders' minds.
1954 Washington used the CIA and US Ambassador John Peurifoy to support and direct certain Guatemalan military leaders in overthrowing Arbenz's government. It was also psychological warfare--cleverly deceptive efforts to persuade Guatemala's citizens and political/military leaders that a major invasion force was moving toward the nation's capital so unnerved Arbenz and others that the government fell without much of a battle.
PLAUSIBLE DENIABILITY 
While the overthrow of Arbenz was unfolding, the US government pretended to have nothing to do with it. 
ILL-FATED PRECEDENT
1961 Besides morality, there were other unfortunate legacies of the Guatemalan "success:" It was used as a model in advising President Kennedy seven years later to pursue the ill-fated Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba. It was reasoned, “the Guatemalans had a right to revolt against the Communists, [so]...the United States had a right to assist the revolt." 
In consultation with the State Department, Johnson offered his colleagues and those in the House an opportunity to give support to Eisenhower with "an unmistakable warning that we are determined to keep Communism out of the Western Hemisphere. “William Langer of North Dakota voted "no." He was dismissed as an old-fashioned isolationist. His statement when Joseph McCarthy's anti-Communist crusade was still on-going, in retrospect, not easily dismissed.
1960s The US was involved in equipping and training Guatemalan security forces that murdered thousands of civilians in the nation's civil war. 
1966. Security forces arrested 32 people suspected of aiding Marxist guerrillas; those arrested disappeared. While the Guatemalan government denied any involvement in the case, a CIA cable sent later that year identifies three of those missing, saying,  “The following Guatemalan Communists and terrorists were executed secretly by Guatemalan authorities.`` 
1960s and 1970s.The US gave the Guatemalan military $33 million in aid even though US officials  of knew the army's disregard for human rights.
1992 A CIA cable confirmed that indigenous villages were targeted for destruction because of the army's belief that the Indians supported the guerrillas. It reported that "several villages have been burned to the ground".  "This well-documented belief by the army that the entire Ixil Indian population is [pro-guerrilla] created a situation in which the army can treat combatants and non-combatants alike".
1994 Defense Intelligence Agency report outlined how, in the 1980s, Guatemalan military intelligence agents dumped suspected guerrillas – dead or alive – out of planes into the ocean to remove  the evidence showing that the prisoners were tortured and killed. 
1996 The UN brokered a peace agreement that ended the conflict.
1998 Todos Santos is a predominantly indigenous village in the highest mountain range in Central America. A Dutch anthropologist thereat and she reported that a women knowledgeable about local medicinal plants was deemed by the fundamentalist church, to be a sorcerer. A documentary claimed  Todos Santos was discovered by the rest of the world in the 60’s when a road was put in so as  to make Indian labour more available for the coffee and cotton fincas. It also claimed that about 45% of the land is owned by 2 -3 % of the population (ex-military ladinos) while the less desirable land was divided among the indigenous people.  
1999 Document listing names of the disappeared was found in the military headquarters
1999, President Clinton visited Guatemala and said, "Support for military forces and intelligence units which engaged in violence and widespread repression was wrong, and the United States must not repeat that mistake." 
2015, the U.S. Congress approved $750-million (U.S.) in aid to the Guatemala El Salvador and Honduras on their efforts to reduce migration to the United States and the factors driving it.
2015 A fundamentalist Christian, Jimmy Morales, comedian and was elected as president. He favoured low taxes limited government and promised to fight against graft. 
2016 Prosecution of his allied lawmaker was suspected of human rights violations dating to Guatemala's civil war.
2017 documentary film sin miedo was made about the disappeared in Guatemala. In the film was reported an attempt to get the investigator of police to act on the 1999 document failed because inspector claimed it was a leftist propaganda
The film stressed the importance of memory; memory needs something to keep it alive if no, it burns out like a candle; it needs images and words to leave no trace of the struggle as if they never existed as if they were never among us. In the film memory is beautifully revived through an artist recapturing visually memories of the disappeared The case of the disappeared was brought before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights where the decision was favourable and compensation was recommended. Yet the struggle goes on!
 
