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SDG Goal 11 Making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe resilient and sustainable. PDF Print E-mail
Justice News
Posted by Joan Russow
Wednesday, 21 October 2015 12:56
 
An examination of Goal 11 in the context ofg previous international intruments related to housing and infrastructure.
By joan Russow; Global Compliance Research Project
 
 
 
Seek to reduce inequalities, increase opportunities and access to resources and income, and remove any political, legal, economic and social factors and constraints that foster and sustain inequality. widespread and persistent poverty, and social and economic inequality can have local, cross-national and global impacts…..To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace; To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;….. widespread and persistent poverty, and social and economic inequality can have local, cross-national and global impacts…..make it possible to eliminate the widening gap between the developed and the developing countries and ensure steadily accelerating economic and social development and peace and justice for present and future generations, and, to that end, declare:….. The gap between the developed and the developing countries continues to widen in a system which was established at a time when most of the developing countries did not even exist as independent States and which perpetuates inequality ….bridging the economic gap between developing and developed countries,v to close the gap between female and male illiteracy rates. . The precautionary approach is important…… Seek to reduce inequalities, increase opportunities and access to resources and income, and remove any political, legal, economic and social factors and constraints that foster and sustain inequality Often, there is a communication gap among scientists, policy makers, and the public at large Within many societies, both in developed and developing countries, the gap between rich and poor has increased….. d) Take appropriate and affirmative steps to enable all children and adolescents to attend and complete school and to close the gender gap in primary, secondary, vocational and higher education all relevant sectors of the economy, with respect to their impact on poverty and inequality, assessing their impact on family well-being and conditions, as well as their gender implications, and adjusting them, as appropriate, to promote a more equitable distribution of productive assets, wealth, opportunities, income and services; 
To promote equal access to and fair and equitable provision of services in human settlements, Governments at the appropriate level, including local authorities, should: (a) Formulate and implement human settlem
 
Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. 2. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.
Noting that the condition of human settlements largely determines the quality of life, the improvement of which is a prerequisite for the full satisfaction of basic needs, such as employment, housing, health services, education and recreation, ( Preamble, Habitat !)
 
An examination of Goal 11 in the context ofg previous international intruments related to housing and infrastructure.
 
NOTE THE PIECE IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION
 
****1948 UNIVERSAL DECLARATION ON HUMAN RIGHTS
Housing
nfrastructure  
urban
Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. 2. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection. (Article 25 1. Univeral Declaration on Human Rights)
1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. The States Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure the realization of this right, recognizing to this effect the essential importance of international co-operation based on free consent.(Article 11, Intenational Covenant on Economic,Social and Cultural Rights 
2.
****1966 INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS
 
Article 11 
3.
The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. The States Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure the realization of this right, recognizing to this effect the essential importance of international co-operation based on free consent.
 
****1974 UNIVERSAL DECLARATION ON THE ERADICATION OF HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION
 
Right to
Recognizing that :
(a) The grave food crisis that is afflicting the peoples of the developing countries where most of the world's hungry and ill-nourished live and where more than two thirds of the world's population produce about one third of the world's food-an imbalance which threatens to increase in the next 10 years-is not only fraught with grave economic and social implications, but also acutely jeopardizes the most fundamental principles and values associated with the right to life and human dignity as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;
 
(f) All countries, big or small, rich or poor, are equal. All countries have the full right to participate in the decisions on the food problem;
 
(h) Peace and justice encompass an economic dimension helping the solution of the world economic problems, the liquidation of under-development, offering a lasting and definitive solution of the food problem for all peoples and guaranteeing to all countries the right to implement freely and effectively their development programmes. To this effect, it is necessary to eliminate threats and resort to force and to promote peaceful co-operation between States to the fullest extent possible, to apply the principles of non-interference in the internal affairs of other States, full equality of rights and respect of national independence and sovereignty, as well as to encourage the peaceful co-operation between all States, irrespective of their political, social and economic systems. The further improvement of international relations will create better conditions for international o-operation in all fields which should make possible large financial and material resources to be used, inter alia , for developing agricultural production and substantially improving world food security;
 
The Conference consequently solemnly proclaims :
1. Every man, woman and child has the inalienable right to be free from hunger and malnutrition in order to develop fully and maintain their physical and mental faculties. Society today already possesses sufficient resources, organizational ability and technology and hence the competence to achieve this objective. Accordingly, the eradication of hunger is a common objective of all the countries of the international community, especially of the developed countries and others in a position to help.
 
****1975 WORLD CONFERENCE ON WOMEN
 
Plans of Action
The primary objective of development being to bring about sustained improvement in the well-being of the individual and of society and to bestow benefits on all, development should be seen not only as a desirable goal in itself but also as the most important means for furthering equality of the sexes and the maintenance of peace.
An essential condition for the maintenance and strengthening of international co-operation and peace is the promotion and protection of human rights for all in conditions of equity among and within nations. In order to involve more women in the promotion of international co-operation, the development of friendly relations among nations, the strengthening of international peace and disarmamentæthe peace efforts of women as individuals and in groups, and in national and international organizations should be recognized and encouraged.
 
The Conference responded by adopting a World Plan of Action, a document that offered guidelines for governments and the international community to follow for the next ten years in pursuit of the three key objectives set by the General Assembly. The Plan of Action set minimum targets, to be met by 1980, that focused on securing equal access for women to resources such as education, employment opportunities, political participation, health services, housing, nutrition and family planning.
This approach marked a change, which had started to take shape in the early 1970s, in the way that women were perceived. Whereas previously women had been seen as passive recipients of support and assistance, they were now viewed as full and equal partners with men, with equal rights to resources and opportunities. A similar transformation was taking place in the approach to development, with a shift from an earlier belief that development served to advance women, to a new consensus that development was not possible without the full participation of women.
 
The Conference responded by adopting a World Plan of Action, a document that offered guidelines for governments and the international community to follow for the next ten years in pursuit of the three key objectives set by the General Assembly. The Plan of Action set minimum targets, to be met by 1980, that focused on securing equal access for women to resources such as education, employment opportunities, political participation, health services, housing, nutrition and family planning.
 
 
 
 
****1976 HABITAT I
 
housing
****1976 HABITAT 1: United Nations Conference on Human Settlements,
Aware that the Conference was convened following recommendation of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment and subsequent resolutions of the General Assembly, particularly resolution 3128 (XXVIII) by which the nations of the world expressed their concern over the extremely serious condition of human settlements, particularly that which prevails in developing countries,
 
Recognizing that international co-operation, based on the principles of the United Nations Charter, has to be developed and strengthened in order to provide solutions for world problems and to create an international community based on equity, justice and solidarity,
 
Recalling the decisions of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, as well as the recommendations of the World Population Conference, the United Nations World Food Conference, the Second General Conference of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the World Conference of the International Women’s Year; the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted ;by the sixth special session of the General Assembly of the United Nations and the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States that establish the basis of the New International Economic Order,
 
Noting that the condition of human settlements largely determines the quality of life, the improvement of which is a prerequisite for the full satisfaction of basic needs, such as employment, housing, health services, education and recreation,
 
Recognizing that the problems of human settlements are not isolated from the social and economic development of countries and that they cannot be set apart from existing unjust international economic relations,
 
Being deeply concerned with the increasing difficulties facing the world in satisfying the basic needs and aspirations of peoples consistent with principles of human dignity,
 
Recognizing that the circumstances of life for vast numbers of people in human settlements are unacceptable, particularly in developing countries, and that, unless positive and concrete action is taken at national and international levels to find and implement solutions, these conditions are likely to be further aggravated, as a result of: 
 
Inequitable economic growth, reflected in the wide disparities in wealth which now exist between countries and between human beings and which condemn millions of people to a life of poverty, without satisfying the basic requirements for food, education, health services, shelter, environmental hygiene, water and energy;
 
Social economic, ecological and environmental deterioration which are exemplified at the national and international levels by inequalities in living conditions, social segregation, racial discrimination, acute unemployment, illiteracy, disease and poverty, the breakdown of social relationships and traditional cultural values and the increasing degradation of life-supporting resources of air , water and land;
 
World population growth trends which indicate that numbers of mankind in the next 25 years would double, thereby more than doubling the need for food, shelter and all other requirements for life and human dignity which are at the present inadequately met; 
 
Uncontrolled urbanization and consequent conditions of overcrowding, pollution, deterioration and psychological tensions in metropolitan regions; 
 
Rural dispersion exemplified by small scattered settlements and isolated homesteads which inhibit the provision of infrastructure and services particularly those relating to water, health and education;
 
Involuntary migration, politically, racially and economically motivated, relocation and expulsion of people from their national homeland,
 
Recognizing also that the establishment of a just and equitable world economic order through necessary changes in the areas of international trade, monetary systems, industrialization, transfer of resources, transfer of technology, and the consumption of world resources is essential for socio-economic development and improvement of human settlement, particularly in developIng countries,
 
Recognizing further that these problems pose a formidable challenge to human understanding, imagination, ingenuity and resolve, and that new priorities to promote the qualitative dimensions to economic development, as well as a new political commitment to find solutions resulting in the p4ractical implementation of the New International Economic Order, become imperative    
 
I. OPPORTUNITIES AND SOLUTIONS
 
1. Mankind must not be daunted by the scale of the task ahead. There is need for awareness of and responsibility for increased activity of the national Governments and international community, aimed at mobilization of economic resources, institutional changes and international solidarity by:
(a) Adopting bold, meaningful and effective human settlement policies and spatial planning strategies realistically adapted to local conditions;
(b) Creating more livable, attractive and efficient settlements which recognize human scale, the heritage and culture of people and the special needs of  disadvantaged groups especially children, women and the infirm in order to ensure the provision of health, services, education, food and employment within a framework of social justice
 
(c) Creating possibilities for effective participation by all people in the planning, building and management of their human settlements;
(d) Developing innovative approaches in formulating and implementing settlement programmes through more appropriate use of science and technology and adequate national and international financing;
(e) Utilizing the most effective means of communications for the exchange of knowledge and experience in the field of human settlements;
(f) Strengthening bonds of international co-operation both regionally and globally;
(g) Creating economic opportunities conducive to full employment where, under healthy, safe conditions, women and men will be fairly compensated for their labour in monetary, health and other personal benefits.
2 In meeting this challenge, human settlements must be seen as an instrument and object of development. The goals of settlement policies are inseparable from the goals of every sector of social and economic life. The solutions to the problems of human settlements must therefore be conceived as an integral part of the development process of individual nations and the world community. 
3 With these opportunities and considerations in mind, and being agreed on the necessity of finding common principles that will guide Governments and the world community in solving the problems of human settlements, the Conference proclaims the following general principles and guidelines for action. 
 
II GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1. The improvement of the quality of life of human beings is the first and most important objective of every human settlement policy. These policies must facilitate the rapid and continuous improvement in the quality of life of all people, beginning with the satisfaction of the basic needs of food, shelter, clean water, employment, health, education, training, social security without any discrimination as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, ideology, national or social origin or other cause, in a frame of freedom, dignity and social justice. 
 
2. In striving to achieve this objective, priority must be given to the needs of the most disadvantaged people. 
 
3. Economic development should lead to the satisfaction of human needs and is a necessary means towards achieving a better quality of life, provided that it contributes to a more equitable distribution of its benefits among people and nations. In this context particular attention should be paid to the accelerated transition in developing countries from primary development to secondary development activities, and particularly to industrial development. 
 
4. Human dignity and the exercise of free choice consistent with over-all public welfare are basic rights which must be assured in every society. It is therefore the duty of all people and Governments to join the struggle against any form of colonialism, foreign aggression and occupation, domination, apartheid and all forms of racism and racial discrimination referred to in the resolutions as adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations. 
%. The establishment of settlements in territories occupied by force is illegal. it is condemned by the international community. However, action still remains to be taken against the establishment of such settlements. 
 
6. The right of free movement and the right of each individual to choose the place of settlement within the domain of his own country should be recognized and safeguarded. 
 
7. Every State has the sovereign and inalienable right to choose its economic system , as well as its political, social and cultural system, in accordance with the will of it people, without interference, coercion or external threat of any kind. 
 
8. Every State has the right to exercise full and permanentent sovereignty over its wealth, natural resources and economic activities, adopting the necessary measures for the planning and management of its resources, providing for the protection, preservation and enhancement of the environment. 
 
9. Every country should have the right to be a sovereign inheritor of its own cultural values created throughout its history, and has the duty to preserve them as an integral part of the cultural heritage of mankind. 
 
10. Land is one of the fundamental elements in human settlements. Every State has the right to take the necessary steps to maintain under public control the use, possession, disposal and reservation of land. every State has the right to plan and regulate use of land, which is one of its most important resources, in such a way that the growth of population centres both urban and rural are based on a comprehensive land use plan. Such measures must assure the attainment of basic goals of social and economic reform for every country, in conformity with its national and land tenure system and legislation. 
 
11. The nations must avoid the pollution of the biosphere and the oceans and should join in the effort to end irrational exploitation of all environmental resources, whether non-renewable or renewable in the long term. The environment is the common heritage of mankind and its protection is the responsibility of the whole international community. All acts by nations and people should therefore be inspired ;by a deep respect for the protection of the environmental resources upon which life itself depends. ( II, 11 Habitat I)
 
12. The waste and misuse of resources in war and armaments should be prevented. All countries should make a firm commitment to promote general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control, in particular in the field of nuclear disarmament. part of the resources thus released should be utilized so as to achieve a better qualit6y of life for humanity and particularly the peoples of developing countries (II, 12 Habitat 1)
 
13 All persons have the right and the duty to participate, individually and collectively in the elaboration and implementation of policies and programmes of their human settlements. 
 
14. To achieve universal progress in the quality of life, a fair and balanced structure of the economic relations between States has to be promoted. It is therefore essential to implement urgently the New International Economic Order based on the Declaration and Programme of Action approved by the General Assembly in its sixth special session, and on the Charter of Economic rights and Duties of States. (II 14, Habitat I)
 
15 The highest priority should be placed on the rehabilitation of expelled and homeless people who have been displaced by natural or man-made catastrophes, and especially by the act of foreign aggression. In the latter case, all countries have the duty to fully co-operate in order to guarantee that the parties involved allow the return of displaced persons to their homes and to give them the right to possess and enjoy their properties and belongings without interference. (II, 15 Habitat I) 
 
16 Historical settlements, monuments and other items of national heritage, including religious heritage, should be safeguarded against any acts of aggression or abuse by the occupying Power. 
 
17. Every State ;has the sovereign right to rule and exercise effective control over foreign investments, including the transnational corporations—within its national jurisdiction, which affect directly or indirectly the human settlements programme (II 17, Habitat I)
 
18. All countries, particularly developing countries, must create conditions which make possible the full integration of women and youth in political, economic and social activities, particularly in the planning and implementation of human settlement proposals and in all the associated activities, on the basis of equal rights, in order to achieve an efficient and full utilization of available human resources, bearing in mind that women constitute half of the world population. 
 
19 International co-operation is an objective and a common duty of all States, and necessary efforts must therefore be made to accelerate the social and economic development of developing countries, within the framework of favourable external conditions, which are compatible with their needs and aspirations and which contains the due respect for the sovereign equality of all States. 
 
GUIDELINES FOR ACTION
1. It is recommended that Governments and international organizations should make every effort to take urgent action as set out in the following guidelines: 
 
2. It is the responsibility of Governments to prepare spatial strategy plans and adopt human settlement policies to guide the socio-economic development efforts. Such policies must be an essential component of an over-all development strategy, linking and harmonizing them with policies on industrialization, agriculture, social welfare, and environmental and cultural preservation so that each supports the other in a progressive improvement in well-being of all mankind. (III 2, Habitat I)
 
3. a human settlement policy must seek harmonious integration or co-ordination of a wide variety of components, including, for example, population growth and distribution, employment, shelter, land use, infrastructure and services. Governments must create mechanisms and institutions to develop and implement such a policy. 
 
4. It is of paramount importance that national and international efforts give priority to improving the rural habitat. In this context, efforts should be made towards the reduction of disparities between rural and urban areas, as needed between regions and within urban areas themselves, for a harmonious development of human settlements. (III 4 Habitat I)
 
5. The demographic, natural and economic characteristics of many countries, require policies on growth and distribution of population, land tenure and localization of productive activities to ensure orderly processes of urbanization and arrange for rational occupation of rural space.
 
6. Human settlement policies and programmes should define and strive for progressive minimum standards for an acceptable quality of life. These standards will vary within and between countries, as well as over periods of time, and therefore must be subject to change in accordance with conditions and possibilities. Some standards are most appropriately defined in quantitative terms, thus providing precisely defined targets at the local and national levels. Others must be qualitative, with their achievement subject to felt need. At the same time, social justice and a fair sharing of resources demand the discouragement of excessive consumption  (III 6 Habitat I) 
 
7. Attention must also be drawn to the detrimental effects of transposing standards and criteria that can only be adopted by minorities and could heighten inequalities, the misuse of resources and the social, cultural and ecological deterioration of the developing countries. (III 7 Habitat I) 
 
8. adequate shelter and services are a basic human right which places an obligation on Governments to ensure their attainment by all people, beginning with direct assistance to the least advantaged through guided programmes of self-help and community action. Governments should endeavour to remove all impediments hindering attainments of these goals. Of special importance is the elimination of social and racial segregation, inter alia, through the creation of better balanced communities, which blend difference social groups, occupation, housing and amenities. (III 8 Habitat I)
 
9. Health is an essential element in the development of the individual and one of the goals of human settlement policies should be to improve environmental health conditions and basic health services.
 
10. Basic human dignity is the right of people, individually and collectively, to participate directly in shaping the policies and programmes affecting their lives. The process of choosing and carrying out a given course of action for human settlement improvement should be designed expressly to fulfill that right. Effective human settlement policies require a continuous co-operative relationship between a Government and its people at all levels. It is recommended that national Governments promote programmes that will encourage and assist local authorities to anticipate to a greater extent in national development. 
 
11 Since a genuine human settlement policy requires the effective participation of the entire population, recourse must therefore be made at all times to technical arrangements permitting the use of all human resources, both skilled and unskilled. The equal participation of women must be guaranteed. These goals must be associated with a global training Programme to facilitate the introduction and use of technologies that maximize productive employment. (III 11, Habitat I)
 
12, International and national institutions should promote and institute education programmes and courses in the subject of “human Settlements” 
13. Land is an essential element in development of both urban and rural settlements. The use and tenure of land should be subject to public control because of its limited supply through appropriate measures and legislation including agrarian reform policies — as an essential basis for ;integrated rural  development—that will facilitate the transfer of economic resources to the agricultural sector and the promotion of the agro-industrial effort, so as to improve the integration and organization of human settlements, in accordance with national development plans and programmes. the increase in the value of land as a result of public decision and investment should be recaptured for the benefit of society as a whole. Governments should also ensure that prime agricultural land is destined to its most vital use. 
 
14. Human settlements are characterized by significant disparities in living standards and opportunities. Harmonious development of human settlements requires the reduction of disparities between rural and urban areas, between regions and within regions themselves. Governments should adopt policies ;which aim at decreasing the differences between living standards and opportunities in urban and non-urban areas. Such policies at the national level should be supplemented by policies designed to reduce disparities between countries within the framework of the New International Economic Order. (II 14, Habitat II) 
 
15 In achieving the socio-economic and environmental objectives of the development of human settlements, high priority should be given to the actual design and physical planning processes which have as their main tasks the synthesis of various planning approaches and the transformation of broad and general goals into specific design solutions. The sensitive and comprehensive design methodologies related to the particular circumstances of time and space, and based on consideration of the human scale should be pursued and encouraged. 
 
16. The design of human settlements should aim at providing a living environment in which identities of individuals, families and societies are preserved and adequate means for maintaining privacy, the possibility of face-to cave interaction and public participation in the decision-making process are provided. 
 
17. A human settlement is more than a grouping of people, shelter and work places. Diversity in the characteristics of human settlements reflecting cultural and aesthetic values must be respected and encouraged and areas of historical, religious or archaeological importance and nature areas of special interest preserved for posterity. Places of worship, especially in areas of expanding human settlement, should be provided and recognized in order to satisfy the spiritual and religious needs of different groups in accordance with freedom of religious expression. 
 
18. Governments and the international community should facilitate the transfer of relevant technology and experience and should encourage and assist the creation of endogenous technology better suited to the socio-cultural characteristics and patterns of population by means of bilateral or multilateral agreements having regard to the sovereignty and interest of the participating States. The knowledge and experience accumulated on the subject of human settlements should be available to all countries. Research and academic institutions should contribute more fully to this effort by giving greater attention to human settlements problems. (III 18 Habitat 1)
 
19. Access should be granted, on more favourable terms, to modern technology, which should be adapted, as necessary, to the specific economic, social and ecological conditions and to different stages of development of the developing countries. Efforts must be made to ensure that the commercial practices governing the transfer of technology are adapted to the needs of the developing countries and to ensure that buyers’ rights are not abused. (III 19 Habitat I)
 
20 International, technical and financial co-operation by the developed countries must be conducted on the basis of respect for national sovereignty and national development plans and programmes and designed to solve problems relating to projects, under human settlement programmes, aimed at enhancing the quality of life of the inhabitants. 
 
21 Due attention should be given to implementation of conservation and recycling technologies. 
 
22 In the planning and management of human settlements, Governments should take into consideration all pertinent recommendations on human settlements planning which have emerged from earlier conferences dealing with the quality of live and development problems which affect it, starting with the high global priority represented by the transformation of the economic order at the national and international levels (sixth and seventh special sessions), the environmental impact of human settlements (Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment), the housing and sanitary ramifications of population growth (World Population Conference, Bucharest), rural development and the need to increase food supply (W0rld Food Conference, Rome) and the effect on women of housing and urban development (International Women’s Conference, Mexico City). (III 22 Habitat I)
 
23 While planning new human settlements of restructuring existing ones, a high priority should be given to the promotion of optimal and creative conditions of human coexistence. this implies the creation of a well-structured urban space on a human scale, the close interconnection of the different urban function, the relief of urban man from intolerable psychological tensions due to overcrowding and chaos, the creation of changes of human encounters and the elimination of urban concepts leading to human isolation
 
24. Guided by the forgoing principles, the international community must exercise its responsibility to support national effort to meet the human settlements challenges facing them Since resources of Governments are inadequate to meet all needs, the international community should provide the necessary financial and technical assistance, evolve appropriate institutional arrangements and seek new effective ways to promote them. In the meantime, assistance to developing countries must at least reach the percentage targets set in the International Development Strategy for the Second United Nations Development Decade.  
 
