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SDG Goal 8:Socially equitable and environmental sound employment and fair and just transition principle PDF Print E-mail
Justice News
Posted by Joan Russow
Wednesday, 30 September 2015 05:29

NOTE; i HAVE EXAMINED AN ASPECT OF THE OFFICIAL SDG  GOAL 8 WHICH READS; SDG 8 Sustainable Economic Growth full and productive Employment and decent work for all

 
by Joan Russow 
Global compliance Research Project.
This piece  is under construction 
 
 
 
 
While the above goal  and indicatorsis important, it is equally important to recognized that there have been years of unfulfilled state obligations and commitments that should be discharged and fulfilled.  Often Sates have used language such as “ensure that” or “action to be done’. The goals of the  SDGs must be perceived not in a vacuum of international instruments. In many cases each SDG Goal ia placed in the context of many of the other SDG Goals.  I have done a survey of relevant statements related to “work” For example in the 1995 Beijing Declaration is the following commitment; 
(a) Enact and enforce legislation to guarantee the rights of women and men
to equal pay for equal work or work of equal value; Also in Agenda 21 ia the commitment to STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS and also in agenda 21 a commitment witha target; 29.3. the following objectives are proposed for accomplishment by the year 2000:
a. To promote ratification of relevant conventions of ILO and the enactment of legislation
in support of those conventions;29.4. For workers and their trade unions to play a full and informed role in support of sustainable
development, Governments and employers should promote the rights of individual workers to
freedom of association and the protection of the right to organize as laid down in ILO conventions.
 I have devide the Review into two sections; 
 
Section  A Importance  of international precedents
Section B. Implication of the Principle of fair and Just transition
 
A. IMPORTANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PRECEDENTS;  PREVIOUS INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS AND COMMITMENTS
 
A survey is being done to place ‘work” in the context of previous international obligations and commitments
 
***1975  DECLARATION ON THE USE OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL PROGRESS IN THE INTERESTS OF PEACE AND FOR THE BENEFITS OF HUMANITY 
 
Resolution adopted by the General Assembly 
 
3384  Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind [Humanity]
 
 
The General Assembly,
Noting that scientific and technological progress has become one of the most important factors in the development of human society,
 
Taking into consideration that, while scientific and technological developments provide ever increasing opportunities to better the conditions of life of peoples and nations, in a number of instances they can give rise to social problems, as well as threaten the human rights and fundamental freedoms of the individual,
 
Noting with concern that scientific and technological achievements can be used to intensify the arms race, suppress national liberation movements and deprive individuals and peoples of their human rights and fundamental freedoms,
 
Also noting with concern that scientific and technological achievements can entail dangers for the civil and political rights of the individual or of the group and for human dignity,
 
Noting the urgent need to make full use of scientific and technological developments for the welfare of man and to neutralize the present and possible future harmful consequences of certain scientific and technological achievements,
 
Recognizing that scientific and technological progress is of great importance in accelerating the social and economic development of developing countries,
 
Aware that the transfer of science and technology is one of the principal ways of accelerating the economic development of developing countries,
 
Reaffirming the right of peoples to self-determination and the need to respect human rights and freedoms and the dignity of the human person in the conditions of scientific and technological progress,
 
Desiring to promote the realization of the principles which form the basis of the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights, the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, the Declaration on Social Progress and Development, and the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States,
 
Solemnly proclaims that:
 
All States shall promote international co-operation to ensure that the results of scientific and technological developments are used in the interests of strengthening international peace and security, freedom and independence, and also for the purpose of the economic and social development of peoples and the realization of human rights and freedoms in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.
 
All States shall take appropriate measures to prevent the use of scientific and technological developments, particularly by the State organs, to limit or interfere with the enjoyment of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of the individual as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights and other relevant international instruments.
 
All States shall take measures to ensure that scientific and technological achievements satisfy the material and spiritual needs of all sectors of the population.
All States shall refrain from any acts involving the use of scientific and technological achievements for the purposes of violating the sovereignty and territorial integrity of other Stares, interfering in their internal affairs, waging aggressive wars, suppressing national liberation movements or pursuing a policy of racial discrimination. Such acts are not only a flagrant violation of the Charter of the United Nations and principles of international law, but constitute an inadmissible distortion of the purposes that should guide scientific and technological developments for the benefit of mankind.
 