2018 US congratulates Jimmy Morales from Guatemala for supporting Jerusalem as capital of Israel and for opposing Venezuela and the crisis in Venezuela and its abusive dictator (translate from Spanish CNN, meeting with Trump and US UN representative. 
 
HONDURAS
 
 
BACKGROUND 
 
1018 BP Copan a Mayan site with an extraordinary hieroglyphic staircase. The ruined citadel and imposing squares reveal three main stages of development before the city was abandoned over a 1000 years ago.
1890 foreign control enclave, US military presence in Honduras and the roots of Honduran migration to the United States are closely linked. It began in the late 1890s, when US-based banana companies first became active. The US and its companies “built railroads, established their own banking systems, and bribed government officials. As a result, the Caribbean coast “became a foreign-controlled enclave that swung the whole of Honduras into a one-crop economy whose wealth was carried off to New Orleans, New York, and later Boston. 1914 US banana interests owned almost 1 million acres of Honduras’ best land. These holdings grew through the 1920s to such an extent that, as Honduran peasants had no hope of access to their nation’s good soil.” Over a few decades, US capital also came to dominate the country’s banking and mining sectors, this was coupled with direct US political and military interventions to protect US interests in 1907 and 1911.The superpower was behind the rise of the original banana republic – and the fall of its latest president. The fruit corporations from the US turned Honduras, an impoverished tropical backwater, into a huge banana plantation at the start of the 20th century. They dominated its economy and politics, making it the original "banana republic”. US intervened in numerous military coups to protect its commercial interests, embedding conservative, Americanized elite. 
1980s Contra guerrillas backed by President Ronald Reagan used Honduras as a base to attack Nicaragua's Sandinista government in the 1980s. The US has used the Soto Cano base for several decades, saddling it with a somewhat infamous record. During the 1980s, Palmerola was part of a sizeable tract of land, became known as the Nicaraguan contras’ “unsinkable aircraft carrier.” from there, the US–backed irregulars launched raids into Nicaragua. Overarching role would be to support Honduras’ war against drug traffickers. It is unclear what other US security operations will take place at the air base under the rubric of safeguarding this country’s national interests. 1989 Nicaraguan contra insurgents training in Honduras. The rightwing rebels were backed by US. At that time, US political and military policy was so influential that many referred to the Central country as the “U.S.S.Honduras ” and the Pentagon Republic.The US has had a lasting presence in modern Honduras, primarily at the Soto Cano airbase, which has witnessed scores of human rights abuses during the 1980s. 
1983. At that time, US bribed Honduran officials who closed their eyes to the fact that US backed insurgents were staging sorties into Nicaragua from Honduran territory. 
1999 Honduran troops were members of the sinister battalion 3-16, accused of scores of kidnappings and human rights abuses against Honduran anti-contra dissidents. The nacla report on the Americas announced that three mass graves and prison cells had been discovered at the former contra military base of El Aguacate, near the Nicaraguan border. This facility had been built by US troops in 1983.  The contras used the gravesites to dispose of the prisoners they had executed on political grounds. Destabilizing Nicaragua had the perverse effect of destabilizing Honduras, where civilian authorities have been reduced to rubber-stamping the militarization of their country to counter the alleged “communist threat” posed by the Sandinistas. Eventually 30,000 lives were lost and economic ruin in both Nicaragua and Honduras, occurred, in what soon became a US.-induced civil war.
2006 Election of Manuel Zelaya, a liberal reformist, as president; in 2006. He led on progressive measures such as raising the minimum wage. he also tried to organize a plebiscite to allow for a constituent assembly to replace the country’s constitution, which had been written during a military government; these efforts incurred the ire of the country’s oligarchy, leading to his overthrow by the military in June 2009.It was  said he that  had ignored court rulings that made his referendum unconstitutional and was seeking to perpetuate his presidential term like his ally, Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, had already done in Venezuela on numerous occasions. President Manuel Zelaya was taken to an air force base where he was escorted onto an airplane that immediately left the country for Costa Rica. Obama, showed a desire to end the "gringo bully" image by condemning the June coup which ousted the leftist leader, Manuel Zelaya. But the white house backtracked when congressional republicans supported the de facto government as a bulwark against Chávez. Zelaya snuck back into the country via a mountain pass and tried to negotiate a deal that would allow him to retake the presidency until the end of his term. Lobo was  elected  and the country’s political and economic elites had turned the clock back to the 1980s with the help of the military The  US government only reinforced this belief when it recognized the Lobo administration and in 2010 Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, worked to ensure that Zelaya did not return to power, and was criticized by hemispheric political forum. 
 