    Chapter II 
Recommendations for National Action
A. Settlement polices and strategies Agenda item 10 a
3 The ideologies of States are reflected in their human settlement policies. These being powerful instruments for change, they must not be used to dispossess people from their homes and their land, or to entrench privilege and exploitation . the human settlement policies must be in conformity with the declaration of principle and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 
 
5. In fact, the very construction of the physical components of human settlements- ;be they rural or urban, in the form of dwellings or roads, with traditional or modern technologies — in sufficient volume to meet the needs of society could become a leading sector of the economy and a major generator of meaningful employment, instead of being treated as a residual of so-called “productive” activities. (Chant II A. 5 Habitat)
 
Recommendation A.2 
An integrated human settlement policy
(i) be formulated through a truly interdisciplinary approach, concurrently with policies relation to other aspects of social and economic development
(ii) be consistent with the preservation, restoration and improvement of the natural and man-made environment, cognizant of the positive role of environment in national economic and social development.
(v) be considered in all efforts to implement the New International Economic Order
 
Recommendation A.3
 
..a policy should:
(iv) Be led by public sector action, and aim at the welfare of the people, with priority to the most deprived.
 
(v). Set minimum and maximum standards which should be expressed in qualitative and quantitative terms, based on indigenous values, related to local resources and abilities, capable of evolving over time and developed with the full participation of all those concerned. 
 
Recommendation A4
 
(b) Human settlements policies should aim to improve the condition of human settlements particularly ;by promoting a more equitable distribution of the benefits of development among regions; and by making such benefits and public services equally accessible to all groups. (Rec. A 4,b  Habitat I)
 
(c) this can be done through:
(i) the location of public sector investments; 
(ii) the allocation of direct subsidies and priority of investment, to selected disadvantaged regions and groups
(iii) the use of incentives and disincentives-fiscal, legal and other to favour or discourage selected activities or areas
(iv) The creation of special employment, training and social services opportunities training and social services opportunities in favour of the most deprived
 
(v) the deliberate improvement of conditions in the most disadvantaged settlements, so as to enhance attraction of such areas in relation to others;
 
(vi) Measures to improve the quality of life of vulnerable groups which have special needs-such as children, the elderly, the handicapped and the disabled.  Such measure include provision of basic social services, adequate shelter and social and physical access to facilities.
 
Recommendation A6 Allocation of resources
 
(c) Particular attention should be given to:
(i) making true social costs and benefits the basis for policy decision and evaluation, and not only material product:
(iv) Research priority for critical factors in the development of human settlements, especially energy and technologies; 
 
B. Settlement planning (Agenda item 10 b) 
 
Recommendation B.( 
Urban expansion
 
(a) Expected population growth and migration mean that urban expansion will be the most common and universal development challenge. However, urban expansion can take the form of urban sprawl, and it is then costly, wasteful and ecologically destructive. 
 
(c) it requires special provisions for: 
(i) securing legislation, legal instruments and regulations; 
(iv) active participation of a well informed public
(v) protection of ecosystems and critical land
( ix) Integration and improvement of squatter and marginal settlements.
 
Recommendation C4 
Designs and technologies for shelter infrastructure and services
C. the solutions arising from such choices should therefor be: 
(kk) based on the best possible use of available local materials and local resources within a process of constructive rationalization allowing for the effective use of locally existing know-how and unskilled labour in countries with abundant manpower, thereby generating employment and income. 
(iv) Conceived to utilize traditional techniques suitable adapted to new materials
(v) emerging from original indigenous research
(vi) Planned so as to take full account of their environmental impact
 
 
Recommendation C. 5
Energy 
Human settlements are consuming more and more energy just when mankind has become aware of the need to cease environmentally degrading and wasteful use of non-renewable energy resources. 
 
(i) reducing energy consumption by changes in land-use planning, building design, living patterns and appropriate transportation systems including emphasis on mass transportation.
 
(ii) Identifying and developing new sources of energy and promoting more efficient use of energy resources, for example through innovative approaches in design and management and although financial and other incentives for energy conservation and through disincentives for wasteful consumption ( Recommendation C. 5 Habitat i) 
 
(iv) emphasizing where possible the use of renewable over non-renewable energy sources and the rationalization of technologies which are currently known to be hazardous to the environment. 
 
(vi) Developing and implementing special small-scale power generating, delivery and use systems more appropriate for water supply, rural electrification, and district heating and cooling, including the utilization of solar and geothermal energy and heat pumps as appropriate. 
 
Recommendation C6  Long-term cost of shelter, infrastructure and services
(b0 in choosing alternatives for shelter , infrastructure and services account should be taken of their social, environmental, economic costs and benefits including that of future management, maintenance and operations as well as capital costs. 
 
Recommendation C7
(a) he development of an indigenous construction industry is still an untapped resources in many nations where genuinely local firms, small or large, are often in need of assistance. 
 
Recommendation C 9 
(b) National housing policies must aim at providing adequate shelter and services to the lower income groups, distributing available resources on the basis of greatest needs. 
 
 
 
urban
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. 6. The extent to which water resources development contriburaban
 
Uncontrolled urbanization and consequent conditions of overcrowding, pollution, deterioration and psychological tensions in metropolitan regions; 
 