All States shall co-operate in the establishment, strengthening and development of the scientific and technological capacity of developing countries with a view to accelerating the realization of the social and economic rights of the peoples of those countries.
All States shall take measures to extend the benefits of science and technology to all strata of the population and to protect them, both socially and materially, from possible harmful effects of the misuse of scientific and technological developments, including their misuse to infringe upon the rights of the individual or of the group, particularly with regard to respect for privacy and the protection of the human personality and its physical and intellectual integrity.
 
All States shall take the necessary measures, including legislative measures, to ensure that the utilization of scientific and technological achievements promotes the fullest realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms without any discrimination whatsoever on grounds of race, sex, language or religious beliefs.
 
All States shall take effective measures, including legislative measures, to prevent and preclude the utilization of scientific and technological achievements to the detriment of human rights and fundamental freedoms and the dignity of the human person.
All States shall, whenever necessary take action to ensure compliance with legislation guaranteeing human rights and freedoms in the conditions of scientific and technological developments.
 
 
****1975 CEDAW
Article 5
 
In compliance with the fundamental obligations laid down in article 2 of this Convention, States Parties undertake to prohibit and to eliminate racial discrimination in all its forms and to guarantee the right of everyone, without distinction as to race, colour, or national or ethnic origin, to equality before the law, notably in the enjoyment of the following rights:
 
i) The rights to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work, to protection against unemployment, to equal pay for equal work, to just and favourable remuneration;
 
**** ICESCR
 
Article 6
1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right to work, which includes the right of everyone to the opportunity to gain his living by work which he freely chooses or accepts, and will take appropriate steps to safeguard this right. 
 
Article 7
The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of just and favourable conditions of work which ensure, in particular:
(a) Remuneration which provides all workers, as a minimum, with: 
3
(i) Fair wages and equal remuneration for work of equal value without distinction of any kind, in
particular women being guaranteed conditions of work not inferior to those enjoyed by men, with equal pay for equal work;
(ii) A decent living for themselves and their families in accordance with the provisions of the present Covenant;
(b) Safe and healthy working conditions; (c) Equal opportunity for everyone to be promoted in his employment to an appropriate higher level, subject to no considerations other than those of seniority and competence;
(d ) Rest, leisure and reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay, as well as remuneration for public holidays 
 
Article 10
The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize that:
 
2. Special protection should be accorded to mothers during a reasonable period before and after
childbirth. During such period working mothers should be accorded paid leave or leave with adequate social security benefits. 
 
 
3. Special measures of protection and assistance should be taken on behalf of all children and young persons without any discrimination for reasons of parentage or other conditions. Children and young persons should be protected from economic and social exploitation. Their employment in work harmful to their morals or health or dangerous to life or likely to hamper their normal development should be punishable by law. States should also set age limits below which the paid employment of child labour should be prohibited and punishable by law. 
 
Article 14
Each State Party to the present Covenant which, at the time of becoming a Party, has not been able to secure in its metropolitan territory or other territories under its jurisdiction compulsory primary education, free of charge, undertakes, within two years, to work out and adopt a detailed plan of action for the progressive implementation, within a reasonable number of years, to be fixed in the plan, of the principle of compulsory education free of charge for all. 
 
 
****1992 AGENDA 21 UNCED
29. Strengthening the role of workers and their trade unions
 
5.21. Vulnerable population groups (such as rural landless workers, ethnic minorities, refugees,
migrants, displaced people, women heads of household) whose changes in demographic structure may have specific impacts on sustainable development should be identified.
 
(d) Capacity-building
6.9. Governments should consider adopting enabling and facilitating strategies to promote the participation of communities in meeting their own needs, in addition to providing direct support to the provision of health-care services. A major focus should be the preparation of community-based health and health related
workers to assume an active role in community health education, with emphasis on team work,
social mobilization and the support of other development workers. National programmes should cover district health systems in urban, peri-urban and rural areas, the delivery of health programmes at the district level, and the development and support of referral services. 
 