2009President, Barack Obama, showed a desire to end the "gringo bully" image by condemning the June coup which ousted the leftist leader, Manuel Zelaya. But the White House backtracked when congressional Republicans supported the de facto government as a bulwark against Venezuela's Hugo Chávez... It was said he had ignored court rulings that made his referendum unconstitutional and was seeking to perpetuate his presidential term like his ally, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, had already done in Venezuela on numerous occasions. Behind “the 2009 coup” in Honduras was the specter of Venezuela. Zelaya had turned to leftist coalitions and unions for support of his agenda and to the horror of the political elites, he joined petrocaribe and the Bolivarian alternative for the Americas (Alternativa Bolivariana Para las Americas – ALBA), Chavez’s regional economic and political alliance, which acted as a counterweight to the US-led trade agreements in the region. 
 
FOR YEARS
 
Any oppositon, incuding tje church has been targeted and threatened
 
2018 Zelaya has not returned to power
 
MEXICO
 
1519-21 Spanish–Aztec War (1519–21), and cultural misappropriation such as destroying pyramids and building churches with the stones or building churches above the ruins of pyramids, and also inappropriately renaming codices as ``Codex Borgia`` or ``codex Vaticanus``.
1910 Under the regime of Porfirlo Diaz (1876-1910). Often, lands traditionally held communally by indigenous peoples were seized. In many cases, these seizures took place without due process and the land turned up in the hands of President Diaz' supporters.
1930. Ejidos were protected. They could be farmed only by members of the community. 
1929-2000 PRI, the Institutional Revolutionary Party.
1846-48 The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the US and as the American War in Mexico.
1968 Tourism began in the Yucatan and polluted many of the cenotes.
In 1990s, PEMEX disrupted the Olmec culture in Mexico. And surrounded the oldest pyramid in Mexico at La Venta, and relocated Olmec heads.
1988-1994 Carlos Salinas de Gortari –Institutional Revolutionary Party PRI
1992 Ejidos and NAFTA. Before NAFTA half of Mexico's total land mass was held in 28,000 ejidos, occupied by more than 2.5 million farmers. President Salinas proposed to open land ownership for greater market discipline by better defining property rights. Under the new rules, members of an ejido collective can rent land to non-ejido members, and can obtain full rights to the land-including the right to sell to others. 
1990s, PEMEX disrupted the Olmec Culture In Mexico by surrounding the oldest pyramid in Mexico at La Venta, and displacing Olmec giant heads  from original site. 
1994 NAFTA was in force. In protest, 100 farmers formed a human wall along the border. 
2000   An Alliance was formed to defeat the PRI; the PT and PRD joined PAN`s Vincente Fox. 
2000  During the election UNICEF promoted the Convention on the Rights of the child.
2005 Washington’s proposed "Free Trade Area of the Americas" was rejected by the region.  
2006 Calderon appealed to security and attacked Obrador as a danger to security.  Election law prevented Vicente Fox from making public statements of a partisan or political nature. But he often did in the 2006 campaign, in speeches reinforcing candidate Calderón's basic message that Obrador was a "danger to México." PAN used attack ads against Obrador, comparing him to Venezuela's Chávez and calling him a "danger to México` `At stake in the election was whether Mexico would continue its free-trade policies and close alliance with the US or join a growing number of Latin American nations who have elected leftist leaders who favour more government intervention in the economy. 
2008 Mega march against NAFTA demanding the renegotiation of sections in NAFTA, opposing the dumping of US produce on Mexico, and the increased privatization of electricity, highly mechanized U.S. corn and grain producers will force small ejidos to consolidate or change crops. Concern about waves of migrants leaving rural Mexico as agriculture is modernized. 
2010 COP16 climate change held in Cancun- the symbol of overconsumption, an interesting contrast to the BALUMKU, near Mahual, which is completely off the grid.
2012, the PRI won back the presidency with the election of Enrique Peña Nieto.
2014  NAFTA: 20 years of regret for Mexico excerpts from Mark Weisbrot: The promised trade surpluses with Mexico turned out to be deficits. The idea was to push US wages downward, and to create new rights for corporations to sue governments directly before a corporate-friendly international tribunal, unaccountable judicial systems, for regulations (e.g. environmental) that infringed upon their profit-making potential. Millions were forced into competition with subsidized US agribusiness. 
 