****1992 AGENDA 21
5.29. In formulating human settlements policies, account should be taken of resource needs, waste production and ecosystem health.
6.41. Nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance, support and coordination, where necessary, in this area should include:
 a. Urban air pollution:
 i. Develop appropriate pollution control technology on the basis of risk assessment and epidemiological research for the introduction of environmentally sound production processes and suitable safe mass transport; 
ii. Develop air pollution control capacities in large cities, emphasizing enforcement programmes and using monitoring networks, as appropriate; 
b. Indoor air pollution:
 i. Support research and develop programmes for applying prevention and control methods to reducing indoor air pollution, including the provision of economic incentives for the installation of appropriate technology; 
ii. Develop and implement health education campaigns, particularly in developing countries, to reduce the health impact of domestic use of biomass and coal; 
c. Water pollution:
 i. Develop appropriate water pollution control technologies on the basis of health risk assessment; 
ii. Develop water pollution control capacities in large cities; d. Pesticides: Develop mechanisms to control the distribution and use of pesticides in order to minimize the risks to human health by transportation, storage, application and residual effects of pesticides used in agriculture and preservation of wood; 
e. Solid waste:
 i. Develop appropriate solid waste disposal technologies on the basis of health risk assessment;
 ii. Develop appropriate solid waste disposal capacities in large cities; f. Human settlements: Develop programmes for improving health conditions in human settlements, in particular within slums and non-tenured settlements, on the basis of health risk assessment;
Agenda 21 – Chapter 7 PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT 
7.1. In industrialized countries, the consumption patterns of cities are severely stressing the global ecosystem, while settlements in the developing world need more raw material, energy, and economic development simply to overcome basic economic and social problems. Human settlement conditions in many parts of the world, particularly the developing countries, are deteriorating mainly as a result of the low levels of investment in the sector attributable to the overall resource constraints in these countries. In the low-income countries for which recent data are available, an average of only 5.6 per cent of central government expenditure went to housing, amenities, social security and welfare. 1/ Expenditure by international support and finance organizations is equally low. For example, only 1 per cent of the United Nations system's total grant-financed expenditures in 1988 went to human settlements, 2/ while in 1991, loans from the World Bank and the International Development Association (IDA) for urban development and water supply and sewerage amounted to 5.5 and 5.4 per cent, respectively, of their total lending. 3/ 
7.2. On the other hand, available information indicates that technical cooperation activities in the human settlement sector generate considerable public and private sector investment. For example, every dollar of UNDP technical cooperation expenditure on human settlements in 1988 generated a followup investment of $122, t he highest of all UNDP sectors of assistance. 4/ 
7.3. This is the foundation of the "enabling approach" advocated for the human settlement sector. External assistance will help to generate the internal resources needed to improve the living and working environments of all people by the year 2000 and beyond, including the growing number of unemployed - the no-income group. At the same time the environmental implications of urban development should be recognized and addressed in an integrated fashion by all countries, with high priority being given to the needs of the urban and rural poor, the unemployed and the growing number of people without any source of income. Human settlement objective 
7.4. The overall human settlement objective is to improve the social, economic and environmental quality of human settlements and the living and working environments of all people, in particular the urban and rural poor. Such improvement should be based on technical cooperation activities, partnerships among the public, private and community sectors and participation in the decision-making process by community groups and special interest groups such as women, indigenous people, the elderly and the disabled. These approaches should form the core principles of national settlement strategies. In developing these strategies, countries will need to set priorities among the eight programme areas in this chapter in accordance with their national plans and objectives, taking fully into account their social and cultural capabilities. Furthermore, countries should make appropriate provision to monitor the impact of their strategies on marginalized and disenfranchised groups, with particular reference to the needs of women. 
7.5. The programme areas included in this chapter are: 
a. Providing adequate shelter for all; 
b. Improving human settlement management; 
c. Promoting sustainable land-use planning and management; 
d. Promoting the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure: water, sanitation, drainage and solid-waste management; 
e. Promoting sustainable energy and transport systems in human settlements; 
f. Promoting human settlement planning and management in disaster-prone areas;
 g. Promoting sustainable construction industry activities; 
h. Promoting human resource development and capacity-building for human settlement development. PROGRAMME AREAS A. Providing adequate shelter for all Basis for action 
7.6. Access to safe and healthy shelter is essential to a person's physical, psychological, social and economic well-being and should be a fundamental part of national and international action. The right to adequate housing as a basic human right is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Despite this, it is estimated that at the present time, at least 1 billion people do not have access to safe and healthy shelter and that if appropriate action is not taken, this number will increase dramatically by the end of the century and beyond. 
7.7. A major global programme to address this problem is the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000, adopted by the General Assembly in December 1988 (resolution 43/181, annex). Despite its widespread endorsement, the Strategy needs a much greater level of political and financial support to enable it to reach its goal of facilitating adequate shelter for all by the end of the century and beyond.
 Objective 7.8. The objective is to achieve adequate shelter for rapidly growing populations and for the currently deprived urban and rural poor through an enabling approach to shelter development and improvement that is environmentally sound. 
3Activities 7.9. The following activities should be undertaken: 
a. As a first step towards the goal of providing adequate shelter for all, all countries should take immediate measures to provide shelter to their homeless poor, while the international community and financial institutions should undertake actions to support the efforts of the developing countries to provide shelter to the poor; 
b. All countries should adopt and/or strengthen national shelter strategies, with targets based, as appropriate, on the principles and recommendations contained in the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000. People should be protected by law against unfair eviction from their homes or land;
 c. All countries should, as appropriate, support the shelter efforts of the urban and rural poor, the unemployed and the no-income group by adopting and/or adapting existing codes and regulations, to facilitate their access to land, finance and low-cost building materials and by actively promoting the regularization and upgrading of informal settlements and urban slums as an expedient measure and pragmatic solution to the urban shelter deficit; 
d. All countries should, as appropriate, facilitate access of urban and rural poor to shelter by adopting and utilizing housing and finance schemes and new innovative mechanisms adapted to their circumstances; 
e. All countries should support and develop environmentally compatible shelter strategies at national, state/provincial and municipal levels through partnerships among the private, public and community sectors and with the support of community-based organizations;
 f. All countries, especially developing ones, should, as appropriate, formulate and implement programmes to reduce the impact of the phenomenon of rural to urban drift by improving rural living conditions; 
g. All countries, where appropriate, should develop and implement resettlement programmes that address the specific problems of displaced populations in their respective countries; 
h. All countries should, as appropriate, document and monitor the implementation of their national shelter strategies by using, inter alia, the monitoring guidelines adopted by the Commission on Human Settlements and the shelter performance indicators being produced jointly by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) and the World Bank;
 i. Bilateral and multilateral cooperation should be strengthened in order to support the implementation of the national shelter strategies of developing countries;
 j. Global progress reports covering national action and the support activities of international organizations and bilateral donors should be produced and disseminated on a biennial basis, as requested in the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000. Means of implementation (a) Financing and cost evaluation 
7.10. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about $75 billion, including about $10 billion from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-ofmagnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. 
(b) Scientific and technological means 
7.11. The requirements under this heading are addressed in each of the other programme areas included in the present chapter. 
(c) Human resource development and capacity-building 
7.12. Developed countries and funding agencies should provide specific assistance to developing countries in adopting an enabling approach to the provision of shelter for all, including the no-income group, and covering research institutions and training activities for government officials, professionals, communities and non-governmental organizations and by strengthening local capacity for the development of appropriate technologies. B. Improving human settlement management Basis for action 
7.13. By the turn of the century, the majority of the world's population will be living in cities. While urban settlements, particularly in developing countries, are showing many of the symptoms of the global environment and development crisis, they nevertheless generate 60 per cent of gross national product and, if properly managed, can develop the capacity to sustain their productivity, improve the living conditions of their residents and manage natural resources in a sustainable way. 
7.14. Some metropolitan areas extend over the boundaries of several political and/or administrative entities (counties and municipalities) even though they conform to a continuous urban system. In many cases this political heterogeneity hinders the implementation of comprehensive environmental management programmes. Objective 
7.15. The objective is to ensure sustainable management of all urban settlements, particularly in developing countries, in order to enhance their ability to improve the living conditions of residents, especially the marginalized and disenfranchised, thereby contributing to the achievement of national economic development goals. Activities (a) Improving urban management
 7.16. One existing framework for strengthening management is in the United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) Urban Management Programme (UMP), a concerted global effort to assist developing countries in addressing urban management issues. Its coverage should be extended to all interested countries during the period 1993- 2000. All countries should, as appropriate and in accordance with national plans, objectives and priorities and with the assistance of non-governmental organizations and representatives of local authorities, undertake the following activities at the national, state/provincial and local levels, with the assistance of relevant programmes and support agencies: 
a. Adopting and applying urban management guidelines in the areas of land management, urban environmental management, infrastructure management and municipal finance and administration;
 b. Accelerating efforts to reduce urban poverty through a number of actions, including: i. Generating employment for the urban poor, particularly women, through the provision, improvement and maintenance of urban infrastructure and services and the support of economic activities in the informal sector, such as repairs, recycling, services and small commerce; 
ii. Providing specific assistance to the poorest of the urban poor through, inter alia, the creation of social infrastructure in order to reduce hunger and homelessness, and the provision of adequate community services; 
iii. Encouraging the establishment of indigenous community-based organizations, private voluntary organizations and other forms of non-governmental entities that can contribute to the efforts to reduce poverty and improve the quality of life for low-income families; 
c. Adopting innovative city planning strategies to address environmental and social issues by: i. Reducing subsidies on, and recovering the full costs of, environmental and other services of high standard (e.g. water supply, sanitation, waste collection, roads, telecommunications) provided to higher income neighbourhoods; ii. Improving the level of infrastructure and service provision in poorer urban areas; 
d. Developing local strategies for improving the quality of life and the environment, integrating decisions on land use and land management, investing in the public and private sectors and mobilizing human and material resources, thereby promoting employment generation that is environmentally sound and protective of human health. (b) Strengthening urban data systems 
7.17. During the period 1993-2000 all countries should undertake, with the active participation of the business sector as appropriate, pilot projects in selected cities for the collection, analysis and subsequent dissemination of urban data, including environmental impact analysis, at the local, state/provincial, national and international levels and the establishment of city data management capabilities. 5/ United Nations organizations, such as Habitat, UNEP and UNDP, could provide technical advice and model data management systems. 
(c) Encouraging int ermediate city development
 7.18. In order to relieve pressure on large urban agglomerations of developing countries, policies and strategies should be implemented towards the development of intermediate cities that create employment opportunities for unemployed labour in the rural areas and support rural-based economic activities, although sound urban management is essential to ensure that urban sprawl does not expand resource degradation over an ever wider land area and increase pressures to convert open space and agricultural/buffer lands for development. 
7.19. Therefore all countries should, as appropriate, conduct reviews of urbanization processes and policies in order to assess the environmental impacts of growth and apply urban planning and management approaches specifically suited to the needs, resource capabilities and characteristics of their growing intermediate-sized cities. As appropriate, they should also concentrate on activities aimed at facilitating the transition from rural to urban lifestyles and settlement patterns and at promoting the development of small-scale economic activities, particularly the production of food, to support local income generation and the production of intermediate goods and services for rural hinterlands.
 7.20. All cities, particularly those characterized by severe sustainable development problems, should, in accordance with national laws, rules and regulations, develop and strengthen programmes aimed at addressing such problems and guiding their development along a sustainable path. Some international initiatives in support of such efforts, as in the Sustainable Cities Programme of Habitat and the Healthy Cities Programme of WHO, should be intensified. Additional initiatives involving the World Bank, the regional development banks and bilateral agencies, as well as other interested stakeholders, particularly international and national representatives of local authorities, should be strengthened and coordinated. Individual cities should, as appropriate: a. Institutionalize a participatory approach to sustainable urban development, based on a continuous dialogue between the actors involved in urban development (the public sector, private sector and communities), especially women and indigenous people; 
b. Improve the urban environment by promoting social organization and environmental awareness through the participation of local communities in the identification of public services needs, the provision of urban infrastructure, the enhancement of public amenities and the protection and/or rehabilitation of older buildings, historic precincts and other cultural artifacts. In addition, "green works" programmes should be activated to create self-sustaining human development activities and both formal and informal employment opportunities for low-income urban residents; 
c. Strengthen the capacities of their local governing bodies to deal more effectively with the broad range of developmental and environmental challenges associated with rapid and sound urban growth through comprehensive approaches to planning that recognize the individual needs of cities and are based on ecologically sound urban design practices; 
d. Participate in international "sustainable city networks" to exchange experiences and mobilize national and international technical and financial support; e. Promote the formulation of environmentally sound and culturally sensitive tourism programmes as a strategy for sustainable development of urban and rural settlements and as a way of decentralizing urban development and reducing discrepancies among regions;
 f. Establish mechanisms, with the assistance of relevant international agencies, to mobilize resources for local initiatives to improve environmental quality;
 g. Empower community groups, non-governmental organizations and individuals to assume the authority and responsibility for managing and enhancing their immediate environment through participatory tools, techniques and approaches embodied in the concept of environmental care.
 7.21. Cities of all countries should reinforce cooperation among themselves and cities of the developed countries, under the aegis of non-governmental organizations active in this field, such as the International Union of Local Authorities (IULA), the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) and the World Federation of Twin Cities. Means of implementation (a) Financing and cost evaluation 
7.22. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about $100 billion, including about $15 billion from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-ofmagnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. 
(b) Human resource development and capacity-building 
7.23. Developing countries should, with appropriate international assistance, consider focusing on training and developing a cadre of urban managers, technicians, administrators and other relevant stakeholders who can successfully manage environmentally sound urban development and growth and are equipped with the skills necessary to analyse and adapt the innovative experiences of other cities. For this purpose, the full range of training methods - from formal education to the use of the mass media - should be utilized, as well as the "learning by doing" option.
 7.24. Developing countries should also encourage technological training and research through joint efforts by donors, non-governmental organizations and private business in such areas as the reduction of waste, water quality, saving of energy, safe production of chemicals and less polluting transportation. 
7.25. Capacity-building activities carried out by all countries, assisted as suggested above, should go beyond the training of individuals and functional groups to include institutional arrangements, administrative routines, inter-agency linkages, information flows and consultative processes. 
7.26. In addition, international efforts, such as the Urban Management Programme, in cooperation with multilateral and bilateral agencies, should continue to assist the developing countries in their efforts to develop a participatory structure by mobilizing the human resources of the private sector, nongovernmental organizations and the poor, particularly women and the disadvantaged.
 C. Promoting sustainable land-use planning and management Basis for action 
7.27. Access to land resources is an essential component of sustainable low-impact lifestyles. Land resources are the basis for (human) living systems and provide soil, energy, water and the opportunity for all human activity. In rapidly growing urban areas, access to land is rendered increasingly difficult by the conflicting demands of industry, housing, commerce, agriculture, land tenure structures and the need for open spaces. Furthermore, the rising costs of urban land prevent the poor from gaining access to suitable land. In rural areas, unsustainable practices, such as the exploitation of marginal lands and the encroachment on forests and ecologically fragile areas by commercial interests and landless rural populations, result in environmental degradation, as well as in diminishing returns for impoverished rural settlers. Objective 
7.28. The objective is to provide for the land requirements of human settlement development through environmentally sound physical planning and land use so as to ensure access to land to all households and, where appropriate, the encouragement of communally and collectively owned and managed land. 6/ Particular attention should be paid to the needs of women and indigenous people for economic and cultural reasons. Activi ties 7
.29. All countries should consider, as appropriate, undertaking a comprehensive national inventory of their land resources in order to establish a land information system in which land resources will be classified according to their most appropriate uses and environmentally fragile or disaster-prone areas will be identified for special protection measures. 
7.30. Subsequently, all countries should consider developing national land-resource management plans to guide land-resource development and utilization and, to that end, should:
 a. Establish, as appropriate, national legislation to guide the implementation of public policies for environmentally sound urban development, land utilization, housing and for the improved management of urban expansion;
 b. Create, where appropriate, efficient and accessible land markets that meet community development needs by, inter alia, improving land registry systems and streamlining procedures in land transactions;
 c. Develop fiscal incentives and land-use control measures, including land-use planning solutions for a more rational and environmentally sound use of limited land resources;
 d. Encourage partnerships among the public, private and community sectors in managing land resources for human settlements development;
 e. Strengthen community-based land-resource protection practices in existing urban and rural settlements; 
f. Establish appropriate forms of land tenure that provide security of tenure for all landusers, especially indigenous people, women, local communities, the low-income urban dwellers and the rural poor; 
g. Accelerate efforts to promote access to land by the urban and rural poor, including credit schemes for the purchase of land and for building/acquiring or improving safe and healthy shelter and infrastructure services;
 h. Develop and support the implementation of improved land-management practices that deal comprehensively with potentially competing land requirements for agriculture, industry, transport, urban development, green spaces, preserves and other vital needs; i. Promote understanding among policy makers of the adverse consequences of unplanned settlements in environmentally vulnerable areas and of the appropriate national and local land-use and settlements policies required for this purpose. 
7.31. At the international level, global coordination of land-resource management activities should be strengthened by the various bilateral and multilateral agencies and programmes, such as UNDP, FAO, the World Bank, the regional development banks, other interested organizations and the UNDP/World Bank/Habitat Urban Management Programme, and action should be taken to promote the transfer of applicable experience on sustainable land-management practices to and among developing countries. Means of implementation (a) Financing and cost evaluation 7.32. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about $3 billion, including about $300 million from the international community on grant or concessional t erms. These are indicative and order-ofmagnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. (b) Scientific and technological means 7.33. All countries, particularly developing countries, alone or in regional or subregional groupings, should be given access to modern techniques of land-resource management, such as geographical information systems, satellite photography/imagery and other remote-sensing technologies. (c) Human resource development and capacity-building 7.34. Environmentally focused training activities in sustainable land-resources planning and management should be undertaken in all countries, with developing countries being given assistance through international support and funding agencies in order to: a. Strengthen the capacity of national, state/provincial and local educational research and training institutions to provide formal training of land-management technicians and professionals; b. Facilitate the organizational review of government ministries and agencies responsible for land questions, in order to devise more efficient mechanisms of land-resource management, and carry out periodic in-service refresher courses for the managers and staff of such ministries and agencies in order to familiarize them with up-to-date landresource-management technologies; c. Where appropriate, provide such agencies with modern equipment, such as computer hardware and software and survey equipment; d. Strengthen existing programmes and promote an international and interregional exchange of information and experience in land management through the establishment of professional associations in land-management sciences and related activities, such as workshops and seminars. D. Promoting the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure: water, sanitation, drainage and solid-waste management 
Basis for action 
7.35. The sustainability of urban development is defined by many parameters relating to the availability of water supplies, air quality and the provision of environmental infrastructure for sanitation and waste management. As a result of the density of users, urbanization, if properly managed, offers unique opportunities for the supply of sustainable environmental infrastructure through adequate pricing policies, educational programmes and equitable access mechanisms that are economically and environmentally sound. In most developing countries, however, the inadequacy and lack of environmental infrastructure is responsible for widespread ill-health and a large number of preventable deaths each year. In those countries conditions are set to worsen due to growing needs that exceed the capacity of Governments to respond adequately. 
7.36. An integrated approach to the provision of environmentally sound infrastructure in human settlements, in particular for the urban and rural poor, is an investment in sustainable development that can improve the quality of life, increase productivity, improve health and reduce the burden of investments in curative medicine and poverty alleviation.
 7.37. Most of the activities whose management would be improved by an integrated approach, are covered in Agenda 21 as follows: chapter 6 (Protecting and promoting human health conditions), chapters 9 (Protecting the atmosphere), 18 (Protecting the quality and supply of freshwater resources) and 21 (Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues). 
Objective 7.38. The objective is to ensure the provision of adequate environmental infrastructure facilities in all settlements by the year 2025. The achievement of this objective would require that all developing countries incorporate in their national strategies programmes to build the necessary technical, financial and human resource capacity aimed at ensuring better integration of infrastructure and environmental planning by the year 2000. Activities 
7.39. All countries should assess the environmental suitability of infrastructure in human settlements, develop national goals for sustainable management of waste, and implement environmentally sound technology to ensure that the environment, human health and quality of life are protected. Settlement infrastructure and environmental programmes designed to promote an integrated human settlements approach to the planning, development, maintenance and management of environmental infrastructure (water supply, sanitation, drainage, solid-waste management) should be strengthened with the assistance of bilateral and multilateral agencies. Coordination among these agencies and with collaboration from international and national representatives of local authorities, the private sector and community groups should also be strengthened. The activities of all agencies engaged in providing environmental infrastructure should, where possible, reflect an ecosystem or metropolitan area approach to settlements and should include monitoring, applied research, capacity-building, transfer of appropriate technology and technical cooperation among the range of programme activities. 
7.40. Developing countries should be assisted at the national and local levels in adopting an integrated approach to the provision of water supply, energy, sanitation, drainage and solid-waste management, and external funding agencies should ensure that this approach is applied in particular to environmental infrastructure improvement in informal settlements based on regulations and standards that take into account the living conditions and resources of the communities to be served. 
7.41. All countries should, as appropriate, adopt the following principles for the provision of environmental infrastructure: 
a. Adopt policies that minimize if not altogether avoid environmental damage, whenever possible; 
b. Ensure that relevant decisions are preceded by environmental impact assessments and also take into account the costs of any ecological consequences;
 c. Promote development in accordance with indigenous practices and adopt technologies appropriate to local conditions; d. Promote policies aimed at recovering the actual cost of infrastructure services, while at the same time recognizing the need to find suitable approaches (including subsidies) to extend basic services to all households; e. Seek joint solutions to environmental problems that affect several localities. 
7.42. The dissemination of information from existing programmes should be facilitated and encouraged among interested countries and local institutions. Means of implementation (a) Financing and cost evaluation 
7.43. The Conference secretariat has estimated most of the costs of implementing the activities of this programme in other chapters. The secretariat estimates the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of technical assistance from the international community grant or concessional terms to be about $50 million. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. (b) Scientific and technological means 
7.44. Scientific and technological means within the existing programmes should be coordinated wherever possible and should: a. Accelerate research in the area of integrated policies of environmental infrastructure programmes and projects based on cost/benefit analysis and overall environmental impact; b. Promote methods of assessing "effective demand", utilizing environment and development data as criteria for selecting technology. (c) Human resource development and capacity-building 7.
45. With the assistance and support of funding agencies, all countries should, as appropriate, undertake training and popular participation programmes aimed at: 
a. Raising awareness of the means, approaches and benefits of the provision of environmental infrastructure facilities, especially among indigenous people, women, lowincome groups and the poor; 
b. Developing a cadre of professionals with adequate skills in integrated infrastructural service planning and maintenance of resource-efficient, environmentally sound and socially acceptable systems; 
c. Strengthening the institutional capacity of local authorities and administrators in the integrated provision of adequate infrastructure services in partnership with local communities and the private sector; 
d. Adopting appropriate legal and regulatory instruments, including cross-subsidy arrangements, to extend the benefits of adequate and affordable environmental infrastructure to unserved population groups, especially the poor.
 E. Promoting sustainable energy and transport systems in human settlements Basis for action
 7.46. Most of the commercial and non-commercial energy produced today is used in and for human settlements, and a substantial percentage of it is used by the household sector. Developing countries are at present faced with the need to increase their energy production to accelerate development and raise the living standards of their populations, while at the same time reducing energy production costs and energy -related pollution. Increasing the efficiency of energy use to reduce its polluting effects and to promote the use of renewable energies must be a priority in any action taken to protect the urban environment. 
7.47. Developed countries, as the largest consumers of energy, are faced with the need for energy planning and management, promoting renewable and alternate sources of energy, and evaluating the life-cycle costs of current systems and practices as a result of which many metropolitan areas are suffering from pervasive air quality problems related to ozone, particulate matters and carbon monoxide. The causes have much to do with technological inadequacies and with an increasing fuel consumption generated by inefficiencies, high demographic and industrial concentrations and a rapid expansion in the number of motor vehicles. 
7.48. Transport accounts for about 30 per cent of commercial energy consumption and for about 60 per cent of total global consumption of liquid petroleum. In developing countries, rapid motorization and insufficient investments in urban-transport planning, traffic management and infrastructure, are creating increasing problems in terms of accidents and injury, health, noise, congestion and loss of productivity similar to those occurring in many developed countries. All of these problems have a severe impact on urban populations, particularly the low-income and no-income groups. Objectives 
7.49. The objectives are to extend the provision of more energy-efficient technology and alternative/renewable energy for human settlements and to reduce negative impacts of energy production and use on human health and on the environment. Activities
 7.50. The principal activities relevant to this programme area are included in chapter 9 (Protection of the atmosphere), programme area B, subprogramme 1 (Energy development, efficiency and consumption) and subprogramme 2 (Transportation). 
7.51. A comprehensive approach to human settlements development should include the promotion of sustainable energy development in all countries, as follows: 
a. Developing countries, in particular, should:
 i. Formulate national action programmes to promote and support reafforestation and national forest regeneration with a view to achieving sustained provision of the biomass energy needs of the low-income groups in urban areas and the rural poor, in particular women and children; 
ii. Formulate national action programmes to promote integrated development of energy-saving and renewable energy technologies, particularly for the use of solar, hydro, wind and biomass sources; 
iii. Promote wide dissemination and commercialization of renewable energy technologies through suitable measures, inter alia, fiscal and technology transfer mechanisms; 
iv. Carry out information and training programmes directed at manufacturers and users in order to promote energy -saving techniques and energy -efficient appliances;
 b. International organizations and bilateral donors should:
 i. Support developing countries in implementing national energy programmes in order to achieve widespread use of energy -saving and renewable energy technologies, particularly the use of solar, wind, biomass and hydro sources;
 ii. Provide access to research and development results to increase energy-use efficiency levels in human settlements. 
7.52. Promoting efficient and environmentally sound urban transport systems in all countries should be a comprehensive approach to urban-transport planning and management. To this end, all countries should: a. Integrate land-use and transportation planning to encourage development patterns that reduce transport demand; 
b. Adopt urban-transport programmes favouring high-occupancy public transport in countries, as appropriate; 
c. Encourage non-motorized modes of transport by providing safe cycleways and footways in urban and suburban centres in countries, as appropriate; 
d. Devote particular attention to effective traffic management, efficient operation of public transport and maintenance of transport infrastructure; e. Promote the exchange of information among countries and representatives of local and metropolitan areas; 
f. Re-evaluate the present consumption and production patterns in order to reduce the use of energy and national resources. Means of implementation (a) Financing and cost evaluation 
7.53. The Conference secretariat has estimated the costs of implementing the activities of this programme in chapter 9 (Protection of the atmosphere). (b) Human resource development and capacity-building 
7.54. In order to enhance the skills of energy service and transport professionals and institutions, all countries should, as appropriate:
 a. Provide on-the-job and other training of government officials, planners, traffic engineers and managers involved in the energy -service and transport section;
 b. Raise public awareness of the environmental impacts of transport and travel behaviour through mass media campaigns and support for non-governmental and community initiatives promoting the use of non-motorized transport, shared driving and improved traffic safety measures; 
c. Strengthen regional, national, state/provincial, and private sector institutions that provide education and training on energy service and urban transport planning and management.
 F. Promoting human settlement planning and management in disaster-prone areas Basis for action 
7.55. Natural disasters cause loss of life, disruption of economic activities and urban productivity, particularly for highly susceptible low-income groups, and environmental damage, such as loss of fertile agricultural land and contamination of water resources, and can lead to major resettlement of populations. Over the past two decades, they are estimated to have caused some 3 million deaths and affected 800 million people. Global economic losses have been estimated by the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator to be in the range of $30-50 billion per year.
 7.56. The General Assembly, in resolution 44/236, proclaimed the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. The goals of the Decade 7/ bear relevance to the objectives of the present programme area. 
7.57. In addition, there is an urgent need to address the prevention and reduction of man-made disasters and/or disasters caused by, inter alia, industries, unsafe nuclear power generation and toxic wastes (see chapter 6 of Agenda 21). 
Objective 7.58. The objective is to enable all countries, in particular those that are disaster-prone, to mitigate the negative impact of natural and man-made disasters on human settlements, national economies and the environment. 
Activities 7.59. Three distinct areas of activity are foreseen under this programme area, namely, the development of a "culture of safety", pre-disaster planning and post-disaster reconstruction. (a) Developing a culture of safety 
7.60. To promote a "culture of safety" in all countries, especially those that are disaster-prone, the following activities should be carried out: 
a. Completing national and local studies on the nature and occurrence of natural disasters, their impact on people and economic activities, the effects of inadequate construction and land use in hazard-prone areas, and the social and economic advantages of adequate pre-disaster planning;
 b. Implementing nationwide and local awareness campaigns through all available media, translating the above knowledge into information easily comprehensible to the general public and to the populations directly exposed to hazards; 
c. Strengthening, and/or developing global, regional, national and local early warning systems to alert populations to impending disasters; 
d. Identifying industrially based environmental disaster areas at the national and international levels and implementing strategies aimed at the rehabilitation of these areas through, inter alia: 
i. Restructuring of the economic activities and promoting new job opportunities in environmentally sound sectors; 
ii. Promoting close collaboration between governmental and local authorities, local communities and non-governmental organizations and private business;
 iii. Developing and enforcing strict environmental control standards. 
(b) Developing pre-disaster planning
7.61. Pre-disaster planning should form an integral part of human settlement planning in all countries. The following should be included: 
a. Undertaking complete multi-hazard research into risk and vulnerability of human settlements and settlement infrastructure, including water and sewerage, communication and transportation networks, as one type of risk reduction may increase vulnerability to another (e.g., an earthquake-resistant house made of wood will be more vulnerable to wind storms); 
b. Developing methodologies for determining risk and vulnerability within specific human settlements and incorporating risk and vulnerability reduction into the human settlement planning and management process;
 c. Redirecting inappropriate new development and human settlements to areas not prone to hazards; 
d. Preparing guidelines on location, design and operation of potentially hazardous industries and activities; 
e. Developing tools (legal, economic etc.) to encourage disaster-sensitive development, including means of ensuring that limitations on development options are not punitive to owners, or incorporate alternative means of compensation;
 f. Further developing and disseminating information on disaster-resistant building materials and construction technologies for buildings and public works in general; 
g. Developing training programmes for contractors and builders on disaster-resistant construction methods. Some programmes should be directed particularly to small enterprises, which build the great majority of housing and other small buildings in the developing countries, as well as to the rural populations, which build their own houses; 
h. Developing training programmes for emergency site managers, non-governmental organizations and community groups which cover all aspects of disaster mitigation, including urban search and rescue, emergency communications, early warning techniques, and pre-disaster planning;
 i. Developing procedures and practices to enable local communities to receive information about hazardous installations or situations in these areas, and facilitate their participation in early warning and disaster abatement and response procedures and plans;
 j. Preparing action plans for the reconstruction of settlements, especially the reconstruction of community life-lines. 
(c) Initiating post-disaster reconstruction and rehabilitation planning 
7.62. The international community, as a major partner in post-reconstruction and rehabilitation, should ensure that the countries involved derive the greatest benefits from the funds allocated by undertaking the following activities: 
a. Carrying out research on past experiences on the social and economic aspects of post-disaster reconstruction and adopting effective strategies and guidelines for postdisaster reconstruction, with particular focus on development-focused strategies in the allocation of scarce reconstruction resources, and on the opportunities that postdisaster reconstruction provides to introduce sustainable settlement patterns; 
b. Preparing and disseminating international guidelines for adaptation to national and local needs; 
c. Supporting efforts of national Governments to initiate contingency planning, with participation of affected communities, for post-disaster reconstruction and rehabilitation. Means of implementation (a) Financing and cost evaluation
 7.63. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about $50 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. 
(b) Scientific and technological means 
7.64. Scientists and engineers specializing in this field in both developing and developed countries should collaborate with urban and regional planners in order to provide the basic knowledge and means to mitigate losses owing to disasters as well as environmentally inappropriate development. (c) Human resource development and capacity-building 
7.65. Developing countries should conduct training programmes on disaster-resistant construction methods for contractors and builders, who build the majority of housing in the developing countries. This should focus on the small business enterprises, which build the majority of housing in the developing countries.
 7.66. Training programmes should be extended to government officials and planners and community and non-governmental organizations to cover all aspects of disaster mitigation, such as early warning techniques, pre-disaster planning and construction, post-disaster construction and rehabilitation. 
G. Promoting sustainable construction industry activities Basis for action 
7.67. The activities of the construction sector are vital to the achievement of the national socioeconomic development goals of providing shelter, infrastructure and employment. However, they can be a major source of environmental damage through depletion of the natural resource base, degradation of fragile eco-zones, chemical pollution and the use of building materials harmful to human health. Objectives 
7.68. The objectives are, first, to adopt policies and technologies and to exchange information on them in order to enable the construction sector to meet human settlement development goals, while avoiding harmful side-effects on human health and on the biosphere, and, second, to enhance the employmentgeneration capacity of the construction sector. Governments should work in close collaboration with the private sector in achieving these objectives. Activities 
7.69. All countries should, as appropriate and in accordance with national plans, objectives and priorities: 
a. Establish and strengthen indigenous building materials industry, based, as much as possible, on inputs of locally available natural resources; 
b. Formulate programmes to enhance the utilization of local materials by the construction sector by expanding technical support and incentive schemes for increasing the capabilities and economic viability of small-scale and informal operatives which make use of these materials and traditional construction techniques; 
c. Adopt standards and other regulatory measures which promote the increased use of energy -efficient designs and technologies and sustainable utilization of natural resources in an economically and environmentally appropriate way;
 d. Formulate appropriate land-use policies and introduce planning regulations specially aimed at the protection of eco-sensitive zones against physical disruption by construction and construction-related activities;
 e. Promote the use of labour-intensive construction and maintenance technologies which generate employment in the construction sector for the underemployed labour force found in most large cities, while at the same time promoting the development of skills in the construction sector; 
f. Develop policies and practices to reach the informal sector and self-help housing builders by adopting measures to increase the affordability of building materials on the part of the urban and rural poor, through, inter alia, credit schemes and bulk procurement of building materials for sale to small-scale builders and communities. 
7.70. All countries should: 
a. Promote the free exchange of information on the entire range of environmental and health aspects of construction, including the development and dissemination of databases on the adverse environmental effects of building materials through the collaborative efforts of the private and public sectors; 
b. Promote the development and dissemination of databases on the adverse environmental and health effects of building materials and introduce legislation and financial incentives to promote recycling of energy -intensive materials in the construction industry and conservation of waste energy in building-materials production methods; c. Promote the use of economic instruments, such as product charges, to discourage the use of construction materials and products that create pollution during their life cycle; d. Promote information exchange and appropriate technology transfer among all countries, with particular attention to developing countries, for resource management in construction, particularly for non-renewable resources; e. Promote research in construction industries and related activities, and establish and strengthen institutions in this sector. 
Means of implementation (a) Financing and cost evaluation 
7.71. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about $40 billion, including about $4 billion from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-ofmagnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. 
(b) Human resource development and capacity-building
 7.72. Developing countries should be assisted by international support and funding agencies in upgrading the technical and managerial capacities of the small entrepreneur and the vocational skills of operatives and supervisors in the building materials industry, using a variety of training methods. These countries should also be assisted in developing programmes to encourage the use of non-waste and clean technologies through appropriate transfer of technology.
 7.73. General education programmes should be developed in all countries, as appropriate, to increase builder awareness of available sustainable technologies. 
7.74. Local authorities are called upon to play a pioneering role in promoting the increased use of environmentally sound building materials and construction technologies, e.g., by pursuing an innovative procurement policy. 
H. Promoting human resource development and capacity-building for human settlements development Basis for action
 7.75. Most countries, in addition to shortcomings in the availability of specialized expertise in the areas of housing, settlement management, land management, infrastructure, construction, energy, transport, and pre-disaster planning and reconstruction, face three cross-sectoral human resource development and capacity-building shortfalls. First is the absence of an enabling policy environment capable of integrating the resources and activities of the public sector, the private sector and the community, or social sector; second is the weakness of specialized training and research institutions; and third is the insufficient capacity for technical training and assistance for low-income communities, both urban and rural. Objective
 7.76. The objective is to improve human resource development and capacity-building in all countries by enhancing the personal and institutional capacity of all actors, particularly indigenous people and women, involved in human settlement development. In this regard, account should be taken of traditional cultural practices of indigenous people and their relationship to the environment.
 Activities 7.77. Specific human resource development and capacity-building activities have been built into each of the programme areas of this chapter. More generally, however, additional steps should be taken to reinforce those activities. In order to do so, all countries, as appropriate, should take the following action:
 a. Strengthening the development of human resources and of capacities of public sector institutions through technical assistance and international cooperation so as to achieve by the year 2000 substantial improvement in the efficiency of governmental activities; 
b. Creating an enabling policy environment supportive of the partnership between the public, private and community sectors; 
c. Providing enhanced training and technical assistance to institutions providing training for technicians, professionals and administrators, and appointed, elected and professional members of local governments and strengthening their capacity to address priority training needs, particularly in regard to social, economic and environmental aspects of human settlements development; 
d. Providing direct assistance for human settlement development at the community level, inter alia, by: i. Strengthening and promoting programmes for social mobilization and raising awareness of the potential of women and youth in human settlements activities; ii. Facilitating coordination of the activities of women, youth, community groups and non-governmental organizations in human settlements development; iii. Promoting research on women's programmes and other groups, and evaluating progress made with a view to identifying bottlenecks and needed assistance; e. Promoting the inclusion of integrated environmental management into general local government activities. 
7.78. Both international organizations and non-governmental organizations should support the above activities by, inter alia, strengthening subregional training institutions, providing updated training materials and disseminating the results of successful human resource and capacity-building activities, programmes and projects. Means of implementation (a) Financing and cost evaluation 
7.79. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of this programme to be about $65 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. (b) Scientific and technological means 
7.80. Both formal training and non-formal types of human resource development and capacity-building programmes should be combined, and use should be made of user-oriented training methods, up -todate training materials and modern audio-visual communication systems.
21.31. Standard setting and monitoring are two key elements essential for gaining control over wasterelated pollution. The following specific activities are indicative of the kind of supportive actions that could be taken by international bodies such as the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Health Organization:
15.2. Our planet's essential goods and services depend on the variety and variability of genes, species, populations and ecosystems. Biological resources feed and clothe us and provide housing, medicines and spiritual nourishment. The natural ecosystems of forests, savannahs, pastures and rangelands, deserts, tundras, rivers, lakes and seas contain most of the Earth's biodiversity. Farmers' fields and gardens are also of great importance as repositories, while gene banks, botanical gardens, zoos and other germplasm repositories make a small but significant contribution. The current decline in biodiversity is largely the result of human activity and represents a serious threat to human development.
17.6. Each coastal State should consider establishing, or where necessary strengthening, appropriate coordinating mechanisms (such as a high-level policy planning body) for integrated management and sustainable development of coastal and marine areas and their resources, at both the local and national levels. Such mechanisms should include consultation, as appropriate, with the academic and private sectors, non-governmental organizations, local communities, resource user groups, and indigenous people. Such national coordinating mechanisms could provide, inter alia, for: 
a. Preparation and implementation of land and water use and siting policies; 
b. Implementation of integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levels; 
c. Preparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas, including eroded zones, physical processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for management; 
d. Prior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major projects, including the systematic incorporation of results in decision-making; 
e. Contingency plans for human induced and natural disasters, including likely effects of potential climate change and sealevel rise, as well as contingency plans for degradation and pollution of anthropogenic origin, including spills of oil and other materials; 
f. Improvement of coastal human settlements, especially in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluents;
24.5. States parties to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women should review and suggest amendments to it by the year 2000, with a view to strengthening those elements of the Convention related to environment and development, giving special attention to the issue of access and entitlements to natural resources, technology, creative banking facilities and lowcost housing, and the control of pollution and toxicity in the home and workplace. States parties should also clarify the extent of the Convention's scope with respect to the issues of environment and development and request the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to develop guidelines regarding the nature of reporting such issues, required under particular articles of the Convention.
f. Establish procedures to incorporate children's concerns into all relevant policies and strategies for environment and development at the local, regional and national levels, including those concerning allocation of and entitlement to natural resources, housing and recreation needs, and control of pollution and toxicity in both rural and urban areas.
****1995 WORLD SUMMIT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Housing
19. Poverty has various manifestations, including lack of income and productive resources sufficient to ensure sustainable livelihoods; hunger and malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of access to education and other basic services; increased morbidity and mortality from illness; homelessness and inadequate housing; unsafe environments; and social discrimination and exclusion. It is also characterized by a lack of participation in decision-making and in civil, social and cultural life. It occurs in all countries: as mass poverty in many developing countries, pockets of poverty amid wealth in developed countries, loss of livelihoods as a result of economic recession, sudden poverty as a result of disaster or conflict, the poverty of low-wage workers, and the utter destitution of people who fall outside family support systems, social institutions and safety nets. Women bear a disproportionate burden of poverty, and children growing up in poverty are often permanently disadvantaged. Older people, people with disabilities, indigenous people, refugees and internally displaced persons are also particularly vulnerable to poverty. Furthermore, poverty in its various forms represents a barrier to communication and access to services, as well as a major health risk, and people living in poverty are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of disasters and conflicts. Absolute poverty is a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to social services.
34. Urban poverty should further be addressed by:
(c) Promoting public and private investments to improve for the deprived the overall human environment and infrastructure, in particular housing, water and sanitation, and public transportation;
(e) Promoting social and other essential services, including, where necessary, assistance for people to move to areas that offer better employment opportunities, housing, education, health and other social services;
C. Meeting the basic human needs of all 35. Governments, in partnership with all other development actors, in particular with people living in poverty and their organizations, should cooperate to meet the basic human needs of all, including people living in poverty and vulnerable groups, by: -49- 
(a) Ensuring universal access to basic social services, with particular efforts to facilitate access by people living in poverty and vulnerable groups;
 (b) Creating public awareness that the satisfaction of basic human needs is an essential element of poverty reduction; these needs are closely interrelated and comprise nutrition, health, water and sanitation, education, employment, housing and participation in cultural and social life;
 