6.11. With HIV infection levels estimated to increase to 30-40 million by the year 2000, the socioeconomic impact of the pandemic is expected to be devastating for all countries, and increasingly for women and children. While direct health costs will be substantial, they will be dwarfed by the indirect costs of the pandemic - mainly costs associated with the loss of income and decreased productivity of the workforce. The pandemic will inhibit growth of the service and industrial sectors and significantly increase the costs of human capacity-building and retraining. The agricultural sector is particularly affected where production is labour-intensive. 
 
6.13. Each national Government, in accordance with national plans for public health, priorities and objectives, should consider developing a national health action plan with appropriate international assistance and support, including, at a minimum, the following components: 
 
f 3iii. Undertake studies in the population and among health workers to determine the
influence of cultural, behavioural and social factors on control policies; 
 
6.16. National and regional training institutions should promote broad intersectoral approaches to
prevention and control of communicable diseases, including training in epidemiology and community prevention and control, immunology, molecular biology and the application of new vaccines. Health education materials should be developed for use by community workers and for the education of mothers for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoeal diseases in the home. 
 
6.27. National Governments, in cooperation with local and non-governmental organizations, should
initiate or enhance programmes in the following areas:
a. Infants and children:
iii. Promote the creation, amendment and enforcement of a legal framework protecting
children from sexual and workplace exploitation; 
 
6.30. The development of human resources for the health of children, youth and women should include reinforcement of educational institutions, promotion of interactive methods of education for health and increased use of mass media in disseminating information to the target groups. This requires the training of more community health workers, nurses, midwives, physicians, social scientists and educators, the education of mothers, families and communities and the strengthening of ministries of education, health, population etc. 
 
6.34. Local authorities, with the appropriate support of national Governments and international
organizations should be encouraged to take effective measures to initiate or strengthen the following activities:
a. Develop and implement municipal and local health plans:
ii. Ensure that public health education in schools, workplace, mass media etc. is
provided or strengthened; 
 
E. Reducing health risks from environmental pollution and hazards
Basis for action
 
6.39. In many locations around the world the general environment (air, water and land), workplaces and even individual dwellings are so badly polluted that the health of hundreds of millions of people is adversely affected. This is, inter alia, due to past and present developments in consumption and production patterns and lifestyles, in energy production and use, in industry, in transportation etc., with little or no regard for environmental protection. There have been notable improvements in some countries, but deterioration of the environment continues. The ability of countries to tackle pollution and health problems is greatly restrained because of lack of resources. Pollution control and health protection measures have often not kept pace with economic development. Considerable development related environmental health hazards exist in the newly industrializing countries. Furthermore, the recent analysis of WHO has clearly established the interdependence among the factors of health,environment and development and has revealed that most countries are lacking such integration as would lead to an effective pollution control mechanism. 
2/ Without prejudice to such criteria as may be agreed upon by the international community, or to standards which will have to be determined nationally, it will be essential in all cases to consider the systems of values prevailing in each country and the extent of the applicability of standards that are valid for the most advanced countries but maybe inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost for the developing countries. 
 
Activities
6.41. Nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance, support and coordination, where necessary, in this area should include:
a. Urban air pollution: 
a. Urban air pollution:
i. Develop appropriate pollution control technology on the basis of risk
assessment and epidemiological research for the introduction of
environmentally sound production processes and suitable safe mass
transport;
ii. Develop air pollution control capacities in large cities, emphasizing
enforcement programmes and using monitoring networks, as appropriate;
 
b. Indoor air pollution:
i. Support research and develop programmes for applying prevention and
control methods to reducing indoor air pollution, including the provision of
economic incentives for the installation of appropriate technology;
 