2015 In Guanajuato, a Canadian mining company spilled about 1,200 gallons of toxic waste into a river which  is 7 kilometres from the world heritage site. At one time eight out of the ten mines close to the World Heritage site were Canadian and often they were polluting the river. 
 
2018 Obrador from the Morena  party won the election in spite of all the fear mongering.
López Obrador is often painted by political opponents as his country's version of Hugo Chávez. So for Mexico's unpopular leader, Peña Nieto, keeping blood-soaked images from Venezuela in the news cycle and condemning human rights violations have become props in his attempt to stop the country from swinging left. Obrador has recently said that, if elected, he will return to Mexico’s “non-intervention” in other countries’ affairs. “Non-intervention” is the excuse used by totalitarian states such as Cuba and Venezuela — as well as by Mexico’s authoritarian governments in the 20th century — to justify their support for other dictatorships and to defend themselves against outside criticism of their human-rights abuses. Bad news for supporters of democracy in Latin America: Andrés Manuel López Obrador, the front-runner in Mexico’s July 1 presidential election, plans to appoint foreign-policy dinosaurs to his cabinet. And his would-be appointees say they will not criticize Venezuela’s dictatorship. Obrador announced recently that, if elected, he would appoint as his foreign minister Hector Vasconcelos who said that he would put an end to Mexico’s current activism in diplomatic efforts to restore democracy in Venezuela. What’s more, Vasconcelos said he wouldn’t even criticize Venezuela’s regime. . (Miami herald)
Obrador’s critics warn that as president, he would resemble Venezuela’s Hugo Chávez, whose radical “Bolivarian” revolution is credited with turning that country into a desperately impoverished nation. After the election of Socialist Obrador, will Mexico Morph into Venezuela-Style Failed State. (LA Times)
The case of Venezuela is instructive, and ongoing. Its citizens are desperately heading for the border as that nation's socialist economy collapses, beset by food shortages, soaring unemployment, rampant disease, crime and inflation now at a stratospheric 43,000% a year. Since 1999, the year the socialists took over, Venezuela's economy has gone from being one of the wealthiest in Latin America, with the world's largest oil reserves, to one of the most-impoverished nations in Latin America, one that now imports oil and exports people. (Investors Daily).
 
 
 