39 (h) Improving the condition of the single parent in society and ensuring that single-parent families and female-headed or female-maintained households receive the social support they need, including support for adequate housing and child care.
59. Programmes for entry or re-entry into the labour market aimed at vulnerable and disadvantaged groups can effectively combat the causes of exclusion on the labour market by: (a) Complementing literacy actions, general education or vocational training by work experience that may include support and instruction on business management and training so as to give better knowledge of the value of entrepreneurship and other private-sector contributions to society; (b) Increasing the level of skills, and also improving the ability to get a job through improvements in housing, health and family life.
out in relevant international instruments and declarations, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 6/ the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 7/ and the Declaration on the Right to Development, 8/ including those relating to education, food, shelter, employment, health and information, particularly in order to assist people living in poverty;
commitment 2
(c) Focus our efforts and policies to address the root causes of poverty and to provide for the basic needs of all. These efforts should include the elimination of hunger and malnutrition; the provision of food security, education, employment and livelihood, primary health-care services including reproductive health care, safe drinking water and sanitation, and adequate shelter; and participation in social and cultural life. Special priority will be given to the needs and rights of women and children, who often bear the greatest burden of poverty;
19. Poverty has various manifestations, including lack of income and productive resources sufficient to ensure sustainable livelihoods; hunger and malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of access to education and other basic services; increased morbidity and mortality from illness; homelessness and inadequate housing; unsafe environments; and social discrimination and exclusion. It is also characterized by a lack of participation in decision-making and in civil, social and cultural life. It occurs in all countries: as mass poverty in many developing countries, pockets of poverty amid wealth in developed countries, loss of livelihoods as a result of economic recession, sudden poverty as a result of disaster or conflict, the poverty of low-wage workers, and the utter destitution of people who fall outside family support systems, social institutions and safety nets. Women bear a disproportionate burden of poverty, and children growing up in poverty are often permanently disadvantaged. Older people, people with disabilities, indigenous people, refugees and internally displaced persons are also particularly vulnerable to poverty. Furthermore, poverty in its various forms represents a barrier to communication and access to services, as well as a major health risk, and people living in poverty are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of disasters and conflicts. Absolute poverty is a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to social services.
21. Urban poverty is rapidly increasing in pace with overall urbanization. It is a growing phenomenon in all countries and regions, and often poses special problems, such as overcrowding, contaminated water and bad sanitation, unsafe shelter, crime and additional social problems. An increasing number of low-income urban households are female-maintained.
34. Urban poverty should further be addressed by: (a) Promoting and strengthening micro-enterprises, new small businesses, cooperative enterprises, and expanded market and other employment opportunities and, where appropriate, facilitating the transition from the informal to the formal sector; (b) Promoting sustainable livelihoods for people living in urban poverty through the provision or expansion of access to training, education and other employment assistance services, in particular for women, youth, the unemployed and the underemployed; (c) Promoting public and private investments to improve for the deprived the overall human environment and infrastructure, in particular housing, water and sanitation, and public transportation; (d) Ensuring that strategies for shelter give special attention to women and children, bearing in mind the perspectives of women in the development of such strategies;
36
(m) Improving the availability of affordable and adequate shelter for all, in accordance with the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000;
39. Particular efforts should be made to protect children and youth by:
(e) Improving the situation and protecting the rights of children in especially difficult circumstances, including children in areas of armed conflict, children who lack adequate family support, urban street children, abandoned children, children with disabilities, children addicted to narcotic drugs, children affected by war or natural and man-made disasters, unaccompanied minor refugee children, working children, and children who are economically and sexually exploited or abused, including the victims of the sale and trafficking of children; ensuring that they have access to food, shelter, education and health care and are protected from abuse and violence, as well as provided with the necessary social and psychological assistance for their healthy reintegration into society and for family reunification consistent with the Conventi
Infrastructure
Commitment 3 We commit ourselves to promoting the goal of full employment as a basic priority of our economic and social policies, and to enabling all men and women to attain secure and sustainable livelihoods through freely chosen productive employment and work.
(d) Improve access to land, credit, information, infrastructure and other productive resources for small and micro-enterprises, including those in the informal sector, with particular emphasis on the disadvantaged sectors of society;
A. Formulation of integrated strategies 26. Governments should give greater focus to public efforts to eradicate absolute poverty and to reduce overall poverty substantially by:
(b) Redesigning public investment policies that relate to infrastructure development, the management of natural resources and human resource development to benefit people living in poverty and to promote their compatibility with the long-term improvement of livelihoods;
B. Improved access to productive resources and infrastructure 31. The opportunities for income generation, diversification of activities and increase of productivity in low-income and poor communities should be enhanced by: 
(a) Improving the availability and accessibility of transportation, communication, power and energy services at the local or community level, in particular for isolated, remote and marginalized communities; -46- 
(b) Ensuring that investments in infrastructure support sustainable development at the local or community levels; 
(c) Emphasizing the need for developing countries that are heavily dependent on primary commodities to continue to promote a domestic policy and an institutional environment that encourage diversification and enhance competitiveness;
 (d) Supporting the importance of commodity diversification as a means to increase the export revenues of developing countries and to improve their competitiveness in the face of the persistent instability in the price of some primary commodities and the general deterioration in the terms of trade; 
(e) Promoting, including by micro-enterprises, rural non-farm production and service activities, such as agro-processing, sales and services of agricultural equipment and inputs, irrigation, credit services and other income-generating activities through, inter alia, supportive laws and administrative measures, credit policies, and technical and administrative training;
 (f) Strengthening and improving financial and technical assistance for community-based development and self-help programmes, and strengthening cooperation among Governments, community organizations, cooperatives, formal and informal banking institutions, private enterprises and international agencies, with the aim of mobilizing local savings, promoting the creation of local financial networks, and increasing the availability of credit and market information to small entrepreneurs, small farmers and other low-income self-employed workers, with particular efforts to ensure the availability of such services to women; 
(g) Strengthening organizations of small farmers, landless tenants and labourers, other small producers, fisherfolk, community-based and workers’ cooperatives, especially those run by women, in order to, inter alia, improve market access and increase productivity, provide inputs and technical advice, promote cooperation in production and marketing operations, and strengthen participation in the planning and implementation of rural development;
 (h) Promoting national and international assistance in providing economically viable alternatives for social groups, especially farmers involved in the cultivation and processing of crops used for the illegal drug trade; 
(i) Improving the competitiveness of natural products with environmental advantages and strengthening the impact that this could have on promoting sustainable consumption and production patterns, and strengthening and improving financial and technical assistance to the developing countries for research and development of such products;
 (j) Promoting comprehensive rural development, including by land reform, land improvement and economic diversification;
 (k) Improving economic opportunities for rural women through the elimination of legal, social, cultural and practical obstacles to women’s participation in economic activities and ensuring that women have equal access to productive resources.
31 (b) Ensuring that investments in infrastructure support sustainable development at the local or community levels;
34. Urban poverty should further be addressed by: 
(a) Promoting and strengthening micro-enterprises, new small businesses, cooperative enterprises, and expanded market and other employment opportunities and, where appropriate, facilitating the transition from the informal to the formal sector;
 (b) Promoting sustainable livelihoods for people living in urban poverty through the provision or expansion of access to training, education and other employment assistance services, in particular for women, youth, the unemployed and the underemployed; 
(c) Promoting public and private investments to improve for the deprived the overall human environment and infrastructure, in particular housing, water and sanitation, and public transportation;
41
(e) In disaster-prone areas and in cooperation with community-based organizations, developing drought and flood mitigation agronomic practices and resource conservation and infrastructure-building programmes, using food-for-work, where appropriate, and incorporating traditional disaster-response practices that can be rapidly expanded into emergency employment and rebuilding programmes in disaster situations;
50. Promoting patterns of economic growth that maximize employment creation requires: (a) Encouraging, as appropriate, labour-intensive investments in economic and social infrastructure that use local resources and create, maintain and rehabilitate community assets in both rural and urban areas;
 
51(f) Assisting informal sectors and local enterprises to become more productive and progressively integrated into the formal economy through access to affordable credit, information, wider markets, new technology and appropriate technological and management skills, opportunities to upgrade technical and management skills, and improved premises and other physical infrastructure, as well as by progressively extending labour standards and social protection without destroying the ability of informal sectors to generate employment;
86
(b) Encouraging business enterprises to pursue investment and other policies, including non-commercial activities, that will contribute to social development, especially in relation to the generation of work opportunities, social support services at the workplace, access to productive resources and construction of infrastructure;
86. The contribution of civil society, including the private sector, to social development can be enhanced by: (a) Developing planning and policy-making procedures that facilitate partnership and cooperation between Governments and civil society in social development; (b) Encouraging business enterprises to pursue investment and other policies, including non-commercial activities, that will contribute to social development, especially in relation to the generation of work opportunities, social support services at the workplace, access to productive resources and construction of infrastructure;
 
(f) Providing assistance for social-sector activities, such as the rehabilitation and development of social infrastructure, including in the form of grants or soft loans;
B. Involvement of civil society 85. Effective implementation of the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development and the Programme of Action of the Summit requires strengthening community organizations and non-profit non-governmental organizations in the spheres of education, health, poverty, social integration, human rights, improvement of the quality of life, and relief and rehabilitation, enabling them to participate constructively in policy-making and implementation. This will require:
 
 
****1995 CONVERENCE ON WOMEN;EQUALITY, DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE
Housing
31. Many women face particular barriers because of various diverse factors in addition to their gender. Often these diverse factors isolate or marginalize such women. They are, inter alia, denied their human rights, they lack access or are denied access to education and vocational training, employment, housing and economic self-sufficiency and they are excluded from decision-making processes. Such women are often denied the opportunity to contribute to their communities as part of the mainstream.
A. Women and poverty 47. More than 1 billion people in the world today, the great majority of whom are women, live in unacceptable conditions of poverty, mostly in the developing countries. Poverty has various causes, including structural ones. Poverty is a complex, multidimensional problem, with origins in both the national and international domains. The globalization of the world’s economy and the deepening interdependence among nations present challenges and opportunities for sustained economic growth and development, as well as risks and uncertainties for the future of the world economy. The uncertain global economic climate has been accompanied by economic restructuring as well as, in a certain number of countries, persistent, unmanageable levels of external debt and structural adjustment programmes. In addition, all types of conflict, displacement of people and environmental degradation have undermined the capacity of Governments to meet the basic needs of their populations. Transformations in the world economy are profoundly changing the parameters of social development in all countries. One significant trend has been the increased poverty of women, the extent of which varies from region to region. The gender disparities in economic power-sharing are also an important contributing factor to the poverty of women. Migration and consequent changes in family structures have placed additional burdens on women, especially those who provide for several dependants. Macroeconomic policies need rethinking and reformulation to address such trends. These policies focus almost exclusively on the formal sector. They also tend to impede the initiatives of women and fail to consider the differential impact on women and men. The application of gender analysis to a wide range of policies and programmes is therefore critical to poverty reduction strategies. In order to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development, -18- women and men must participate fully and equally in the formulation of macroeconomic and social policies and strategies for the eradication of poverty. The eradication of poverty cannot be accomplished through anti-poverty programmes alone but will require democratic participation and changes in economic structures in order to ensure access for all women to resources, opportunities and public services. Poverty has various manifestations, including lack of income and productive resources sufficient to ensure a sustainable livelihood; hunger and malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of access to education and other basic services; increasing morbidity and mortality from illness; homelessness and inadequate housing; unsafe environments; and social discrimination and exclusion. It is also characterized by lack of participation in decision-making and in civil, social and cultural life. It occurs in all countries - as mass poverty in many developing countries and as pockets of poverty amidst wealth in developed countries. Poverty may be caused by an economic recession that results in loss of livelihood or by disaster or conflict. There is also the poverty of low-wage workers and the utter destitution of people who fall outside family support systems, social institutions and safety nets. 
Actions to be taken 
58. By Governments: 
(a) Review and modify, with the full and equal participation of women, macroeconomic and social policies with a view to achieving the objectives of the Platform for Action;
(m) Enable women to obtain affordable housing and access to land by, among other things, removing all obstacles to access, with special emphasis on meeting the needs of women, especially those living in poverty and female heads of household;
Women’s right to the enjoyment of the highest standard of health must be secured throughout the whole life cycle in equality with men. Women are affected by many of the same health conditions as men, but women experience them differently. The prevalence among women of poverty and economic dependence, their experience of violence, negative attitudes towards women and girls, racial and other forms of discrimination, the limited power many women have over their sexual and reproductive lives and lack of influence in decision-making are social realities which have an adverse impact on their health. Lack of food and inequitable distribution of food for girls and women in the household, inadequate access to safe water, sanitation facilities and fuel supplies, particularly in rural and poor urban areas, and deficient housing conditions, all overburden women and their families and have a negative effect on their health. Good health is essential to leading a productive and fulfilling life, and the right of all women to control all aspects of their health, in particular their own fertility, is basic to their empowerment.
256 (k) Support the development of women’s equal access to housing infrastructure, safe water, and sustainable and affordable energy technologies, such as wind, solar, biomass and other renewable sources, through participatory needs assessments, energy planning and policy formulation at the local and national levels;
 
Infrastructure
58 (n) Formulate and implement policies and programmes that enhance the access of women agricultural and fisheries producers (including subsistence farmers and producers, especially in rural areas) to financial, technical, extension and marketing services; provide access to and control of land, appropriate infrastructure and technology in order to increase women’s incomes and promote household food security, especially in rural areas and, where appropriate, encourage the development of producer-owned, market-based cooperatives;
106 (y) Ensure full and equal access to health-care infrastructure and services for indigenous women.
155. Insufficient attention to gender analysis has meant that women’s contributions and concerns remain too often ignored in economic structures, such as financial markets and institutions, labour markets, economics as an academic discipline, economic and social infrastructure, taxation and social security systems, as well as in families and households. As a result, many policies and programmes may continue to contribute to inequalities between women and men. Where progress has been made in integrating gender perspectives, programme and policy effectiveness has also been enhanced.
167 (d) Ensure that women’s priorities are included in public investment programmes for economic infrastructure, such as water and sanitation, electrification and energy conservation, transport and road construction; promote greater involvement of women beneficiaries at the project planning and implementation stages to ensure access to jobs and contracts.
173. By Governments in cooperation with non-governmental organizations and the private sector: (a) Provide public infrastructure to ensure equal market access for women and men entrepreneurs;
 
253 (e) Take measures to integrate a gender perspective in the design and implementation of, among other things, environmentally sound and sustainable resource management mechanisms, production techniques and infrastructure development in rural and urban areas;
(g) Promote the participation of local communities, particularly women, in identification of public service needs, spatial planning and the provision and design of urban infrastructure. 
254 (k) Support the development of women’s equal access to housing infrastructure, safe water, and sustainable and affordable energy technologies, such as wind, solar, biomass and other renewable sources, through participatory needs assessments, energy planning and policy formulation at the local and national levels;
 
****1996 Habitat II
Housing 
 
6. We reaffirm our commitment to the full and progressive realization of the right to adequate housing as provided for in international instruments. To that end, we shall seek the active participation of our public, private and non-governmental partners at all levels to ensure legal security of tenure, protection from discrimination and equal access to affordable, adequate housing for all persons and their families.
 
7. We shall work to expand the supply of affordable housing by enabling markets to perform efficiently and in a socially and environmentally responsible manner, enhancing access to land and credit and assisting those who are unable to participate in housing markets.
 
8. More people than ever are living in absolute poverty and without adequate shelter. Inadequate shelter and homelessness are growing plights in many countries, threatening standards of health, security and even life itself. Everyone has the right to an adequate standard of living for themselves and their families, including adequate food, clothing, housing, water and sanitation, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions.
 
17. Older persons are entitled to lead fulfilling and productive lives and should have opportunities for full participation in their communities and society, and in all decision-making regarding their well-being, especially their shelter needs. Their many contributions to the political, social and economic processes of human settlements should be recognized and valued. Special attention should be given to meeting the evolving housing and mobility needs in order to enable them to continue to lead rewarding lives in their communities.
 
26. We reaffirm and are guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and we reaffirm our commitment to ensuring the full realization of the human rights set out in international instruments and in particular, in this context, the right to adequate housing as set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and provided for in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Convention A/CONF.165/14 page 18 on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, taking into account that the right to adequate housing, as included in the above-mentioned international instruments, shall be realized progressively. We reaffirm that all human rights - civil, cultural, economic, political and social - are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated. We subscribe to the principles and goals set out below to guide us in our actions.
IV 30. The quality of life of all people depends, among other economic, social, environmental and cultural factors, on the physical conditions and spatial characteristics of our villages, towns and cities. City lay-out and aesthetics, land-use patterns, population and building densities, transportation and ease of access for all to basic goods, services and public amenities have a crucial bearing on the liveability of settlements. This is particularly important to vulnerable and disadvantaged persons, many of whom face barriers in access to shelter and in participating in shaping the future of their settlements. People's need for community and their aspirations for more liveable neighbourhoods and settlements should guide the process of design, management and maintenance of human settlements. Objectives of this endeavour include protecting public health, providing for safety and security, education and social integration, promoting equality and respect for diversity and cultural identities, increased accessibility for persons with disabilities, and preservation of historic, spiritual, religious and culturally significant buildings and districts, respecting local landscapes and treating the local environment with respect and care. The preservation of the natural heritage and historical human settlements, including sites, monuments and buildings, particularly those protected under the UNESCO Convention on World Heritage Sites, should be assisted, including through international cooperation. It is also of crucial importance that spatial diversification and mixed use of housing and services be promoted at the local level in order to meet the diversity of needs and expectations.
 
36. Human health and quality of life are at the centre of the effort to develop sustainable human settlements. We therefore commit ourselves to promoting and attaining the goals of universal and equal access to quality education, the highest attainable standard of physical, mental and environmental health, and the equal access of all to primary health care, making particular efforts to rectify inequalities relating to social and economic conditions, including housing, without distinction as to race, national origin, gender, age, or disability, respecting and promoting our common and particular cultures. Good health throughout the life-span of every man and woman, good health for every child, and quality education for all are fundamental to ensuring that people of all ages are able to develop their full capacities in health and dignity and to participate fully in the social, economic and political processes of human settlements, thus contributing, inter alia, to the eradication of poverty. Sustainable human settlements depend on the interactive development of policies and concrete actions to provide access to food and nutrition, safe drinking water, sanitation, and universal access to the widest range of primary health-care services, consistent with the report of the International Conference on Population and Development; to eradicate major diseases that take a heavy toll of human lives, particularly childhood diseases; to create safe places to work and live; and to protect the environment.
 
A. Adequate shelter for all 39. We reaffirm our commitment to the full and progressive realization of the right to adequate housing, as provided for in international instruments. In this context, we recognize an obligation by Governments to enable people to obtain shelter and to protect and improve dwellings and neighbourhoods. We commit ourselves to the goal of improving living and working conditions on an equitable and sustainable basis, so that everyone will have adequate shelter that is healthy, safe, secure, accessible and affordable and that includes basic services, facilities and amenities, and will enjoy freedom from discrimination in housing and legal security of tenure. We shall implement and promote this objective in a manner fully consistent with human rights standards. 
 
40. We further commit ourselves to the objectives of:
 (a) Ensuring consistency and coordination of macroeconomic and shelter policies and strategies as a social priority within the framework of national development programmes and urban policies in order to support resource mobilization, employment generation, poverty eradication and social integration;
 (b) Providing legal security of tenure and equal access to land to all people, including women and those living in poverty; and undertaking legislative and administrative reforms to give women full and equal access to economic resources, including the right to inheritance and to ownership of land and other property, credit, natural resources and appropriate technologies; A/CONF.165/14 page 23 
 
(c) Promoting access for all people to safe drinking water, sanitation and other basic services, facilities and amenities, especially for people living in poverty, women and those belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups;
 (d) Ensuring transparent, comprehensive and accessible systems in transferring land rights and legal security of tenure; 
(e) Promoting broad, non-discriminatory access to open, efficient, effective and appropriate housing financing for all people, including mobilizing innovative financial and other resources - public and private - for community development; 
(f) Promoting locally available, appropriate, affordable, safe, efficient and environmentally sound construction methods and technologies in all countries, particularly in developing countries, at the local, national, regional and subregional levels that emphasize optimal use of local human resources and encourage energy-saving methods and are protective of human health; 
(g) Designing and implementing standards that provide accessibility also to persons with disabilities in accordance with the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities; 
(h) Increasing the supply of affordable housing, including through encouraging and promoting affordable home ownership and increasing the supply of affordable rental, communal, cooperative and other housing through partnerships among public, private and community initiatives, creating and promoting market-based incentives while giving due respect to the rights and obligations of both tenants and owners; 
(i) Promoting the upgrading of existing housing stock through rehabilitation and maintenance and the adequate supply of basic services, facilities and amenities;
 (j) Eradicating and ensuring legal protection from discrimination in access to shelter and basic services, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status; similar protection should be ensured against discrimination on the grounds of disability or age; 
(k) Helping the family,* in its supporting, educating and nurturing roles, to recognize its important contribution to social integration, and encouraging social and economic policies that are designed to meet the housing needs of families and their individual members, especially the most disadvantaged and vulnerable members, with particular attention to the care of children;
 (l) Promoting shelter and supporting basic services and facilities for education and health for the homeless, displaced persons, indigenous people, * In the context of para. 31 above. A/CONF.165/14 page 24 women and children who are survivors of family violence, persons with disabilities, older persons, victims of natural and man-made disasters and people belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, including temporary shelter and basic services for refugees; 
(m) Protecting, within the national context, the legal traditional rights of indigenous people to land and other resources, as well as strengthening of land management; (n) Protecting all people from and providing legal protection and redress for forced evictions that are contrary to the law, taking human rights into consideration; when evictions are unavoidable, ensuring, as appropriate, that alternative suitable solutions are provided. 
 