NICARAGUA
 
Background
US Marines had occupied Nicaragua since 1909 and finally left in 1933. When the marines left in the 1930s, they handed things over to the Somoza family, which ruled Nicaragua with U.S. support from the 1930s to the 1970s.
1921- 1933 SANDINO
Augusto Sandino was born in 1895. When president Coolidge said ``all America belongs to Americans``, Sandino responded ``and all Latin America belongs to Latin Americans``. He also 
 gave rise to the revolutionary colours: rojo el sangre; negro por la muerte (Sandino). He was murdered in 1934 by the National Guard acting on orders of the dictator Samosa who subsequently admitted to carrying out the crime with the backing of the US ambassador. Sandino was not only a fighter but a prolific writer and a gifted orator. Sandinism had become the rallying cry for freedom, self- determination and non-intervention not only for Nicaragua but for liberation movements across tin America.( Michael J. Schroeder)
SOMOZA 1967-72 and 1974-1979 
1961  Frente Sandinista Liberation Nacional (FSLN) formed 
1980 Daniel Ortega elected president and national literacy begun.
1980 new constitution
1980s war US backing the contras
Iran Contra affair covert sale of arms to Iran support contras in Honduras 
out of the loop plausible deniability  out of the loop
1986; Nicaragua took the US to the International Court of Justice
US dismisses World Court ruling on contras 
1986 The International Court of Justice yesterday ruled that US support to the contras in Nicaragua is illegal, and demanded that the US pay reparations to the Sandinistas.
Nicaragua intends to sue the US for more than dollars 1 billion in damages in US domestic courts as a result of yesterday's World Court ruling, a legal counsel for the Managua Government said yesterday in Washington. In a 16-point ruling on a complaint lodged by Nicaragua , the judges rejected American claims of collective self-defence and found the US guilty of breaches of international law and the 1956 treaty of friendship between the two countries. The US rejected the judgment, claiming that the Managua regime is a Soviet puppet.
(Martin Cleaver and Mark Tran ) 
Note the US said that they recognized the jurisdiction of the court but would not abide by the decision. Soon after that the US withdrew from the ICJ.
1990 fear of continued onslaught of contras – opposition Chamorro wins
2002 The US has the best democracy money can buy (Greg Palast)
2006-2018 . US right wing groups were raising money in the US to support opposition in Nicaragua.
2006 US funded break-off  FSLN  group Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance, and supported Montealegre for president
2006 Media claimed Ortega would win because of right wing split!. 
2006 “US intervention; threats, intimidation and bribes” http://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5916&catid=74:ijustice-news&Itemid=216 
2007 food, low-interest credit and other types of direct support Venezuela has pumped into to alleviate poverty, and funds that helped improve education, sanitation and gender equality.
2014 right-wing activists ambushed a caravan of Sandinista supporters returning from the annual celebration of the revolution, killing five people and wounding 24.
2015 four local Sandinista leaders were killed in what are considered to be political. The general association of these attacks with the country's hard right has helped contribute to the current irrelevance of the political opposition in Nicaragua
2016 Former Contra Mercenary to Run for President in Nicaragua and U.S. official Marcela Escobari told a congressional committee that USAID. was working with more than 2,000 “young people” 
2016 Ortega most popular politician – US ambasador- warning to investors  a risk
A report by the Congressional Research Service described Ortega as “the most popular political figure in Nicaragua”. That same month, State Department official Juan Gonzalez acknowledged that Ortega was supported by the majority of the population, attributing his support to “a lot of the social investments that he has made in the country. “Regardless, U.S. officials have not abandoned their efforts to remove Ortega from power. 
2017  the “Nicaraguan Investment Conditionality Act (NICA) of 2017”.
 
Nicaraguans are encouraged by the supportive language of U.S. administration officials and congressional lawmakers in both house — and of both parties. But they want the United States to not only “talk the talk,” but to “walk the walk,” too. They fear that if the United States doesn’t raise the ante in Nicaragua, the country will slide into the chaos in which Venezuela finds itself (Miami, herald)
Despite the US and international organisations having voiced concern about Mr. Ortega’s stranglehold on power, the World Bank acknowledges that poverty has fallen almost 13 percentage points under his rule. A substantial part of those gains have been funded by Venezuelan petrodollars that have underpinned social programmes, helped private business and slashed energy costs. 2017 the US ambassador Laura Dog said `the US government has note which countries support Venezuela ‘stating that Nicaragua does not have many friends in Washington for the support it gives to Venezuela 
 
2017 The government of Nicaragua has rejected the decision of the US to sanction Nicaragua through the so-called Nica Act and demanded respect for its sovereignty. Nicaragua also demanded that the US pay a compensation it was ordered to disburse in 1986 by the ICJ for “the fatal damage caused to the people and government of Nicaragua for the destructive and illegal interference of that power in our national affairs” in funding Contras during the country’s civil war.
2018 US continues funding the opposition and supporting opposition protest The assistance programs appear to be having some effect, especially now that opposition groups are leading major protests against the Nicaraguan government  (Edward Hunt).
 
 
 
 
U.S. officials hope the country’s opposition groups will create a new political movement that can defeat Ortega at the polls or pressure him into stepping down from power. They fear that without their support, Ortega’s opposition will remain weak and divided, making it impossible for anyone to mount a successful political campaign against the Nicaraguan president.
“Our assistance programs are primarily directed at civil society, in order to limit engagement with the central government,” State Department official Juan Gonzalez told Congress in September 2016.
. After the Nicaraguan government passed a number of mild reforms to the country’s social security program in April, Ortega’s opponents organized a series of protests that quickly turned violent.
Observers estimate that as many as 45 people died in the protests.
Since the protests began, U.S. officials have declared their support for the opposition, blaming the Nicaraguan government for the violence. They have not said if any of the protesters have benefited from their assistance.
While questions remain about the extent of U.S. involvement, it is no secret that the United States has historically played a heavy-handed role in Nicaragua. During the early 20th century, U.S. marines occupied the country for two decades. When the marines left in the 1930s, they handed things over to the Somoza family, which ruled Nicaragua with U.S. support from the 1930s to the 1970s.
During the late 1970s, the Sandinistas ousted the U.S.-backed Somoza dictatorship in a popular revolution. Following the revolution, Ortega led a new government that began putting more resources into education and health care, helping to increase literacy and reduce child mortality.
To prevent the revolution from succeeding, U.S. officials directed two major campaigns against the Sandinistas. During the mid-1980s, the Reagan administration organized a terrorist war against Nicaragua, backing counterrevolutionary forces (“contras”) that tried to overthrow the new Nicaraguan government. As the contras waged their campaign of terror, U.S. officials began supporting Ortega’s political opponents, helping them gain political power through the country’s presidential election in 1990.
In the following years, U.S. officials remained closely involved with their political allies. U.S. diplomatic cables published by WikiLeaks reveal that U.S. officials continued working to keep their political allies in power while preventing the Sandinistas from regaining political power. Before the presidential election in 2006, U.S. diplomats spearheaded a multi-faceted campaign to steer campaign funds to their political allies while discouraging voters from voting for Ortega.
In spite of these efforts, U.S. meddling was not enough to tilt the presidential election in favor of U.S.-backed candidates. Ortega won, bringing him back into office and providing the Sandinistas with an opportunity to revive their revolution.
U.S. diplomats in Nicaragua were stunned by the result. They called for an intensification of programs to confront Ortega. “We need to take decisive action and well-funded measures to bolster the elements of Nicaraguan society that can best stop him before he lulls the majority of the Nicaraguan people into complacency, or threatens them into silence,” they reported.
In September 2016, U.S. official Marcela Escobari told a congressional committee that U.S.A.I.D. was working with more than 2,000 “young people” and over 60 civil society organizations to help them play a more active role in Nicaraguan politics and society. “These efforts are allowing them to exercise their political muscle and see results,” she said.
It has not always been easy for U.S. officials to mobilize opposition, however. Since returning to power, Ortega has created a number of popular social welfare programs, providing Nicaraguans with free education, free health care, and various home-improvement programs. The programs have been quite effective, raising incomes and significantly reducing poverty.
The programs have also bolstered Ortega’s popularity, especially among the poor.
2018 Earlier this year, U.S. Ambassador to Nicaragua Laura Dogu complained that international investors face too much risk in the country. She said the country’s cheap labor, which she called its “main competitive advantage,” was losing its appeal. “As more activities are done by robots, the cost of labor becomes irrelevant,” she said.
Dogu insisted that the Nicaraguan people must accept sweeping economic reforms if they want their country to remain relevant in the global economy. She called for more vocational training for young people and the introduction of genetically engineered crops into the country. “Nicaragua can choose to capture emerging markets and growth industries… or can chose to be left behind as other countries seize those opportunities,” she said.
Congress makes the following findings:
(1) The House Committee on Foreign Affairs convened a congressional hearing on December 1, 2011, entitled “Democracy Held Hostage in Nicaragua: Part 1” where former United States Ambassador to Nicaragua Robert Callahan testified, “First, that Daniel Ortega’s candidacy was illegal, illegitimate, and unconstitutional; second, that the period leading to the elections and the elections themselves were marred by serious fraud; third, that Daniel Ortega and his Sandinista party have systematically undermined the country’s fragile governmental institutions.”.
(2) According to the Organization of American States (OAS) report on the Nicaraguan 2011 Presidential elections, the OAS recommended that the Government of Nicaragua take a number of steps to improve its electoral systems, including accrediting poll watchers to ensure political parties and civil society are represented to observe elections, and redesigning the structure of the Nicaraguan electoral council to allow proper registration of the electorate
 