41. Providing continued international support to refugees in order to meet their needs and to assist in assuring them a just, durable solution in accordance with relevant United Nations resolutions and international law.
 
40(e) Promoting broad, non-discriminatory access to open, efficient, effective and appropriate housing financing for all people, including mobilizing innovative financial and other resources - public and private - for community development;
(h) Increasing the supply of affordable housing, including through encouraging and promoting affordable home ownership and increasing the supply of affordable rental, communal, cooperative and other housing through partnerships among public, private and community initiatives, creating and promoting market-based incentives while giving due respect to the rights and obligations of both tenants and owners;
 
43. We further commit ourselves to the objectives of:
 
(i) Promoting the upgrading of existing housing stock through rehabilitation and maintenance and the adequate supply of basic services, facilities and amenities;
 
(k) Helping the family,* in its supporting, educating and nurturing roles, to recognize its important contribution to social integration, and encouraging social and economic policies that are designed to meet the housing needs of families and their individual members, especially the most disadvantaged and vulnerable members, with particular attention to the care of children;
 
Integrating urban planning and management in relation to housing, transport, employment opportunities, environmental conditions and community facilities;
 
43. We further commit ourselves to the objectives of: 
(g) Acknowledging, harnessing and enhancing the efforts and potential of productive informal and private sectors, where appropriate, in creating sustainable livelihoods and jobs and increasing incomes, while providing housing and services for people living in poverty;
 
(cc) Developing housing that can serve as a functional workplace for women and men.
 
45 (m) Facilitating participation by tenants in the management of public and community-based housing and by women and those belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups in the planning and implementation of urban and rural development.
 
E. Financing shelter and human settlements 
 
47. While recognizing that the housing and shelter sector is a productive sector and should be eligible, inter alia, for commercial financing, we commit ourselves to strengthening existing financial mechanisms and, where appropriate, developing innovative approaches for financing the implementation of the Habitat Agenda, which will mobilize additional resources from various sources of finance - public, private, multilateral and bilateral - at the international, regional, national and local levels, and which will promote the efficient, effective and accountable allocation and management of resources, recognizing that local institutions involved in micro-credit may hold the most potential for housing the poor.
 
61. Since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, the right to adequate housing has been recognized as an important component of the right to an adequate standard of living. All Governments without exception have a responsibility in the shelter sector, as exemplified by their creation of ministries of housing or agencies, by their allocation of funds for the housing sector and by their policies, programmes and projects. The provision of adequate housing for everyone requires action not only by Governments, but by all sectors of society, including the private sector, non-governmental organizations, communities and local authorities, as well as by partner organizations and entities of the international community. Within the overall context of an enabling approach, Governments should take appropriate action in order to promote, protect and ensure the full and progressive realization of the right to adequate housing. These actions include, but are not limited to:
 
(a) Providing, in the matter of housing, that the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status;
(b) (b) Providing legal security of tenure and equal access to land for all, including women and those living in poverty, as well as effective protection from forced evictions that are contrary to the law, taking human rights into consideration and bearing in mind that homeless people should not be penalized for their status; 
(c) (c) Adopting policies aimed at making housing habitable, affordable and accessible, including for those who are unable to secure adequate housing through their own means, by, inter alia: 
Expanding the supply of affordable housing through appropriate regulatory measures and market incentives; A/CONF.165/14 page 35
 (ii) Increasing affordability through the provision of subsidies and rental and other forms of housing assistance to people living in poverty; 
(iii) Supporting community-based, cooperative and non-profit rental and owner-occupied housing programmes;
(iv) Promoting supporting services for the homeless and other vulnerable groups; 
(v) Mobilizing innovative financial and other resources - public and private - for housing and community development;
 (vi) Creating and promoting market-based incentives to encourage the private sector to meet the need for affordable rental and owner-occupied housing; 
(vii) Promoting sustainable spatial development patterns and transportation systems that improve accessibility of goods, services, amenities and work; 
 
(d) Effective monitoring and evaluation of housing conditions, including the extent of homelessness and inadequate housing, and, in consultation with the affected population, formulating and adopting appropriate housing policies and implementing effective strategies and plans to address those problems.
a.Providing, in the matter of housing, that the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status; 
(b) Providing legal security of tenure and equal access to land for all, including women and those living in poverty, as well as effective protection from forced evictions that are contrary to the law, taking human rights into consideration and bearing in mind that homeless people should not be penalized for their status;
 (c) Adopting policies aimed at making housing habitable, affordable and accessible, including for those who are unable to secure adequate housing through their own means, by, inter alia: 
(i) Expanding the supply of affordable housing through appropriate regulatory measures and market incentives; A/CONF.165/14 page 35 
(ii) Increasing affordability through the provision of subsidies and rental and other forms of housing assistance to people living in poverty; 
Supporting community-based, cooperative and non-profit rental and owner-occupied housing programmes; 
(iv) Promoting supporting services for the homeless and other vulnerable groups; (v) Mobilizing innovative financial and other resources - public and private - for housing and community development; (
vi) Creating and promoting market-based incentives to encourage the private sector to meet the need for affordable rental and owner-occupied housing; (vii) Promoting sustainable spatial development patterns and transportation systems that improve accessibility of goods, services, amenities and work;
 
67. To integrate shelter policies with macroeconomic, social, demographic, environmental and cultural policies, Governments, as appropriate, should: 
(a) Establish and implement consultative mechanisms among the governmental authorities that are responsible for economic, environmental, social, human settlements and shelter policies, and the organization of civil society and the private sector so as to coordinate the shelter sector in a coherent manner, which should include identifying the market and precise criteria for allocations, subsidies and other forms of assistance; (
b) Constantly monitor the impact of macroeconomic policies on shelter delivery systems, considering their specific linkages and taking into account their possible effects on vulnerable and disadvantaged groups;
 (c) Strengthen the linkages between shelter policies, employment generation, environmental protection, preservation of cultural heritage, resource mobilization and the maximization of resource efficiency, and strengthen the stimulation of and support for sustainable economic development and social development activities; 
(d) Apply public policies, including expenditure, taxation, monetary and planning policies, to stimulate sustainable shelter markets and land development; A/CONF.165/14 page 37
 (e) Integrate land and shelter policies with policies for reducing poverty and creating jobs, for environmental protection, for preservation of cultural heritage, for education and health, for providing clean water-supply and sanitation facilities, and for empowering those belonging to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups, particularly people without shelter; 
(f) Strengthen shelter-related information systems, and make use of relevant research activities in policy development, including gender-disaggregated data;
 (g) Periodically evaluate and, as appropriate, revise shelter policies, taking into consideration the needs of people without shelter and the impact of such policies on the environment, economic development and social welfare. 
68. To formulate and implement policies that promote the enablement approach to the development, maintenance and rehabilitation of shelter in both rural and urban areas, Governments at all levels, as appropriate, should: 
(a) Employ broad-based participatory and consultative mechanisms that involve representatives from public, private, non-governmental, cooperative and community sectors, including representatives of groups that are considered to be living in poverty, at all levels in the policy development process; 
(b) Establish appropriate processes for coordination and decentralization that define clear local-level rights and responsibilities within the policy development process; 
(c) Develop and support adequate institutional frameworks, especially for facilitating investment in the supply of both rural and urban shelter by the private sector; 
(d) Consider establishing priorities for the allocation of natural, human, technical and financial resources 
(e) Establish and adopt a regulatory framework, and provide institutional support for facilitating participation and partnership arrangements at all levels;
 (f) Review and adjust, when necessary, the legal, fiscal and regulatory framework to respond to the special needs of people living in poverty and low-income people; 
(g) Promote the supply of affordable rental houses and the legal rights and obligations of both tenants and owners.
 
Shelter delivery systems (a) Enabling markets to work 
71. In many countries, markets serve as the primary housing delivery mechanism, hence their effectiveness and efficiency are important to the goal of sustainable development. It is the responsibility of Governments to create an enabling framework for a well-functioning housing market. The housing sector should be viewed as an integrating market in which trends in one segment affect performance in other segments. Government interventions are required to address the needs of disadvantaged and vulnerable groups that are insufficiently served by markets.
 
 
72. To ensure market efficiency, Governments at the appropriate levels and consistent with their legal authority should: (a) Assess housing supply and demand on a gender-disaggregated basis and collect, analyse and disseminate information about housing markets and other delivery mechanisms, and encourage the private and non-profit sectors and the media to do the same, while avoiding duplication of efforts;
 
demand for housing and services, and periodically review and adjust legal, financial and regulatory frameworks, including frameworks for contracts, land use, building codes and standards; (c) Employ mechanisms (for example, a body of law, a cadastre, rules for property valuation and others) for the clear definition of property rights; (d) Permit the exchange of land and housing without undue restriction, and apply procedures that will make property transactions transparent and accountable in order to prevent corrupt practices;
 
73. In many countries, particularly developing countries, more than half the existing housing stock has been built by the owner-occupiers themselves, serving mainly the lower-income population. Self-built housing will continue to play a major role in the provision of housing into the distant future. Many countries are supporting self-built housing by regularizing and upgrading programmes.
 
74. To support the efforts of people, individually or collectively, to produce shelter, Governments at the appropriate levels should, where appropriate: (a) Promote self-built housing within the context of a comprehensive land-use policy;
 
(a) Integrate and regularize self-built housing, especially through appropriate land registration programmes, as a holistic part of the overall housing and infrastructure system in urban and rural areas, subject to a comprehensive land-use policy;
 (c) Encourage efforts to improve existing self-built housing through better access to housing resources, including land, finance and building materials; 
(d) Develop the means and methods to improve the standards of self-built housing;
 (e) Encourage community-based and non-governmental organizations in their role of assisting and facilitating the production of self-built housing;
 (f) Facilitate regular dialogue and gender-sensitive participation of the various actors involved in housing production at all levels and stages of decision-making;
 (g) Mitigate the problems related to spontaneous human settlements through programmes and policies that anticipate unplanned settlements.
 
78. To eradicate legal and social barriers to the equal and equitable access to land, especially the access of women, people with disabilities and those belonging to vulnerable groups, Governments at the appropriate levels, in partnership with the private sector, non-governmental organizations, the cooperative sector and community-based organizations, should: (
a) Address the cultural, ethnic, religious, social and disability-based causes that result in the creation of barriers that lead to segregation and exclusion, inter alia, by encouraging education and training for peaceful conflict resolution; 
(b) Promote awareness campaigns, education and enabling practices regarding, in particular, legal rights with respect to tenure, land ownership and inheritance for women, so as to overcome existing barriers;
 (c) Review legal and regulatory frameworks, adjusting them to the principles and commitments of the Global Plan of Action and ensuring that the equal rights of women and men are clearly specified and enforced; 
(d) Develop regularization programmes and formulate and implement such programmes and projects in consultation with the concerned population and organized groups, ensuring the full and equal participation of women and taking into account the needs differentiated by gender, age, disability and vulnerability;
 (e) Support, inter alia, community projects, policies and programmes that aim to remove all barriers to women's access to affordable housing, land and property ownership, economic resources, infrastructure and social services, and ensure the full participation of women in all decision-making processes, with particular regard to women in poverty, especially female heads of households and women who are sole providers for their families; 
(f) Undertake legislative and administrative reforms to give women full and equal access to economic resources, including the right to inheritance and the ownership of land and other property, credit, natural resources and appropriate technologies; 
(g) Promote mechanisms for the protection of women who risk losing their homes and properties when their husbands die. 79. To facilitate access to land and security of tenure for all socio-economic groups, 
G
overnments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities, should:
 (a) Adopt an enabling legal and regulatory framework based on an enhanced knowledge, understanding and acceptance of existing practices and land delivery mechanisms so as to stimulate partnerships with the private business and community sectors, specifying recognized types of land tenure and prescribing procedures for the regularization of tenure, where needed; 
(b) Provide institutional support, accountability and transparency of land management, and accurate information on land ownership, land transactions and current and planned land use; A/CONF.165/14 page 44 
(c) Explore innovative arrangements to enhance the security of tenure, other than full legalization, which may be too costly and time-consuming in certain situations, including access to credit, as appropriate, in the absence of a conventional title to land; 
(d) Promote measures to ensure that women have equal access to credit for buying, leasing or renting land, and equal protection for the legal security of tenure of such land; (e) Capitalize on the potential contribution of key interested parties in the private formal and informal sectors, and support the engagement of non-governmental organizations, community organizations and the private sector in participatory and collective initiatives and mechanisms appropriate to conflict resolution;
 (f) Encourage, in particular, the participation of community and non-governmental organizations by: (i
) Reviewing and adjusting legal and regulatory frameworks in order to recognize and stimulate the diverse forms of organization of the population engaged in the production and management of land, housing and services;
iiConsidering financial systems that recognize organizations as credit holders, extend credit to collective units backed by collective collateral and introduce financial procedures that are adapted to the needs of housing production by the people themselves and to the modalities through which the population generates income and savings; 
(iii) Developing and implementing complementary measures designed to enhance their capabilities, including, where appropriate, fiscal support, educational and training programmes, and technical assistance and funds in support of technological innovation; (iv) Supporting the capacity-building and accumulation of experience of non-governmental organizations and peoples' organizations in order to make them efficient and competent partners
 
80. Housing finance institutions serve the conventional market but do not always respond adequately to the different needs of large segments of the population, particularly those belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged A/CONF.165/14 page 45 groups, people living in poverty and low-income people. In order to mobilize more domestic and international resources for housing finance and extend credit to more households, it is necessary to integrate housing finance into the broader financial system and to use existing instruments or develop new instruments, as appropriate, to address the financial needs of people having limited or no access to credit. 
 
Actions 81. To improve the effectiveness of existing housing finance systems, Governments at the appropriate levels should:
 (a) Adopt policies that increase the mobilization of housing finance and extend more credit to people living in poverty, while maintaining the solvency of credit systems; 
(b) Strengthen the effectiveness of existing housing finance systems; 
(c) Enhance the accessibility of housing finance systems and eradicate all forms of discrimination against borrowers; 
(d) Promote transparency, accountability and ethical practices in financial transactions through support from effective legal and regulatory frameworks; 
(e) Establish, where necessary, a comprehensive and detailed body of property law and property rights, and enforce foreclosure laws to facilitate private-sector participation; 
(f) Encourage the private sector to mobilize resources to meet varying housing demands, including rental housing, maintenance and rehabilitation; 
(g) Support the competitiveness of mortgage markets and, where appropriate, facilitate the development of secondary markets and securitization; 
(h) Decentralize, as appropriate, the lending operations of mortgage markets and encourage the private sector to do the same in order to provide greater physical access to credit, especially in rural areas;
 (i) Encourage all lending institutions to improve their management and the efficiency of their operations;
 (j) Encourage community mortgage programmes that are accessible to people living in poverty, especially women, in order to increase their productive capacity by providing them with access to capital, resources, credit, land, technology and information so that they can raise their income and improve their living conditions and status within the household.
 
81. To improve the effectiveness of existing housing finance systems, Governments at the appropriate levels should: 
(a) Adopt policies that increase the mobilization of housing finance and extend more credit to people living in poverty, while maintaining the solvency of credit systems; 
(b) Strengthen the effectiveness of existing housing finance systems; 
(c) Enhance the accessibility of housing finance systems and eradicate all forms of discrimination against borrowers; 
(d) Promote transparency, accountability and ethical practices in financial transactions through support from effective legal and regulatory frameworks; 
(e) Establish, where necessary, a comprehensive and detailed body of property law and property rights, and enforce foreclosure laws to facilitate private-sector participation;
 (f) Encourage the private sector to mobilize resources to meet varying housing demands, including rental housing, maintenance and rehabilitation; 
(g) Support the competitiveness of mortgage markets and, where appropriate, facilitate the development of secondary markets and securitization; 
(h) Decentralize, as appropriate, the lending operations of mortgage markets and encourage the private sector to do the same in order to provide greater physical access to credit, especially in rural areas;
 (i) Encourage all lending institutions to improve their management and the efficiency of their operations;
 (j) Encourage community mortgage programmes that are accessible to people living in poverty, especially women, in order to increase their productive capacity by providing them with access to capital, resources, credit, land, technology and information so that they can raise their income and improve their living conditions and status within the household. A/CONF.165/14
 
82. To create new housing finance mechanisms, as necessary, Governments at the appropriate levels should: 
(a) Harness the potential of non-traditional financing arrangements by encouraging communities to form housing and multi-purpose community development cooperatives, especially for the provision of low-cost housing; 
(b) Review and strengthen the legal and regulatory framework and institutional base for mobilizing non-traditional lenders; 
(c) Encourage, in particular by removing legal and administrative obstacles, the expansion of savings and credit cooperatives, credit unions, cooperative banks, cooperative insurance enterprises and other non-bank financial institutions, and establish savings mechanisms in the informal sector, particularly for women;
 (d) Support partnerships between such cooperative institutions and public and other financing institutions as an effective means of mobilizing local capital and applying it to local entrepreneurial and community activity for housing and infrastructure development; 
(e) Facilitate the efforts of trade unions, farmers', women's and consumers' organizations, organizations of people with disabilities and other associations of the populations concerned to set up their own cooperatively organized or local financial institutions and mechanisms; 
(f) Promote the exchange of information on innovations in housing finance; 
(g) Support non-governmental organizations and their capacity to foster the development, where appropriate, of small savings cooperatives.
 
83. To facilitate access to housing for those not served by existing finance mechanisms, Governments should review and rationalize, where appropriate, systems of subsidies through policies that will ensure their viability, equity and transparency, thus allowing many people without access to credit and land to enter the market
 
(e) Ensuring access to basic infrastructure and services 
 
84. Basic infrastructure and services at the community level include the delivery of safe water, sanitation, waste management, social welfare, transport and communications facilities, energy, health and emergency services, schools, public safety, and the management of open spaces. The lack of adequate basic services, a key component of shelter, exacts a heavy toll on human health, productivity and the quality of life, particularly for people living in poverty in urban and rural areas. Local and state/provincial authorities, as the case may be, have the primary responsibility to provide or enable delivery of services, regulated by appropriate legislation and standards. Their capacity to manage, operate and maintain infrastructure and basic services must be supported by central Governments. There are, however, a host of other actors, including the private sector, communities and A/CONF.165/14 page 47 non-governmental organizations, that can participate in service provision and management under the coordination of Governments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities. Actions
 
85. To safeguard the health, safety, welfare and improved living environment of all people and to provide adequate and affordable basic infrastructure and services, Governments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities, should promote:
 (a) The supply of and access to adequate quantities of safe drinking water;
 (b) Adequate sanitation and environmentally sound waste management; 
(c) Adequate mobility through access to affordable and physically accessible public transport and other communications facilities; (d) Access to markets and retail outlets for selling and purchasing basic necessities; (e) The provision of social services, especially for underserved groups and communities; (f) Access to community facilities, including places of worship;
 
 (g) Access to sustainable sources of energy; 
(h) Environmentally sound technologies and the planning, provision and maintenance of infrastructure, including roads, streets, parks and open spaces;
 (i) A high level of safety and public security; (j) The use of a variety of planning mechanisms that provide for meaningful participation to reduce the negative impacts on biological resources, such as prime agricultural land and forests, that may arise from human settlements activities; 
(k) Planning and implementation systems that integrate all of the above factors into the design and operation of sustainable human settlements.
(e) Ensuring access to basic infrastructure and services
 
 84. Basic infrastructure and services at the community level include the delivery of safe water, sanitation, waste management, social welfare, transport and communications facilities, energy, health and emergency services, schools, public safety, and the management of open spaces. The lack of adequate basic services, a key component of shelter, exacts a heavy toll on human health, productivity and the quality of life, particularly for people living in poverty in urban and rural areas. Local and state/provincial authorities, as the case may be, have the primary responsibility to provide or enable delivery of services, regulated by appropriate legislation and standards. Their capacity to manage, operate and maintain infrastructure and basic services must be supported by central Governments. There are, however, a host of other actors, including the private sector, communities and A/CONF.165/14 page 47 non-governmental organizations, that can participate in service provision and management under the coordination of Governments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities. Actions 85. To safeguard the health, safety,
 
To be contiued p 85 100 more references to housing
 
Infrastructure 100 references
 
1. To improve the quality of life within human settlements, we must combat the deterioration of conditions that in most cases, particularly in developing countries, have reached crisis proportions. To this end, we must address comprehensively, inter alia, unsustainable consumption and production patterns, particularly in industrialized countries; unsustainable population changes, including changes in structure and distribution, giving priority consideration to the tendency towards excessive population concentration; homelessness; increasing poverty; unemployment; social exclusion; family instability; inadequate resources; lack of basic infrastructure and services; lack of adequate planning; growing insecurity and violence; environmental degradation; and increased vulnerability to disasters.
 
2. Rural and urban development are interdependent. In addition to improving the urban habitat, we must also work to extend adequate infrastructure, public services and employment opportunities to rural areas in order to enhance their attractiveness, develop an integrated network of settlements and minimize rural-to-urban migration. Small- and medium-sized towns need special focus.
 
8. To overcome current problems and to ensure future progress in the improvement of economic, social and environmental conditions in human settlements, we must begin with a recognition of the challenges facing cities A/CONF.165/14 page 14 and towns. According to current projections, by the turn of the century, more than three billion people - one half of the world's population - will live and work in urban areas. The most serious problems confronting cities and towns and their inhabitants include inadequate financial resources, lack of employment opportunities, spreading homelessness and expansion of squatter settlements, increased poverty and a widening gap between rich and poor, growing insecurity and rising crime rates, inadequate and deteriorating building stock, services and infrastructure, lack of health and educational facilities, improper land use, insecure land tenure, rising traffic congestion, increasing pollution, lack of green spaces, inadequate water supply and sanitation, uncoordinated urban development and an increasing vulnerability to disaster. All of these have seriously challenged the capacities of Governments, particularly those of developing countries, at all levels to realize economic development, social development and environmental protection, which are interdependent and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable development
 
 
 
 
****2002 World Summit on Sustainable development
 
housing
11By 2020, achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, as proposed in the “Cities without slums” initiative. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Improve access to land and property, to adequate shelter and to basic services for the urban and rural poor, with special attention to female heads of household; (b) Use low-cost and sustainable materials and appropriate technolog ies for the construction of adequate and secure housing for the poor, with financial and technological assistance to developing countries, taking into account their culture, climate, specific social conditions and vulnerability to natural disasters;
(e ) Support local authorities in elaborating slum upgrading programmes within the framework of urban development plans and facilitate access, particularly for the poor, to information on housing legislation.
 
Shelter
71. Support African countries in their efforts to implement the Habitat Agenda and the Istanbul Declaration through initiatives to strengthen national and local institutional capacities in the areas of sustainab le urbanization and human settlements, provide support for adequate shelter and basic services and the development of efficient and effective governance systems in cities and other human settlements and strengthen, inter alia, the joint programme on managing water for African cities of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme and the United Nations Environment Programme.
 