 
VENEZUELA
Chavez had been criticized as being a dictator because he was in for more than two terms
 
BACKGROUND
1930. As late as the 1930s, agriculture still provided 22 percent of GDP and occupied 60 percent of the labor force
1945 -1948  Democratic government Action redistribute land
1948 land reform 
1948 land returned to original owners under dictator Marcos
1950  moved away from agriculture to fossil fuel with petroleum exports 50%of GP 95% of exports
1960 land reform
1998 chavez elected
1999 new constitution
 
2003  Bolivarian missions, to address the social problems these missions set out to improve healthcare, education, housing, food and nutrition, and agriculture. Mission Barrio adentro sought to provide free and high quality health care by increasing the number of primary care physicians twelvefold while constructing several thousand additional health centers across the country. As a result, over 300,000 lives have been saved and infant mortality has been reduced by twenty percent. Mission Robinson was a literacy campaign which used the help of community and military volunteers to teach reading, writing, and arithmetic to the underprivileged adult population. Mission Vivenda to provide housing. mission agro to support small forms
2004 ALBA Cuba- Venezuela agreement, [signed on December 14, 2004, aimed at the exchange of medical and educational resources and petroleum between both nations. Venezuela began to deliver about 96,000 barrels of oil per day from its state-owned oil company, PDVSA, to Cuba; in exchange, Cuba sent 20,000 state-employed medical staff and thousands of teachers to Venezuela's poorest states the agreement also made it possible for Venezuelans to travel to Cuba for specialized medical care, free of charge. Subsequently, a number of other Latin American and Caribbean nations entered into this 'peoples' trade agreement' which aims to implement the principles of ALBA.
2005 mission Vuelta al campo to encourage willing urbanists to return to   countryside
2006 Chavez re-elected 
2006 Chavez addresses the UNGA. Recommended  Chomsky’s , Hegemony or Survival: America’s Quest for Global Dominance, as an excellent work to help us understand what happened in the world and Chavez proposed that the UN leave New York
2007 Rwdistributed 2.7 hectors to 180.000landless peasant families
2008 Government expropriated El Frio , 63000 estates purported to be owned by Nelson Rockerfeller because he could not produce land title
2009 Expelled Israeli ambassador, and recognized Palestine.  
2009 U.S. troops in Colombia: a threat to peace.US military will be granted the use of five military bases in Colombia, in addition to the two it already uses, to fight drug trafficking and guerrillas on the Venezuelan border.
2009 Criticized wealthy north at COP 15 climate change conference.
2010 Participated in Cochabamba climate change Peoples Conference in Bolivia.
2010 Parliamentary subcommittee Cotler links Venezuela with Iran
2011? January Venezuela state of the nation address; CSPAN says lame duck
2012 Is a charter without social rights, a gift to the world?
http://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8448:is-a-charter-without-social-rights-a-gift-to-the-world&catid=74:ijustice-news&Itemid=216
UN watch targets– socialist  states and ones that criticized Israel.
 
2012 obama not intervenng
2013 Venezuela’s social missions progressing.
2013 march 3 death of Chavez
Canada’s shameful response to the death of Chavez.
2013 Snap election .
2014 June 20 destabilization schemes designed to demonstrate that governments considered hostile to US` interests are ruthless and undemocratic span many decades and continents. There is one highly effective type of manipulation that is frequently employed: peaceful protests are combined with violent ones as the media and opposition conflate the tactics used by security forces against the former and the justified use of force against the latter.
2014 hands off Venezuela rally in Victoria and critique of human rights watch report:
https://truthout.org/articles/latest-human-rights-watch-report-30-lies-about-venezuela/
2015 letter re Colombia border conflict.
2015 the making of Leopoldo Lopez 2015 Leopoldo not Venezuela Saviour.
ttps://www.thenation.com/article/leopoldo-lopez-is-not-venezuelas-savior/july 29, 2015
2015 election venezuela’s opposition has won a key two-thirds majority in legislative elections 
2015 As of 2016 Venezuela produced 3.5% of the world's oil exports 
2016 Venezuela bans GMOS by popular demand.
 