11. By 2020, achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, as proposed in the “Cities without slums” initiative. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Improve access to land and property, to adequate shelter and to basic services for the urban and rural poor, with special attention to female heads of household;
 
Infratructure 
7. Eradicating poverty is the greatest global challenge facing the world today and an indispensable requirement for sustainable dev elopment, particularly for developing countries. Although each country has the primary responsibility for its own sustainable development and poverty eradication and the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be overemphasized, concert ed and concrete measures are required at all levels to enable developing countries to achieve their sustainable development goals as related to the internationally agreed poverty -related targets and goals, including those contained in Agenda 21, the relevant outcomes of other United Nations conferences and the United Nations Millennium Declaration. This would include actions at all levels to:
 
(i) Build basic rural infrastructure, diversify the economy and improve transportation and access to markets, market information and credit for the rural poor to support sustainable agriculture and rural development;
 
 
19. Encourage relevant authorities at all levels to take sustainable development considerations into account in decision-making, including on national and local development planning, investment in infrastructure, business development and public procurement. This would include actions at all levels to:
 
(a) Provide support for the developme nt of sustainable development strategies and programmes, including in decision -making on investment in infrastructure and business development; 
(b) Continue to promote the internalization of environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into account the approach that the polluter should, in principle, bear the costs of pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment;
 (c) Promote public procurement policies that encourage develo pment and diffusion of environmentally sound goods and services; 
(d) Provide capacity -building and training to assist relevant authorities with regard to the implementation of the initiatives listed in the present paragraph; 
(e) Use environmental impact assessment procedures.
 
20. Call upon Governments as well as relevant regional and international organizations and other relevant stakeholders to implement, taking into account national and regional specificities and circumstances, the recommendatio ns and conclusions adopted by the Commission on Sustainable Development concerning energy for sustainable development at its ninth session, including the issues and options set out below, bearing in mind that in view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities. This would include actions at all levels to: 
(a) Take further action to mobilize the provision of financial resources, technology transfer, capacity -building and the diff usion of environmentally sound technologies according to the recommendations and conclusions of the Commission on Sustainable Development, as contained in section A, paragraph 3, and section D, paragraph 30, of its decision 9/19 on energy for sustainable d evelopment;
 (b) Integrate energy considerations, including energy efficiency, affordability and accessibility, into socio -economic programmes, especially into policies of major energy -consuming sectors, and into the planning, operation and maintenance of long-lived energy consuming infrastructures, such as the public sector, transport, industry, agriculture, urban land use, tourism and construction sectors;
 
20 (g) Develop and utilize indigenous energy sources and infrastructures for various local uses and promote rural community participation, including local Agenda 21 groups, with the support of the international community, in developing and utilizing renewable energ y technologies to meet their daily energy needs to find simple and local solutions;
 
21. Promote an integrated approach to policy -making at the national, regiona l and local levels for transport services and systems to promote sustainable development, including policies and planning for land use, infrastructure, public transport systems and goods delivery networks, with a view to providing safe, affordable and efficient transportation, increasing energy efficiency, reducing pollution, congestion and adverse health effects and limiting urban sprawl, taking into account national priorities and circumstances. This would include actions at all levels to:
 
21. Promote an integrated approach to policy -: 
(a) Implement transport strategies for sustainable development, reflecting specific regional, national and local conditions, to improve the affordability, efficiency and convenience of transportation as well as urban air quality and health and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including through the development of better vehicle technologies that are more environmentally sound, affordable and socially acceptable;
 (b) Promote investment and partnerships for the development of sustainable, energy efficient multi-modal transportation systems, including public mass transportation systems and better transportation systems in rural areas, with Page 13 technical and financial assistance for developing countries and countries with economies in transition.
 
22. Prevent and minimize waste and maximize reuse, recycling and use of environmentally friendly alternative materials, with the participation of government authorities and all stakeholders, in order to minimize adverse effects on the environment and improve resource efficiency, with financial, technical and other assistance for developing countries. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Develop waste management systems, with the highest priority placed on waste prevention and minimization, reuse and recycling, and environmentally sound disposal facilities, including technology to recapture the energy contained in waste, and encourage small-scale waste-recycling initiatives that support urban and rural waste management and provide income -generating opportunities, with in ternational support for developing countries; (b) Promote waste prevention and minimization by encouraging production of reusable consumer goods and biodegradable products and developing the infrastructure required.
 
24. Human activities are having an increasing impact on the integrity of ecosystems that provide essential resources and services for human well-being and economic activities. Managing the natural resources base in a sustainable and integrated manner is essential for sustainable development. In this regard, to reverse the current trend in natural resource degradation as soon as possible, it is necessary to implement strategies which should include targets adopted at the national and, where appropriate, regional levels to protect ecosystems and to achieve integrated management of land, water and living resources, while strengthening regional, national and local capacities. This would include actions at all levels as set out below. 
25. Launch a programme of actions, with financial and technical assistance, to achieve the Millennium d evelopment goal on safe drinking water. In this respect, we agree to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water, as outlined in the Millennium Declaration, and the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation, which would include actions at all levels to: (a) Mobilize international and domestic financial resources at all levels, transfer technology, promote best practice and support capacity -building for water and sanitation infrastructure and services development, ensuring that such infrastructure and services meet the needs of the poor and are gender-sensitive;
 
26. Develop integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans by 2005, with support to developing countries, through actions at all levels to: (a) Develop and implement national/regional strategies, plans and programmes with regard to integrated river basin, watershed and groundwater management and introduce measures to improve the efficiency of water infrastructure to reduce losses and increase recy cling of water; (b) Employ the full range of policy instruments, including regulation, monitoring, voluntary measures, market and information -based tools, land -use management and cost recovery of water services, without cost recovery objectives becoming a barrier to access to safe water by poor people, and adopt an integrated water basin approach;
 
30. Oceans, seas, islands and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the Earth’s ecosystem and are critical for global food security and for sustaining economic prosperity and the well-being of many national economies, particularly in developing countries. Ensuring the sustainable development of the oceans requires effective coordination and cooperation, including at the global and regional levels, between relevant bodies, and actions at all levels to:
 
31. To achieve sustainable fisheries, the following actions are required at all levels:
 
(h) Assist developing countries in coordinating policies and programmes at the regional and subregional levels aimed at the conservation and sustainable management of fishery resources and implement integrated coastal area management plans, in cluding through the promotion of sustainable coastal and small-scale fishing activities and, where appropriate, the development of related infrastructure;
 
V. Sustainable development in a globalizing world
 
47. Globalization offers opportunities and challenges for sustainable development. We recognize that globalization and interdependence are offering new opportunities for trade, investment and capital flows and advances in technology, including information technology, for the growth of the world economy, development and the improvement of living standards around the world. At the same time, there remain serious challenges, including serious financial crises, insecurity, poverty, exclusion and inequality within and among societies. The developing countries and countries with economies in transition face special difficulties in responding to those challenges and opportunities. Globalization should be fully inclusive and equ itable, and there is a strong need for policies and measures at the national and international levels, formulated and implemented with the full and effective participation of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, to help them to respond effectively to t
 
 
(b)Enhance the capacities of developing countries, including the least developed countries, landlocked develop ing countries and small island developing States, to benefit from liberalized trade opportunities through international cooperation and measures aimed at improving productivity, commodity diversification and competitiveness, community -based entrepreneurial capacity and transportation and communication infrastructure development;
 
VIII. Sustainable development for Africa 
 
62. Since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, sustainable development has remained elusive for many African countries. Poverty Page 36 remains a major challenge and most countries on the continent have not benefited fully from the opportunities of globalization, further exacerbating the continent’s marginalization. Africa’s efforts to achieve sustainable development have been hindered by conflicts, insufficient investment, limited market access opportunities and supply side constraints, unsustainable debt burdens, historically declining levels of official development assistance and the impact of HIV/AIDS. The World Summit on Sustainable Development should reinvigorate the commitment of the international community to address these special challenges and give effect to a new vision based on concrete actions for the implementation of Agenda 21 in Africa. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) is a commitment by African leaders to the people of Africa. It recognizes that p artnerships among African countries themselves and between them and with the international community are key elements of a shared and common vision to eradicate poverty, and furthermore it aims to place their countries, both individually and collectively, on a path of sustained economic growth and sustainable development, while participating actively in the world economy and body politic. It provides a framework for sustainable development on the continent to be shared by all Africa’s people. The international community welcomes NEPAD and pledges its support to the implementation of this vision, including through utilization of the benefits of South - South cooperation supported, inter alia, by the Tokyo International Conference on African Development. It also pledges support for other existing development frameworks that are owned and driven nationally by African countries and that embody poverty reduction strategies, including poverty reduction strategy papers. Achieving sustainable development includes actio ns at all levels to:
 
(f) Enhance the industrial productivity, diversity and competitiveness of African countries through a combination of financial and technological support for the development of key infrastructure, access to technology, networking of research centres, adding value to export products, skills development and enhancing market access in support of sustainable development;
 
(l) Support African efforts to develop affordable transport systems and infrastructure that promote sustainable development and connectivity in Africa;
 
(e) Research and control Ebola disease. 
 
65. Deal effectively with natural disasters and conflicts, including their humanitarian and environmental impacts, recognizing that conflicts in Africa have hindered, and in many cases obliterated, both the gains and efforts aimed at sustainable development, with the most vulnerable members of society, particularly women and children, being the most impacted victims, through efforts and initiatives, at all levels, to:
 
66. Promote integrated water resources development and optimize the upstream and downstream benefits therefrom, the development and effective management of water resources across all uses and the protection of water quality and aquatic ecosystems, including through initiatives at all levels, to: (a) Provide access to potable domestic water, hygiene education and improved sanitation and waste management at the household level through initiatives to encourage public and private investment in water supply and sanitation that give priority to the needs of the poor within stable and transparent national regulatory frameworks provided by Governments, while respecting local conditions involving all concerned stakeholders and monitoring the performance and improving the accountability of public institutions and private companies; and develop critical water supply, reticulation and treatment infrastructure, and build capacity to maintain and manage systems to deliver water and sanitation services in both rural and urban areas;
 
67. Achieve significantly improved sustainable agricultural productivity and food security in furtherance of the agreed Millennium development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration, in particular to halve by 2015 the proportion of people who suffer from hunger, including through initiatives at all levels to: (a) Support the development and implementation of national policies and programmes, including research programmes and development plans of African countries to regenerate their agricultural sector and sustainably develop their fisheries, and increase investment in infrastructure, technology and extension services, according to country needs. African countries should be in the process of developing and implementing food security strategies, within the context of national poverty eradication programmes, by 2005;
 
69. Bridge the digital divide and create digital opportunity in terms of access infrastructure and technology transfer and application through integrated initiatives for Africa. Create an enabling environment to attract investment, accelerate existing and new programmes and projects to connect essential institutions and stimulate the Page 40 adoption of information communication technologies in government and commerce programmes and other aspects of national economic and social life.
 
70. Support Africa’s efforts to attain susta inable tourism that contributes to social, economic and infrastructure development through the following measures: (a) Implementing projects at the local, national and subregional levels, with specific emphasis on marketing African tourism products, such as adventure tourism, ecotourism and cultural tourism;
 
 
84. Facilitate greater flows of foreign direct investment so as to support the sustainable development activities, including the development of infrastructure, of developing countries, and enhance the benefits that developing countries can draw from foreign direct investment, with particular actions to: 
(a) Create the necessary domestic and international conditions to facilitate significant increases in the flow of foreign direct investment to developing countries, in particu lar the least developed countries, which is critical to sustainable development, particularly foreign direct investment flows for infrastructure development and other priority areas in developing countries to supplement the domestic resources mobilized by them;
 (b) Encourage foreign direct investment in developing countries and countries with economies in transition through export credits that could be instrumental to sustainable development;
 
 
84 (d) Provide support to refugee host countries in rehabilitating infrastructure and environment, including ecosystems and habitats, that were damaged in the process of receiving and settling refugees.
 
86
(b)Support new and existing public/private sector financing mechanisms for developing countries and countries with economies in transition, to benefit in particular small entrepreneurs and small, medium-sized and commun ity-based enterprises and to improve their infrastructure, while ensuring the transparency and accountability of such mechanisms.
 
117. Provide financial assistance and support to education, research, public awareness programmes and developmental institutions in developing countries and countries with economies in transition in order to: (a) Sustain their educational infrastructures and programmes, including those related to environment and public health education;
(b) Consider means of avoiding the frequent, serious financial constraints faced by many institutions of higher learning, including universities around the world, particularly in develop ing countries and countries in transition.
 
125. Enhance and accelerate human, institutional and infrastructure capacity - building initiatives and promote partnerships in that regard that respond to the specific needs of developing countries in the context of sustainable development.
 
138. Good governance is essential for sustainable development. Sound economic policies, solid democratic institutions responsive to the needs of the people and improved infrastructure are the basis for sustained economic growth, po verty eradication, and employment creation. Freedom, peace and security, domestic stability, respect for human rights, including the right to development, and the rule of law, gender equality, market-oriented policies, and an overall commitment to just and democratic societies are also essential and mutually reinforcing.
 
163. Each country has the primary responsibility for its own sustainable development, and the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be overemphasized. All countries should promote sustainable development at the national level by, inter alia, enacting and enforcing clear and effective laws tha t support sustainable development. All countries should strengthen governmental institutions, including by providing necessary infrastructure and by promoting transparency, accountability and fair administrative and judicial institutions.
 
ANNEX
 
PART A. I included this because it is related to SDG Goal 11 
 
Responses to Regional Growth Strategy SS Questionnaire. February 15, 2015
By Joan Russow PhD  Oak Bay age76
Parts in Green are my comments; Parts in black are the Comments RSS
 
I was a former sessional lecturer in Global Issues in Sustainable Development in the Environmental Studies Programme at the University of Victoria. From 1997-2001, I was the Federal leader of the Green Party of Canada. For years I have been exploring the complexity and interdependence of issues: guaranteeing human rights, protecting and conserving the environment, ensuring social justice and preventing war and conflict. In 1994, I founded the Global Compliance Research Project and wrote a 350 page book about obligations incurred, and commitments made by member states of the United Nations Since 1992 I have attended international conferences such as UNCED in Rio, Rio +5in New in New York, WSSD in Joburg, Habitat II in Istanbul, Commissions on the Status of Women in New York, Peace conferences in the Hague. And Climate change conferences in Copenhagen Cancun and will attend COP21 in. I have tried over the years to apply international principle to national and regional local issues. 
INTRO In my responses to the questionnaire, I have read through the RSS draft and included some passages in my responses
 
I have used the following colour coded Legend.
Black for specific sections that I believe fulfill the vision and help with responding to the questions
Red for wording I think should be replaced or deleted
Green for my comments and additions 
Blue for the questions. And categories
Part B: The Big Picture
1. What do you think is the most important action we should take as a region to become more sustainable for future generations? 
 
I think that the integration of socially and ecologically sound energy and multimodal transportation within complete communities and throughout the CRD will help address climate change, reduce the ecological footprint, prevent urban sprawl and not deter the CRD from advancing proposals that are usually deemed to be beyond the CRD jurisdiction. 
 
I also think that if other levels of government impede the fulfilling of the vision of the RSS, the CRD should be prepared to challenge them and not say “this is not our jurisdiction”. One of the constraints that has to be overcome is that both senior levels of government have not taken a path towards a socially equitable and ecologically sound future. And have been discounting the rights of future generations.  A current example comes to mind where the first nations supported by an organization of fishers has called for the commercial herring fisheries not to open and then the Federal government has officially opened the season.
Given the lack of federal and provincial leadership on climate change, many are looking to municipalities to pick up the slack. Municipalities can play an important role both by taking action locally and by lobbying other levels of government. I have been at several international climate change conferences: in Copenhagen in 2009 and in Cancun, in 2010 and at the Peoples climate Conference in Cochabamba, Bolivia in 2010.  And I will be attending COP21 in Paris. And I also went to Rio+20 where it was clear that the federal governments, especially Canada, the US and Australia were unwilling to address the urgency of climate change, and a group of mayors were meeting every day demanding actions being taken to discharge international obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. 
 
I also think that ensuring the following commitments is important
 
Protection of watersheds with respect to depletion and degradation of their forest cover and from harmful upstream activities; CHAPTER 18, 59a v Agenda 21, UNCED)
And promotion of research into the contribution of forests to sustainable water resources development; CHAPTER 18, 59a vi Agenda 21, UNCED
PART B VISION
Do you support the draft vision of the RSS as written below?
There appear to be two different versions of the vision
The RSS sets out a vision and targets for 2038 that are bold and aspirational – that provide a strong and clear direction for action. Realizing the vision and achieving targets will require an on-going commitment to pragmatic actions that over a 20+ year period will result in desired outcomes. To be successful, we will need to prioritize those actions that will most effectively deliver results and then promptly take action. 
 
While the vision claims to be bold and aspirational it undermines this boldness by stating elsewhere in the draft “it is noted that adoption of the RSS does not commit or authorize the CRD or local municipalities to implement specific actions identified in the RSS”. If there is widespread agreement on the RSS, there should be an obligation, on the part of the CRD and municipalities to comply with the RSS  
To be successful, we will need to prioritize those actions that will most effectively deliver results and then promptly take action.  We may need to proceed with actions concurrently. The following statement seems to reinforce the need to examine the complexity and interdependence of actions concurrently;]
 It addresses a broad scope of issues and considers the long-term. Sustainability is also a way of holistically understanding issues and potential solutions. With sustainability there is a shift from considering regional issues and opportunities as separate, discrete matters, to gaining a better understanding of interconnections and relationships and leveraging synergies. An example of this approach is the influence that active transportation and transit have on simultaneously reducing GHG emissions; minimizing energy use for travel; reducing travel costs; supporting healthy lifestyles; supporting fair access to jobs, goods, services and amenities; and supporting the creation of accessible, safe, people-friendly public spaces. 
The following sections outline the urgency with which we need to shift to more sustainable ways of living, the challenges and opportunities, key leverage points, and the targets by which progress will be measured. 
 
The RSS refers to sustainability17 and sustainability 130 times but unsustainable only once. Often sustainability can only exist if unsustainable practices are proscribed. 
I prefer the expression: “socially equitable and ecologically sound because it more clearly combines equity and ecology.
 
Here is the other vision:
By 2038: We contribute to a healthier planet and create a thriving, sustainable economy that optimizes individual and community wellbeing. Direct, innovative action by the CRD and cooperation with others achieves transformational change by boldly: shifting to affordable, low carbon, energy-efficient lifestyles; expanding the local food supply; stewarding renewable resources; and achieving greater social equity.
While I like this vision better, I am still concerned about other statements, in the RSS which may impede the implementation of a bold integrated vision that will be, if agreed to, implemented 
Part C: Targets
 
The beauty is that even in the absence of the climate change imperative, required changes would create a better community. 
The question is not whether we will achieve the breakthroughs required, but whether we do so before it is too late. The clock is ticking. Temperatures are rising steadily towards the point that scientists have said poses unacceptable risks. At the same time as we work to prevent further warming, we need to address
 
But there is a climate change a legal imperative!
 
BC government endorsed the UNFCCC (FOI request, 1993) and thus is bound by the convention; - there is thus a climate change imperative to discharge the following obligation:
Under Article 2 of the legally binding UN Framework Convention on Change, states are “to stabilize greenhouse gases below a level of dangerous anthropogenic emissions.”  At this point we are close to reaching that limit.
1. Climate and Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)
What do you think about these targets to reduce GHGs below 2007 levels?
What do you think about these targets to reduce GHGs below 2007 levels?
 
I think the levels should be 1990, and the percentages higher
 
By 2020 reduce community-based GHG emissions by 50% below 1990
By 2038 reduce community-based GHG emissions by 80%by below 1990 level
By 2050 reduce community-based GHG emissions by 100% BELOW 1990 level
 
Climate change knows no borders
We must raise this issue that while we can try to address the urgency, with targets in the regional district, we have an obligation to urge that bold measures be taken all across Canada and to demand that the Canadian Government to no longer obstruct the negotiations and undertake to use the baseline level of 1990 increase the percentage to 50% 
 
By working with senior government partners, regulated utilities and others, the CRD and local municipalities will lead through example and strive to meet the BC Climate Action Charter targets for the reduction of GHG emissions from regional and municipal infrastructure. 
 
Innovative: Is this decision/investment innovative? Will it provide new solutions to address problems? Will it lead the way for others? Will it stimulate economic activity that is cleaner/greener than would otherwise be the case? 
Canada signed the UNFCCC in Rio in 1992 and 1992 the province of BC endorsed at the cabinet level. BC is therefore bound by the UNFCCC; therefore the divestment is long overdue. I would also  revisit the concept of due diligence which has caused investment managers to be deemed not to have exercised due diligence if the stock in socially equitable and environmentally sound investment falls; but if the investment  manager invests in the fortune 500 and the stock falls, there would not be the accusation of failing to exercise due diligence.  What needs to happen is that an investor who invests in fossil fuels must be deemed not to have exercised due diligence.
 
 Given that in this RSS draft, strong support is given to taking bold action on climate change and given that many decisions affecting climate change are dictated at the federal level, the CRD should undertake to have input into the COP 21conference in Paris, and into the Canadian government’s weak target tor 2020 
 
See Climate Change: COP 20 Lima - Time to be Bold
http://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9958:-climate-change-cop-20-peru-time-to-be-bold-november-30-2014&catid=86:i-earth-news&Itemid=210
 
There must also be a target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 in relation to1990 levels so that it could influence federal position at COP21 in Paris. 
 
1990 level is the base line that has been used in the UNFCCC and is used by almost all states except Canada, us and Australia
 
Primacy should be given to mitigation rather than to adaption-to prevent the climate change rather than to attempt to address to rectify what may have become irreversible   
 
Another vision; People’s Agreement on climate change
 
http://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9921:peoples-agreement-on-climate-change-from-cochabamba-must-no-longer-be-ignored&catid=86:i-earth-news&Itemid=210
2. Communities
2.1 What do you think about the following dwelling unit growth target?
 
Locate 60% of new growth in walkable, bikeable, transit serviced communities that provide a variety of housing types and tenures close to places of work, shopping, learning, recreation, parks and green space.
 
 I think the target should be considerably higher because it reflects the vision of RSS affordable, low carbon, energy-efficient lifestyles; expanding the local food supply; stewarding renewable resources; and achieving greater social equity. A higher target will counter urban sprawl and will ensure the necessary ecological integrity of the region
2.2 Jobs/Population Targets
What do you think about the following jobs and population target?
)
Achieve a jobs/population ratio of:
0.61 in Core Area
0.53 in Saanich Peninsula
0.36 in West Shore
 
 I presume that this assessment is accurate; I wish instead to deal with a social equity issue which was not in the RSS draft labour rights
 
(a) There should be a minimum wage of $15
(b) equal pay for work of equal value as agreed in the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights; 
 
The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of just and favourable conditions of work which ensure, in particular: 
(a) Remuneration which provides all workers, as a minimum, with: 
(i) Fair wages and equal remuneration for work of equal value without distinction of any kind, in particular women being guaranteed conditions of work not inferior to those enjoyed by men, with equal pay for equal work; 
(ii) A decent living for themselves and their families in accordance with the provisions of the present Covenant; 
(b) Safe and healthy working conditions; 
(c) Equal opportunity for everyone to be promoted in his employment to an appropriate higher level, subject to no considerations other than those of seniority and competence; 
(d ) Rest, leisure and reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay, as well as remuneration for public holidays 
Without distinction of any kind, in particular women being guaranteed conditions of work not inferior to those enjoyed by men, with equal pay for equal work;  Fair wages and equal remuneration for work of equal value without (Article 7 (i)
 
And in the Convention Against all Form of Discrimination Against Women
The right to equal remuneration, including benefits, and to equal treatment in respect of work of equal value, as well as equality of treatment in the evaluation 
(c C087 - Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948 (No. 87)
Convention concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise (Entry into force: 04 Jul 1950) 
Preamble
 
Considering that the Preamble to the Constitution of the International Labour Organisation declares "recognition of the principle of freedom of association" to be a means of improving conditions of labour and of establishing peace;
(d). C098 - Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98)
Preamble 
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals concerning the application of the principles of the right to organise and to bargain collectively, which is the fourth item on the agenda of the session, and
Having determined that these proposals shall take the form of an international Convention, adopts this first day of July of the year one thousand nine hundred and forty-nine the following Convention, which may be cited as the Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949:
Article 1
Workers shall enjoy adequate protection against acts of anti-union discrimination in respect of their employment. 
Article 2.
Such protection shall apply more particularly in respect of acts calculated to-- 
(a) make the employment of a worker subject to the condition that he shall not join a union or shall relinquish trade union membership;
(b) Cause the dismissal of or otherwise prejudice a worker by reason of union membership or because of participation in union activities outside working hours or, with the consent of the employer, within working hours.
Article 4
Measures appropriate to national conditions shall be taken, where necessary, to encourage and promote the full development and utilisation of machinery for voluntary negotiation between employers or employers' organisations and workers' organisations 
2.2 What do you think about the following jobs and population target?
 
Achieve a jobs/population ratio of:
0.61 in Core Area
0.53 in Saanich Peninsula
0.36 in West Shore
 
It seems that the core area could be considerably higher in proportion to the other areas
 
2.3 What do you think about the following growth management target?
 
I think that 100% of new dwelling units within the Growth Containment Area? This way new housing will be situated in in existing service areas compact and complete communities,
 
*to ensure that there are general principles in place that will prevent urban sprawl, megabusinesses container box stores the detriment of socially equitable and environmentally sound community development , and to labour rights
 
*When there is infilling housing in established neighbourhoods.  Innovative ways of preventing the potential loss of vegetation and tree canopy should be encouraged
Development ought to be confined as much as possible to existing footprints in order to conserve precious greenspace.
*To conserve biodiversity, our urban forest should flourish and a stronger tree bylaw be implemented.  When ageing apartment buildings and condos are replaced, in exchange for the granting of variances, as a community benefit there needs to be a percentage of units categorized as affordable housing.  
Parking must be addressed in situations where duplexes, triplexes, laneway housing and garden or in-house suites are concerned.   Permeable paving ought to be incorporated on some sites, and where adequate parking space does not exist, enforceable covenants precluding vehicle ownership must be signed.  
On the local level, a home share/home care programme ought to be introduced.  A registry can be established of community-minded homeowners, particularly seniors seeking assistance, to offer low rent in exchange for help with specific needs such as errands, cooking and gardening. Interests and abilities should be coordinated, and and references required from all parties. As deteriorating apartment buildings and condos are replaced, a percentage of units should be become affordable housing.
 
1. Mobility
 
I agree with the following proposal:
 
Work with municipalities and the province to provide facilities, services and programs that encourage a greater share of trips within and to Growth Centres and General Employment Lands, to be made by walking, cycling, transit, and low-to-zero-emissions and multiple- occupancy vehicles. 
Establish land use mixes and density thresholds that support a greater share of trips to Growth Centres and General Employment Lands to be made by walking, cycling, and transit, and low/zero emissions and multi-occupancy vehicles. 
 
Invest in transportation infrastructure and facilities that support the following travel choices to and within Growth Centres and General Employment Lands: 
• Walking 
• Cycling 
• Transit 
• Low/zero-emissions vehicles 
Will lead to the  reducing GHG emissions; minimizing energy use for travel; reducing travel costs; supporting healthy lifestyles; supporting fair access to jobs, goods, services and amenities; and supporting the creation of accessible,
 
Highest density mixed-use development within 400 m radius from future rapid transit station
 
Locate over 60% of new growth (dwelling units) in walkable, bikeable, transit serviced communities that provide a variety of housing types and tenures close to places of work, shopping, learning, recreation, parks and green space. 
 
*Revitalization E&N railway 
 
*Separation, where possible between street and the sidewalk and between bicycle paths and the street
 
*Re-introduction of the streetcar in Victoria
*Car-Free Days so citizens of all ages can experience the community without cars.
3.1 What do you think about the transportation mode shift target?
I agree with the following:
BC Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (MoTI) and BC Transit. The CRD and MoTI have worked collaboratively to prepare a Regional Transportation Plan (RTP), which defines the Regional Multi-Modal Network (RMN) and sets out directions to improve mobility, expand the range of accessible and affordable transportation choices, and support regional sustainability. The RSS incorporates the RMN as the backbone of the region’s transportation system and supports it with strong land use policy to focus growth along the RMN at mobility hubs
 I support RMN because it leads to an integration of roads with freight, transit, bicycles and pedestrians and to an evolution of liveable and vibrant communities.
3.2 What do you think about the zero emissions vehicles target?
 
Achieve a community vehicle fleet composed of 72% zero emission vehicles
 
Given that the date line is 2038 and that there is a commitment to reduce the use of fossil fuels, I think the target should be much higher
 I assume that a zero-emission community vehicle would be some form of public transit, and that the source of electricity would be ecologically sound renewable energy. 
I hope the target will also be moving away from car dependency. Roads, garages, parking lots and sprawl will increase until public transit is prioritized over the expansion of private car ownership, no matter the energy source that runs them. 
4. Wellbeing
Ecological problems, such as global climate change, largely driven by unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, are adding to the threats to the well-being of future generations. (Preamble, 1.2 International Conference on Population and Development, 1994)
Around the world many of the basic resources on which future generations will depend for their survival and well-being are being depleted and environmental degradation is intensifying, driven by unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, unprecedented growth in population, widespread and persistent poverty, and social and economic inequality (Preamble, 1.2. International Conference on Population and Development, 1994)
Areas degraded by human activities shall be rehabilitated for purposes and be compatible with the well-being of affected populations. All planning shall include, among its essential elements, the formulation of strategies for the conservation of nature, the establishment of inventories of ecosystems and assessments of the effects on nature of proposed policies and activities
 
VIVIR BIEN English translation of Morales’ Summit address to correspond more closely to the original Spanish transcription. The Spanish phrase Vivir Bien (Living Well), which recurs throughout Morales’ address, refers to the Andean concept of living in harmony with the community and nature, ensuring the sufficient means to live well without always seeking more and thereby depleting the resources of the planet.
 
VIVIR BIEN is central to Bolivia’s recognition of the rights of mother earth.
https://pwccc.wordpress.com/programa/
 
http://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9682:bolivia-gives-legal-rights-to-the-earth&catid=86:i-earth-news&Itemid=210
 
4.1 What do you think about the poverty reduction target?
 
Reduce the poverty rate by 75%
The goal should be 100 %. The best way would be through the Annual Guaranteed Income. The senior governments should be approached with this recommendation and as has been mentioned below poverty is one of the greatest determinants of health problems 
More and more there is recognition of the social determinants of health, poverty, and poor nutrition and environmentally induced illnesses.  The RSS must address these social determinants through implementation of plan with the emphasis being placed on prevention through nutrition and life style. 
The RSS could lead by calling upon the government of Canada to include the rights guaranteed in the legally binding International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to be enshrined in the Constitution
 
Article 11 
General comment on its implementation 
1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family
2. Food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. The States Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure the realization of this right, recognizing to this effect the essential importance of international co-operation based on free consent. General comment on its implementation 
3. The States Parties to the present Covenant, recognizing the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger, shall take, individually and through international co-operation, the measures, including specific programmes, which are needed: 
 
On the local level, a home share/home care programme ought to be introduced.  A registry can be established of community-minded homeowners, particularly seniors seeking assistance, to offer low rent in exchange for help with specific needs such as errands, cooking and gardening. Interests and abilities should be coordinated, and references required from all parties.  As deteriorating apartment buildings and condos are replaced, a percentage of units should be become affordable housing.
Also together against poverty has indicated that rents are rising rather than affordability of housing increasing
http://www.timescolonist.com/opinion/op-ed/comment-instead-of-increasing-rent-increase-affordability-1.1686958
4.2 What do you think about the core housing need target?
 
Reduce the number of households in core housing need by 25% from 2011 levels. 
 
Could this be that, if this were done, the right to affordable housing would be guaranteed within a specific period of time? The target should be that by a certain date affordable housing would be guaranteed for all.
 
If communities move more and more away from car dependency, including car ownership which considerably reduces the amount of space available for affordable housing, the availability of affordable housing would increase considerably.
While the ability to achieve this target is within the control of local government, the need for a national housing strategy linked to socially equitable and ecologically sound energy and transportation should become a federal election issue:
An innovative proposal that could help more seniors remain in their homes.  Home Share/Home Care would be a Registry of seniors and others in need of some form of assistance at home.  They would provide background information related to their needs and their interests. Companionable tenants with harmonizing interests could live in at an affordable rent. In exchange, they could help fulfill needs related to house and garden maintenance, meal preparation, errands, etc. An affordable Housing Organization could set up to explore and help implement such an initiative.   to promote and fully guarantee respect for human rights including labour rights, women’s rights civil and political rights, indigenous rights, social and cultural rights – rights to food, rights to housing, rights to safe drinking water and sewage, rights to education and rights to a universally accessible, not for profit health care system.
*Increase Cooperative housing and cooperative living
*The Housing First Principles
Housing First is made up of five interdependent principles that require simple yet profound, transformative shifts in thinking. Each principle is explained in one of the videos.
The principles are:
Immediate access to housing with no readiness conditions
Consumer choice and self-determination
Recovery orientation
Individualized and person-driven supports
Social and community integration
- See more at: http://www.raincityhousing.org/hf-p-into-p/#sthash.nyIayE3C.dpuf
 
5.1 What do you think about the jobs target?
Increase full time jobs at the same or greater rate than the rate of labour force growth
 
 I like this principle because it could be applied to prevent mega projects and big box stores that would impact on the environment and communities and would undermine the vision of the RSS 
 I support the following:
 
Supporting fair access to jobs, goods, services and amenities; 
 
Rural areas contribute by serving as the lungs of the region, protecting watersheds, providing wilderness areas, recreation areas, open spaces, offering jobs in forestry and agriculture, producing food and lumber, and maintaining the beauty of the natural and pastoral landscapes of the region. Urban areas provide a host of job opportunities, housing choices, health and education services, public gathering spaces, and arts/ cultural amenities. 
 
A.There could also be promoted a way of doing local jobs better and ending socially inequitable and environmentally unsound practices
(i).Selection forestry 
http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/publications/00092/note_03.pdf
 
End the clear cut logging, and the esthetic fringe which hides a clear cut from view. 
“With this system, your land is never out of production – you’re always growing trees. Merv Wilkinson. Merv feels his management style is fairly close to what foresters call “a true selection system,” but with one major exception. “I don’t over manage my forest,” he says. “I take my lead from nature rather than a textbook. Good forestry requires the flexibility to make decisions based on what is going in the forest, not always according to rules and theories.” See More on Selection Forestry in Other issues #2
 
(ii) Identification of biodiversity
 
Another important job would be to identify biodiversity which is required under the legally binding Convention on Biological Diversity. 
 
(iii). Keeping it living
Learning the ways that first Nations take medicines from nature without destroying nature
 
iv. Value added
End the export of raw logs and using them here
(v) Linking those who wish to grow edibles with those who have land to share.
b. Importance of not jeopardizing existing jobs
 
(i) The jobs in salmon fishing could be jeopardized by socially inequitable and environmental unsound practices such as salmon aquaculture which should be prohibited.
(ii) prohibit salmon aquaculture, http://www.salmonconfidential.ca/watch-salmon-confidential-documentary/
(iii) End the production and distribution of transgenic salmon should 
http://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9431:transgenic-salmon-is-fraught-with-uncertainties-and-irreversible-harmful-consequences&catid=87:c-earth-news&Itemid=212
 
(iv) Prevent pollution and invoke the precautionary principle
 Under article 194 5. of the legally binding un law of the sea is the obligation
To prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment and to take measures necessary to protect and preserve fragile ecosystems as well as the habitat of … forms of marine life. 
And under article 66 1&2, of the convention is the following obligation: 
1. States in whose rivers anadromous stock (such as salmon and surgeon) originate shall have the primary interest in and responsibility for such stocks and shall ensure their conservation 
In article 8j of the legally binding convention on biological diversity is the following obligation”
In the omnibus bill 38 the Harper government weakened section 35 of the fisheries act; undoubtedly, the weakening of section 35 was in contravention of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea and its agreements.
6. Agriculture Target
6.1 What do you think about the agriculture target?
 
Retain existing amount of Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) lands
 
 I think that the ALR should not just be retained but expanded and fragmentation of farmlands discouraged
 
Initiate a regional farmland trust and farmland acquisition fund, and support …and expand urban agriculture. 
I think the proposal for urban agriculture is so important but the expansion of urban agriculture should never be used as a justification of urban expansion, or for a reduction of ALR or existing farm land. 
I also support the linking of those who wish to grow edibles with those who have land to share.
I am pleased to see the CRD agreeing to the following:
 
We, the CRD, agree to: 
Lead the development of strategies and action plans that increase awareness of food choices that support sustainability and human health. Local municipalities, provincial and federal agencies are requested to: 4.3.1.
 
Participate in the preparation of strategies and action plans that increase awareness of food choices that support sustainability and human health. 4.3.2.
I am, however, concerned that in the RSS there was no proscription against unsustainable practices that would undermine food security
a. Proscription of unsustainable practices
(i)  I think that it is important to promote organic, pesticide-free, GE-free farming, and to ban genetically engineered food and crops, to support the UBCM resolution on GE-FREE BC and to institute a fair and just transition for farmers and communities affected by the ban
(ii) Pesticide regulations strengthened and the following pesticides, banned
*Glphosate as found in products such as Round-up, Sidekick. 
http://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9826:scandal-of-glyphosate-re-assessment-in-europe-inbox-x-press-releasei-sisorguk-747-am-4-hours-ago-to-me-the-intended-recipient-for-this-message-is-drjrussowgmailcom-the-institute-of-science-in-society-science-society-sustainability-httpwww&catid=86:i-earth-news&Itemid=210
http://www.change.org/en-CA/petitions/the-un-general-assembly-institute-a-global-ban-on-genetically-engineered-food-and-crops
*2,4-D such as weed n feed , Killex, etc. 
*Malathion Carbaryl such as SevinDiazinon
* Neonicotinoids should be banned because of the proven deleterious impact on the bee population.
 
 
 
7.1 What do you think about the Sea to Sea Green Blue Belt target?
 
Acquire 100% of the Sea-to-Sea Green Blue Belt
Absolutely an urgent goal
 
 
7 .2 Natural Environment
 
I support the following;
Connected, continuous ecological networks and conservation corridors are an important means for supporting resilient response to changes in natural habitat allowing for fluid movement of animal and plant life. 
Regional environmental health, including the maintenance of biological diversity and essential ecological processes, can only be accomplished by working across administrative boundaries. Human health and well-being are linked to a healthy natural environment and the availability of areas for outdoor recreation and personal rejuvenation in an easily accessed regionally connected system of green and blue spaces.1 Regional economic vitality is linked to the competitive advantage we obtain from maintaining a healthy natural environment and preserving the natural beauty of the region. 
 
This land use policy area includes major federal, provincial regional and municipal parks and ecological reserves that are protected for ecological and recreational purposes. Ecological reserves, along with BC parks must be expanded and a moratorium placed on resource or urban development which could jeopardize future ecological expansion. Respect must also be given for sites which could be designated either for a UN Biosphere Reserve designation or a listing of a world heritage designation under the 1972 UN Convention on the Protection of Natural and Cultural heritage. See other #8 in other issues
 
Abiding by precautionary principle is essential for protecting and conserving the environment and for reducing the ecological footprint.
 
Canada and BC are bound by the precautionary principle which reads
Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to prevent the threat." (Rio Declaration, UNCED1992).
 
In the Convention on Biological Biodiversity, the precautionary principle reads;
  Where there is a threat of significant reduction or
Loss of biological diversity, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to avoid or minimize such a threat
 
In the1992 UN Framework Convention on climate change:
The Parties should take precautionary measures to anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of climate change and its adverse effects, and where there are threats of irreversible damage, the lack of scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing such measures.
 
 And in1995 agreement “relating to the Conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks is the obligation to invoke the precautionary principle.
 
There is sufficient evidence that there could be serious irreversible damage, loss of significant biological diversity, adverse effects of climate, and harm to marine life to justify invoking the precautionary principle and end environmental destruction 
 
(ii) Instituting the fair and just transition principle
Often in projects that involve jobs and the environment there is as dispute between unions and environmentalists. An important labour principle should be applied. When there is the possibility that a project will be harmful to human health or the environment, there should be the institution of a fair and just transition for workers involved with the project.
 
(iii)Transboundary principle; this principle usually applies to adjacent states but could also apply to adjacent regional districts.
 
It is important to develop anticipatory policies and of preventing, mitigating and monitoring significant adverse environmental impact in general and more specifically in a transboundary context (Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context, 1991).
 
8. Infrastructure
8.1 What do you think of the infrastructure target?
 
Identify, by 2020, the long-term capital plans for CRD utilities and major infrastructure improvements necessary to address the impacts of climate change and natural hazards
 
There are two types of Na-Techs; the first is technology destroyed through natural occurrences the other is nature being destroyed by technology.  An example of the first is the Fujiyama nuclear plant destroyed by a tsunami and an example of the second is the accident in Mount Polley mine disaster or accident caused by Enbridge spill. The latter two were caused by gross negligence. Perhaps the nuclear accident was too- building in a country that is susceptible to Earth Quakes.
 
Hopefully, the member states, at COP21 will finally agree on a bold set of mitigation targets and there will not be onerous infrastructure to address climate change. Mitigation is essential to prevent the need for excessive adaption 
 
9. Water 
9.1 What do you think of the water target?
 
Defer the need for the expansion of regional water supply areas or reserve
 
If there were an immediate campaign to conserve water through numerous means such as discouraging lawns, reducing urban sprawl, collecting water in barrels, reducing impermeable surfaces etc., then in the future there might be a reduced rather than an increased need for expansion
 
10.1 What do you think of the waste target?
 
Achieve a waste disposal rate of no greater than 250 kg per person
 I do think a limit is important. During what time period? And by when?
End the privatization, including Public Private Partnerships, of public services such as sewage  
Pursue waste management strategies that provide farmers and food growers with access to the region’s organic waste materials. And participate in development of waste management strategies that provide farmers and food growers with access to the region’s organic waste materials. This a good proposal and should definitely reduce waste, and move away from the practice of some municipalities of transferring the waste outside the region
 
The goal of achieving a sustainable waste system that deals with climate change issues. Such a system would require tertiary treatment, eliminate all toxins in the biosolids, produce and utilize large volumes of gas from the biosolid treatment process, and recover and use the purified water as well.
 
; DND lands must be returned to the jurisdiction of the regional district and perhaps  the site could be used for a sewage treatment plant. Also, DND is planning to dump its waste into a nearby lake. Another good reason for returning DND to local control
 
.11.1 What do you think of the emergency preparedness target?
 
By 2018 municipalities have completed and tested an Emergency Response Plan for a catastrophic earthquake 
 
 I think that it could be achieved earlier
 
The best preparation for emergencies is prevention
 
Under the UN Convention on Reduction of Disasters (1994), governments enlarged the concept of natural disaster prevention to include na-techs technological disasters and placed an emphasis on the imperative of developing: “a global culture of prevention as an essential component of an integrated approach to disaster reduction", and acknowledged that disaster response alone is not sufficient, as it yields only temporary results at a very high cost. We have followed this limited approach for too long.”... prevention contributes to lasting improvement in safety and is essential to integrated disaster management? 
 
The convention also affirmed the following commitment:
to developing disaster prevention is also closely linked to the precautionary principle which reads: where there is a threat to the environment lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing measures to prevent the threat.
 
 In the CRD there are other activities which could result in a disaster
 
(i) War games such as Exercise Trident Fury must be discontinued by 2015
 
(ii) the intrusion into Canadian waters by US. Nuclear powered and nuclear arms capable vessels contravenes obligations to prevent disasters, commitments to eliminate weapons of mass destruction, must be discontinued in 2015 the berthing of nuclear powered and nuclear-arms capable vessels in an urban harbour.
 
(III) Oil tankers along the Juan de Fuca must be discontinued in 2015
 
There is a need to endorse the anticipatory principle:
 
the anticipatory principle is a pro-active measure to ensure that substances, processes and activities which are harmful to the environment are prevented from entering the environment, and to ensure that costly subsequent means of restoration are avoided, and that irreversible environmental degradation are avoided. adverse effects include, but are not limited to: toxicity, bioaccumulation, bioconcentration, persistence, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, reduction of carbon sinks, increased greenhouse gases, increased human-induced climate change, reduction or loss of biodiversity, as well as heat, light and electro-magnetic radiation, atomic radiation, and hormone mimicry (Chapter 12, Agenda 21, UNCED.
 
For further principles to prevent disasters see principles of compliance
http://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10074:principles-of-compliance-mandatory-international-normative-standards-mins&catid=74:ijustice-news&Itemid=216
12. Energy
 
12.1 What do you think of the energy target?
 
Improve region-wide energy efficiency of building stock by 50% (relative to 2007 levels)
 
…active transportation, such as walking, cycling and transit will have an influence on simultaneously reducing GHG emissions and minimizing energy use for travel;
 
The solution is clear. We need to shift our societies and economies off fossil fuels and on to 100% clean, sustainable socially equitable and environmentally sound renewable energy. There is urgency to this, because we need to make the change within a generation. Getting to 100% clean energy will require massive change, but this change is entirely achievable - we have the alternative energy technology needed to replace fossil fuels. 
 