2017 Blaming socialism for us distorts food crisis https://www.telesurtv.net/english/news/blaming-socialism-us-media-distorts-venezuelas-food-crisis-
2017 trump doubles down on sanctions – regime change.
2017 trump sanctions will cause more harm. 
2017 Venezuela – regime change invasion?
2018 human rights council condemns Venezuelan sanctions.
2018 Trump administation tries to torpedo the  election regime http://cepr.net/publications/op-eds-columns/trump-administration-tries-to-torpedo-venezuelan-elections-as-it-intensifies-regime-change-efforts
2018 Nicolas Maduro wins May 20 election; Lima group does not recognize election  (Peru, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Panama, paraguay, santa lucia, Canada, Colombia, Honduras, Costa Fica and Guatemala).
2018 visit of us southern command  a threat of invasion?
2018 Venezuela’s highly unusual presidential election Gregory Wilpert:
https://newint.org/features/web-exclusive/2018/05/15/venezuela-presidential-election
Venezuela will hold its 24th electoral event in 20 years this Sunday, 20 may. The path to this election was perhaps one of the most convoluted and difficult of Venezuela’s now nearly 20-year Bolivarian revolution. First, there was a snap election in 2013;the opposition believed this 
was their best chance since 1998 to oust ‘Chavismo’ from power and so, when its candidate, Henrique Capriles Radonski, lost to Nicolas Maduro by a mere 1.5 per cent, they cried fraud and launched a wave of violent protests and riots that left at least nine dead. The following year the opposition launched another wave of violent protests (known as ‘guarimbas’) that lasted about three months and left 43 people dead. This opposition tactic, which the opposition tried again in 2017, was immensely effective on an international level because every time it was applied, and people were killed (usually by the protesters themselves), the international perception of Venezuela – as mediated by international news outlets – was significantly worsened. It was thus only a small step to routinely begin to refer to Venezuela as a dictatorship, despite its more than annual electoral contests. Following Chávez’s death, Venezuela’s economic situation began to deteriorate. The inflation rate rose from 21 per cent in 2012 to over 100 per cent in 2015 (hyper-inflation in 2018), basic consumer items and of food staples became  difficult to purchase because of shortages, oil revenues dropped by two-thirds, from $77 billion in 2012 to $25 billion in 2016 – This gave the opposition additional reasons to launch ever-more attacks on the government. The reasons for the economic crisis are manifold, a confluence of a fixed exchange rate, a concerted business sector effort to undermine the economy, declining oil prices, and – beginning in 2017 – US financial sanctions, all of which combined to create one of the worst economic crises in Venezuelan history.
 
2018 Undermining election
2018 march ` undermining Venezuelan election in May
Henri Falcón, was told by US officials that the Trump administration would consider financial sanctions against him if he entered the presidential race. The US has backed the main opposition coalition decision to boycott the election.Rubio is a hard-liner who does not seem interested in an electoral or 
 
negotiated solution to Venezuela’s political crisis. On February 9, he appeared to support a military coup when he tweeted: “The world would support the Armed Forces in Venezuela if they decide to protect the people & restore democracy by removing a dictator.”Rubio/Trump strategy seems to be to try to worsen the economic situation and increase suffering to the point where either the military, or the insurrectionary elements of the opposition, rise up and overthrow the government.That appears to be the purpose of the financial sanctions that Trump ordered on August 24, 2017. This was not done previously because it would hurt US oil refining interests that import Venezuelan oil. But the administration has floated the idea of tapping the US strategic petroleum reserves to soften the blow. All this to overthrow a government that nobody can claim poses any threat to the United States. The main opposition coalition, the Democratic Unity Roundtable (MUD, by its acronym in Spanish), has as of now decided to boycott the elections.
 
2018  Maduro won election not recognized by Lima group
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 
Last Updated on Thursday, 02 August 2018 00:00
 

Latest News