Investments in socially equitable and ecological sound energy and divestments of fossil fuels will have a significant impact on the energy targets
 
Innovative: Is this decision/investment innovative? Will it provide new solutions to address problems? Will it lead the way for others? Will it stimulate economic activity that is cleaner/greener than would otherwise be the case? These are important questions.
 
There must be investment in socially equitable environmentally sound energy funds , such as solar and wind,  and transportation funds, such as public transit, and divestment of socially inequitable and environmentally unsound  practices such as geoengineering, energy, such as fossil fuels, biofuels,  and transportation such as personal automobiles. 
 
Investments must be only in funds that have both a positive and negative screens that would comply with the stated vision of the promoting of socially equitable and environmentally sound renewable energy and transportation. it would be unconscionable to invest in the greenhouse producing energy or transportation 
 
The CRD and member municipalities have a long history of taking action to reduce GHG emissions and energy use and the RSS sets out a program to build on earlier initiatives. 
In the Capital Region, GHG emissions come from the transportation system, the heating, cooling and lighting of buildings, and waste (Figure 7: GHG Emissions Sources). Key RSS climate-related actions focus on: 
 
• Reducing energy demand (e.g., increasing transit and active transportation, multi-storey buildings) 
 
• Increasing energy efficiency (e.g., improving building construction, district energy systems) 
Increasing building and infrastructure energy efficiencies is fundamental to achieving significant GHG emissions reductions. Energy recovery from waste allows for closed loop systems that can reduce GHG emissions, and increase energy efficiencies. Eco-industrial developments further contribute to waste reduction by creating environments that support synergies between businesses. For example, one business will use waste from another business and transform it into useable products. Eco-industrial developments also foster new business opportunities. 
 
Full-cost accounting for new, retrofit and upgraded infrastructure and facilities takes into account on-going and long-term costs, such as operation and maintenance expenses. This provides a sound basis for comprehensively assessing the costs and benefits of building ‘green’ (i.e., energy and water efficient).
 
1.1.3 Pursue opportunities to create public/private partnerships to establish clean district energy systems for new development and retrofit projects. 
PPP have generally been disappointing
 
1.2.3 Develop programs to support the use of alternative renewable energy generation technologies and clean district energy systems. 
1.2.4 Support energy retrofits that incorporate green building standards in the design and construction of CRD buildings and support green building construction standards for privately-owned buildings. 
1.2.5 Develop renewable energy public education and outreach programs to reduce GHG emissions. 
1.2.6 Provide input to approving authorities on measures to mitigate potential community impacts of proposed renewable energy generation projects in the region. 
1.2.7 Adopt OCPs for the JdF EA that facilitate renewable energy generation projects on Natural Resource Lands that address environmental and community impacts. 
Local municipalities, provincial and federal agencies and public utilities are requested to: 
1.2.8 Support the use of renewable energy generation technologies and clean district energy systems. 
 
13. Rate of Progress
How fast should we make progress?
 
Recognition of the complexity and interdependence of all these issues; it might be advisable to proceed in an integrate way rather than in the traditional linear sequential way 
 
14. Additional Target Suggestions
(i)Implement selection forestry by the end of 2015 See #2 in Other Issues
(ii) to submit a proposal for the CRD o become a UN Biosphere Reserve within 3 years See #8 in Other Issues
 
(iii)Help Victoria Council work towards enshrining the Right to a healthy environment See #6 in Other Issues
 
Part D: Other Issues
 
1. Water Servicing
 
Should the water servicing policy be changed to allow for potential water servicing beyond the current growth management boundaries to accommodate water serve throughout all municipalities and to Otter Point, East Sooke, and Port Renfrew in the Juan de Fuca Electoral Area, subject to full cost recovery and alternative measures to limit development growth in rural areas?
 
Access to water is a fundamental human right for those already here and who are not able to obtain water from any other source but should not be used to spawn urban development that would contribute to urban sprawl and undermine the strong message reiterated in the RSS- the containment of growth within compact complete communities and the supporting green infrastructure. 
 
2. Selection Forestry
Promoting selection forestry 
 
Merc Wilkinson’s Sustainable Selection Forestry
 
By Tisha Wilkinson
 
Sustainable selection forestry is a method of managing the forest and harvesting forest products in a manner that conserves forest ecosystems.  This method of forestry is a valuable tool and management practice to help ensure we retain for the future the forest resource opportunities we have today.
 
Manage the forest for diversity.  This involves maintaining a mixed species forest.  The benefits of maintaining a mixed species forest are:
Healthy and varied bird populations, which control/prevent insect infestations
Improved soil quality 
o Soil building species such as alder add nitrogen to the soil
o humus building species, such as maple shed leaves that protect soil from evaporation and provides essential organic matter
Encourage natural seeding.  Identify and leave seed (parent) trees.  Parent trees are those that are healthy; demonstrate strong growth, free of genetic defects, and producers of good quality cones. 
 
Selective Harvests.  Select individual candidate trees to harvest in order to:
maintain species diversity 
maintain forest stand health
maintain forest stand structure including mixed species and ages
manipulate the forest canopy to encourage and protect productive natural regeneration
Sustainable Harvest.  Never harvest more timber than the annual growth rate of the timber.  Determine and monitor the growth rate as represented by the number of cubic meters of growth per hectare per year. This is used as the basis for the maximum annual allowable cut.
 
 Protect forest capital during harvest.  Harvesting activities during bird nesting season may be disruptive to bird population.  Compaction of soils may occur more easily during certain seasons when the soil is saturated by rainfall. The drop zone must be carefully considered in order to minimize damage to surrounding trees and seedlings.   Methods of extracting the fallen tree from the drop zone must be considered prior to felling the tree.  The more difficult to extract, the more damage that the surrounding fauna could sustain during the extraction process.  Minimizing the collateral damage is key.
 
Protection of soils.  Methods of extracting fallen trees should be well planned and executed in order to prevent soil erosion and compaction.  Ensure that the top, branches, leaves, needles, rotten wood and unusable portions of the trunk remain on the forest floor so that they are left to rot and contribute to the improvement of the soil. 
 
3. Ending the destruction of traditional deer habitat and co-existing with deer in the CRD
 I am surprised that this issue was not raised. It would have been an opportunity to estimate public support for alternatives to the cull which is now being done in Oak Bay. Oak Bay should not be infamous for culling the deer to save the roses. 
The current cull in Oak Bay should be terminated and a pilot project of use of Spay vac should be initiated in the event that a reduction of population might be advisable
Citizens should be encouraged to plant crops that the deer do not eat and erect fences in key areas. Better placed deer crossing signs ought to be erected in vulnerable areas. 
The CRD had made the following non-binding recommendations which unfortunately were not followed. 
3. Increased signage
4. Reduced speed limits in  deer crossing paths
5. Public education
6. To do an accurate deer count
In the future after all the recommendation were acted, if a deer count warrants deer population reduction, a program of contraception should to be implemented.  Given the cruelty of the cull, it should never be used. Their habitat has been permitted to be destroyed, and as a result they have migrated to the human settlements; citizens should learn to co-exist with the deer.
4. Coordination with First Nations 
The integrity of the RSS can be strengthened by First Nations participation in the plan development process on a government-to-government basis of mutual respect, cooperation and collaboration. The CRD is committed to striving towards a sustainable future that includes a continuous process of shared learning and collaboration with First Nations to advance initiatives that support mutual interests. 
 
To strengthen First Nations Participation, the RSS should acknowledge
The UN legally binding Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Given that this declaration has been almost universally adopted, the provisions have the status of being international peremptory norms
 
Article 2
Indigenous peoples and individuals are free and equal to all other peoples and individuals and have the right to be free from any kind of discrimination, in the exercise of their rights, in particular that based on their indigenous origin or identity.
 
Article 3 Indigenous peoples have the right to self-determination. by virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.
 
Article 4 indigenous peoples, in exercising their right to self-determination, have the right to autonomy or self-government in matters relating to their internal and local affairs, as well as ways and means for financing their autonomous functions.
 
Article 5 indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and strengthen their distinct political, legal, economic, social and cultural institutions, while retaining their right to participate fully, if they so choose, in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the state.
 
Article 7
7.1. Indigenous individuals have the rights to life, physical and mental integrity, liberty and security of person.
7.2. Indigenous peoples have the collective right to live in freedom, peace
and security as distinct peoples and shall not be subjected to any act of genocide or any other act of violence, including forcibly removing children of the group to another group.
 
Article 8 
States shall provide effective mechanisms for prevention of, and redress for:
(a) any action which has the aim or effect of depriving them of their integrity as distinct peoples, or of their cultural values or ethnic identities;
(b) any action which has the aim or effect of dispossessing them of their lands, territories or resources;
Article 9 
Indigenous peoples and individuals have the right to belong to an indigenous community or nation, in accordance with the traditions and customs of the community or nation concerned. no discrimination of any kind may arise from the exercise of such a right.
 
Article 10
indigenous peoples shall not be forcibly removed from their lands or territories. no relocation shall take place without the free, prior and informed consent of the indigenous peoples concerned and after agreement on just and fair compensation and, where possible, with the option of return.
 
Article 11
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to practice and revitalize their cultural traditions and customs. this includes the right to maintain, protect and develop the past, present and future manifestations of their cultures, such as archaeological and historical sites, artefacts, designs, ceremonies, technologies and visual and performing arts and literature.
2. States shall provide redress through effective mechanisms, which may include restitution, developed in conjunction with indigenous peoples, with respect to their cultural, intellectual, religious and spiritual property taken without their free, prior and informed consent or in violation of their laws, traditions and customs.
 
Article 12
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to manifest, practice, develop and teach their spiritual and religious traditions, customs and ceremonies; the right to maintain, protect, and have access in privacy to their religious and cultural sites; the right to the use and control of their ceremonial objects; and the right to the repatriation of their human remains.
2. States shall seek to enable the access and/or repatriation of ceremonial
objects and human remains in their possession through fair, transparent and effective
mechanisms developed in conjunction with indigenous peoples concerned.
 
Article 13
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to revitalize, use, develop and transmit
to future generations their histories, languages, oral traditions, philosophies, writing
systems and literatures, and to designate and retain their own names for
communities, places and persons.
2. states shall take effective measures to ensure that this right is protected
and also to ensure that indigenous peoples can understand and be understood in
political, legal and administrative proceedings, where necessary through the
provision of interpretation or by other appropriate means.
 
Article 14
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to establish and control their
educational systems and institutions providing education in their own languages, in
a manner appropriate to their cultural methods of teaching and learning.
2. Indigenous individuals, particularly children, have the right to all levels
and forms of education of the state without discrimination.
3. States shall, in conjunction with indigenous peoples, take effective
measures, in order for indigenous individuals, particularly children, including those
living outside their communities, to have access, when possible, to an education in
their own culture and provided in their own language.
 
Article 15
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the dignity and diversity of their
cultures, traditions, histories and aspirations which shall be appropriately reflected
in education and public information.
2. States shall take effective measures, in consultation and cooperation with
the indigenous peoples concerned, to combat prejudice and eliminate discrimination
and to promote tolerance, understanding and good relations among indigenous
peoples and all other segments of society.
 
Article 16
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to establish their own media in their
own languages and to have access to all forms of non-indigenous media without
discrimination.
2. States shall take effective measures to ensure that state-owned media
duly reflect indigenous cultural diversity. states, without prejudice to ensuring full
freedom of expression, should encourage privately owned media to adequately
reflect indigenous cultural diversity.
 
Article 17
1. Indigenous individuals and peoples have the right to enjoy fully all rights established under applicable international and domestic labour law.
2. States shall in consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples take
specific measures to protect indigenous children from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual,
moral or social development, taking into account their special vulnerability and the importance of education for their empowerment.
3. Indigenous individuals have the right not to be subjected to any discriminatory conditions of labour and, inter alia, employment or salary.
 
Article 18 
Indigenous peoples have the right to participate in decision-making in matters which would affect their rights, through representatives chosen by themselves in accordance with their own procedures, as well as to maintain and develop their own indigenous decision-making institutions.
 
Article 19 
states shall consult and cooperate in good faith with the indigenous peoples concerned through their own representative institutions in order to obtain their free, prior and informed consent before adopting and implementing legislative or administrative measures that may affect them.
 
Article 20
1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and develop their political,
economic and social systems or institutions, to be secure in the enjoyment of their own means of subsistence and development, and to engage freely in all their traditional and other economic activities.
2. Indigenous peoples deprived of their means of subsistence and development are entitled to just and fair redress.
 
Article 21
1. Indigenous peoples have the right, without discrimination, to the improvement of their economic and social conditions, including, inter alia, in the areas of education, employment, vocational training and retraining, housing, sanitation, health and social security.
2. States shall take effective measures and, where appropriate, special measures to ensure continuing improvement of their economic and social conditions. particular attention shall be paid to the rights and special needs of indigenous elders, women, youth, children and persons with disabilities.
a/61/l.67 ….for full declaration see http://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10079:united-nations-declaration-on-the-rights-of-indigenous-peoples&catid=74:ijustice-news&Itemid=216
 
 
5. Imperative to have Collaboration among Municipalities
 
AN EXAMPLE 
 
BOWKER CREEK 100 YEAR PLAN
The Bowker Creek Watershed Management Plan (2003) guides all activities undertaken by the Bowker Creek Initiative.
Ten key actions have been identified as important first steps for municipalities and other land stewards in the next 
Three to five years, as follows (see Section 6 for details): 
1. Review and revise municipal plans to include Bowker Creek goals and actions 
2. Adopt requirements to reduce effective impervious area for new developments.
3. Remove specific invasive species beginning to colonize the watershed.4
4. Complete a pilot project to locate and build a demonstration rainwater infiltration/retention structure in each municipality.
5. .Support development of an urban forest strategy in Oak Bay to complement those underway in Saanich and Victoria.
6. Develop a strategy to acquire key properties as they come available.
7. Work with Oak Bay High School to design and implement creek restoration on school district property. 
8. Participate in the Shelburne Valley Action Plan process to identify current and future opportunities for creek restoration, rainwater infiltration and/or greenway development. 
9. Work with creek-side landowners between Pearl and Trent Streets to achieve the long-term vision.
10. .Continue with restoration at Browning Park.
 
9. Supporting the right to a healthy environment being enshrined in the constitution 
 
See Council of Victoria Declaration
 
http://www.vicnews.com/news/286138241.html
 
7. Re-instating and expanding Environmental Education in the school system in BC
 
 I believe that RSS should come out in support of environmental education in the schools in BC. It appears that, at the moment, there is little environmental education in the classrooms.
 
While education is a responsibility of the provincial government, the CRD should work with the Ministry of Education to ensure that environmental education has a prominent role in the education of BC students.
 
8 Encouraging Divestment in funds that invest in socially inequitable and ecologically unsound practices
 
Investments must be only in funds that have both a positive and negative screens that would comply with the stated vision of the promoting of socially equitable and environmentally sound renewable energy and transit. It would be unconscionable to invest in the greenhouse gas industries and the automobile industry while advocating a bold vision for addressing climate change.
Encourage investment in socially equitable and environmentally sound renewable energy, transportation, and socially responsible ventures.
 
10. Nomination of UN Biosphere Reserve
I believe that nominating the CRD fits well into the vision of the RSS
Target
Within 3 years, compile background information to apply for the CRD Application for a UN Biosphere Reserve
 
Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal/marine ecosystems, or a combination thereof, which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO's Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB) They are established to promote and demonstrate a balanced relationship between humans and the biosphere. Biosphere reserves are designated by the International Coordinating Council of the MAB Programme at the request of the State concerned. Individual biosphere reserves remain under the sovereign jurisdiction of the State where they are situated. Collectively, all biosphere reserves form a World Network in which participation by States is voluntary.
 
(i) Applying the1972 UN Convention on the Protection of Natural and Cultural and Natural Heritage
 
http://whc.unesco.org/archive/convention-en.pdf
 
 
Under the 1972 UN Convention on the Protection of Natural and Cultural heritage sites that are identified   as being of universal value are protected
(ii)
(iii) Implementing Parks Protected Areas and the Human Future: the Caracas Declaration  
 
The Caracas Declaration was adopted by over fifteen hundred leaders and participants at the Fourth World Congress on national parks and Protected Areas. (Feb. 1992).
http://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10073:failure-of-bc-to-abide-by-the-caracas-declaration&catid=89:bc-earth-news&Itemid=213
 
(iv) BC Government’s Commitment to abide by the 1992 Caracas Declaration
 
In a letter dated March, 1992, from both the Provincial Ministry of Forests and the Provincial Ministry of Environment is the following commitment
 
As we, in BC Parks and BC Forest Service begin to work on implementing our components of B.C.'s protected areas under the aegis of the Commission on Resources and Environment, we will be mindful of this Declaration [Parks Protected Areas and the Human Future: the Caracas Declaration] and its implications. Our objective will be to have a system of protected areas which we are proud to present to the world. 
 
Through this intention to be "mindful of this Declaration" the Provincial Government of B.C. through its Ministries of Environment and Forests has recognized the Caracas Declaration and the UN Resolution 37/7 (1982) World Charter for Nature. 
 
B.C’s endorsement of the Caracas Convention) and in its participation in the Caracas Congress commits BC to "move from logging old growth to second growth" (Report on implementation requirements of the Caracas Declaration, Mar. 1992)
 
Other recommendations
 By the Caracas Congress on means to fulfill the Caracas Declaration 
 
3.2. Conserving Biodiversity
 
The congress urgently requested that all countries urgently undertake surveys to identify additional sites of critical importance for conservation of biological diversity, and wherever possible, accord total protection to them.  Harvesting should be relocated from primary to secondary forests and tree plantations in previously deforested areas; or - where this is not possible ¬ sustainable forest harvesting systems which favour natural species diversity should be developed and introduced. p 8
 
3.3. Conservation on a regional scale
 
Protected areas have sometimes been seen as islands of nature and tranquility, surrounded by incompatible land uses. But the congress made it clear that such an "island mentality" is fatal in the long run. The congress recognized that it is unlikely that protected areas will be able to conserve biodiversity if they are surrounded by degraded habitats that limit gene-flow alter nutrient and water cycles and produce regional and global climate change that may lead to the final disappearance of these "island parks".  Protected areas therefore need to be part of broader regional approaches to land management. The term bioregion was used to describe extensive areas of land and water which include protected areas and surrounding lands, preferably including complete watersheds, where all agencies and interested parties have agreed to collaborative management. 
 
Recommendation 3
Global efforts to conserve biological diversity. 
 
"the loss of biodiversity has reached crisis proportion and if present trends continue up to 25 % of the world's species may be sentenced to extinction or suffer sever genetic depletion in the next several decades, accompanied by equally significant and alarming degradation of habitats and ecosystems. This loss of biological diversity is impoverishing the world of its genetic resources, its species, habitats and ecosystems. 
All species deserve respect, regardless of their usefulness to humanity. This Principle was endorsed by the UN Assembly when it adopted the World Charter for nature in 1982.  The loss of the living richness of the planet is dangerous, because of the environmental systems of the world support all life, and we do not know which are the key components in maintaining their essential functions. 
 
The IVth World Congress on national Parks and Protected Areas recommends that: 
 
a) governments make the protection of biological diversity, including species and habitat richness, representativeness and scarcity, a fundamental principle for  the identification, establishment, management and public enjoyment of national parts and other protected areas; 
b) all countries urgently undertake surveys to identify additional sites of critical importance for conservation of biological diversity and wherever possible, accord total protection to them Harvesting should be relocated from primary to secondary forests and tree plantations in previous deforested areas; or — where this is not possible — sustainable forest harvesting systems which favour natural species diversity should be developed and introduced: p. 30 
 
Recommendation 4:
Entitled legal regimes for protected areas. 
 
Protected areas require a mutually reinforcing system of international and national environmental law for their establishment, maintenance and management. International treaties establish a harmonized set of obligations with regard to areas within national jurisdictions and activities having effect beyond national jurisdictional boundaries.  These obligations must be reflected in national legislation; otherwise, the treaties cannot be implemented.  In turn, innovative national legislation provides a basis and impetus for further international law. The dynamic interaction between the two levels is thus conducive to further progress.  p. 31
 
(iii)Abiding by the Convention on Biological Diversity
 
In the RSS there are statements related to biodiversity such as ‘maintain biodiversity, biodiversity conservation, biodiversity protection, and ensure biodiversity.
There is no mention that BC is bound to discharge obligations under the Convention on Biological Diversity.
The Convention was endorsed by the BC is the following:
  In the Preamble of the CBD is the precautionary principle which reads;
Where there is a threat of significant reduction or loss of biological diversity, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to avoid or minimize such a threat 
In the operational clause is the following obligations:
Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate, in particular for the purposes of Articles 8 to 10:
 
(a) Identify components of biological diversity important for its conservation and sustainable use having regard to the indicative list of categories set down in Annex I;
 
(b) Monitor, through sampling and other techniques, the components of biological diversity identified pursuant to subparagraph (a) above, paying particular attention to those requiring urgent conservation measures and those which offer the greatest potential for sustainable use;
 
(c) Identify processes and categories of activities which have or are likely to have significant adverse impacts on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and monitor their effects through sampling and other techniques; and
 
(d) Maintain and organize, by any mechanism data, derived from identification and monitoring activities pursuant to subparagraphs (a), (b) and (c) above.
 
(j) To respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity 
(iv)  Applying the 1992 World Charter of Nature principles:
 
Convinced that :( a) every form of life is unique, warranting respect regardless of its worth to man, and, to accord other organisms such recognition, man must be guided by a moral code of action,
 
All species deserve respect, regardless of their usefulness to humanity... The loss of the living richness of the planet is dangerous, because of the environmental systems of the world support all life, and we do not know which are the key components in maintaining their essential functions. 
 
(v) Strengthening enforcement under the Species at Risk Act and registry  and 
IUCN red and blue lists
 
 
9. Extended parks
 
5.1.5 Extend the Regional Parks Land Acquisition Fund beyond 2019. 
5.1.6 Collaborate with the public, private and non-profit organizations to identify areas of interest identified in the Regional Parks Strategic Plan and to develop strategies that support biodiversity protection and contribute to a regional ecological connectivity network. 
Also I support the following
5.1.10 Adopt OCPs for the JdF EA that: 
• identify policies to work with the province and private landowners to protect land identified as sensitive ecological areas, and as areas of interest in the Regional Parks Strategic Plan; and 
• ensure the long-term protection of Capital Green Lands shown in Map 7: Capital Green Lands and Blue Spaces Core Area. 
 
Local municipalities agree to identify the relationship between their OCP and the following actions in their RCS: 
5.1.11 Locate Capital Green Lands consistently with Map 7: Capital Green Lands and Blue Spaces Core Area. 
Local municipalities are requested to: 
5.1.12 Participate in a collaborative process to implement the Green/Blue Spaces Strategy for marine areas identified as Blue Space Core Area Policy Area on Map 7: Capital Green Lands
 
 
 
 
 
Last Updated on Thursday, 22 October 2015 07:49
 

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