ii. Develop and implement health education campaigns, particularly in
developing countries, to reduce the health impact of domestic use of
biomass and coal;
c. Water pollution:
i. Develop appropriate water pollution control technologies on the basis of
health risk assessment;
ii. Develop water pollution control capacities in large cities;
d. Pesticides: Develop mechanisms to control the distribution and use of pesticides in
order to minimize the risks to human health by transportation, storage, application
and residual effects of pesticides used in agriculture and preservation of wood;
e. Solid waste:
i. Develop appropriate solid waste disposal technologies on the basis of health
risk assessment;
ii. Develop appropriate solid waste disposal capacities in large cities;
f. Human settlements: Develop programmes for improving health conditions in human
settlements, in particular within slums and non-tenured settlements, on the basis of
health risk assessment;
g. Noise: Develop criteria for maximum permitted safe noise exposure levels and
promote noise assessment and control as part of environmental health programmes;
h. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation: Develop and implement appropriate national
legislation, standards and enforcement procedures on the basis of existing
international guidelines; 
i. Effects of ultraviolet radiation: Undertake, as a matter of urgency, research
on the effects on human health of the increasing ultraviolet radiation
reaching the earth's surface as a consequence of depletion of the
stratospheric ozone layer;
ii. On the basis of the outcome of this research, consider taking appropriate
remedial measures to mitigate the above-mentioned effects on human
beings; 
 
Agenda 21 – Chapter 7
PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT
 
7.3. This is the foundation of the "enabling approach" advocated for the human settlement sector. External
assistance will help to generate the internal resources needed to improve the living and working
environments of all people by the year 2000 and beyond, including the growing number of
unemployed - the no-income group. At the same time the environmental implications of urban
development should be recognized and addressed in an integrated fashion by all countries, with high
priority being given to the needs of the urban and rural poor, the unemployed and the growing number
of people without any source of income. 
i. Industry and energy production: 
iii. Establish industrial hygiene programmes in all major industries for the
surveillance of workers' exposure to health hazards; 
Human settlement objective
7.4. The overall human settlement objective is to improve the social, economic and environmental quality
of human settlements and the living and working environments of all people, in particular the urban
and rural poor. Such improvement should be based on technical cooperation activities, partnerships
among the public, private and community sectors and participation in the decision-making process by
community groups and special interest groups such as women, indigenous people, the elderly and the
disabled. These approaches should form the core principles of national settlement strategies. In
developing these strategies, countries will need to set priorities among the eight programme areas in
this chapter in accordance with their national plans and objectives, taking fully into account their
social and cultural capabilities. Furthermore, countries should make appropriate provision to monitor
the impact of their strategies on marginalized and disenfranchised groups, with particular reference to
the needs of women.
 
7.20. All cities, particularly those characterized by severe sustainable development problems, should, in
accordance with national laws, rules and regulations, develop and strengthen programmes aimed at
addressing such problems and guiding their development along a sustainable path. Some international
initiatives in support of such efforts, as in the Sustainable Cities Programme of Habitat and the
Healthy Cities Programme of WHO, should be intensified. Additional initiatives involving the World
Bank, the regional development banks and bilateral agencies, as well as other interested stakeholders,
particularly international and national representatives of local authorities, should be strengthened and
coordinated. Individual cities should, as appropriate:
a. Institutionalize a participatory approach to sustainable urban development, based on
a continuous dialogue between the actors involved in urban development (the public
sector, private sector and communities), especially women and indigenous people;
b. Improve the urban environment by promoting social organization and environmental
awareness through the participation of local communities in the identification of
public services needs, the provision of urban infrastructure, the enhancement of
public amenities and the protection and/or rehabilitation of older buildings, historic
precincts and other cultural artifacts. In addition, "green works" programmes should
be activated to create self-sustaining human development activities and both formal
and informal employment opportunities for low-income urban residents; 
 
8.24. The programme relies essentially on a continuation of ongoing work for legal data collection,
translation and assessment. Closer cooperation between existing databases may be expected to lead to
better division of labour (e.g., in geographical coverage of national legislative gazettes and other
reference sources) and to improved standardization and compatibility of data, as appropriate
 
8.45. At the national level, the programme could be adopted mainly by the agencies dealing with
national accounts, in close cooperation with environmental statistics and natural resource departments,
with a view to assisting national economic analysts and decision makers in charge of national
economic planning. National institutions should play a crucial role not only as the depositary of the
system but also in its adaptation, establishment and continuous use. Unpaid productive work such as
domestic work and child care should be included, where appropriate, in satellite national accounts and
economic statistics. Time-use surveys could be a first step in the process of developing these satellite
accounts.
(c) Establishing 
 
12.10. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional
organizations, should:
a. Strengthen regional programmes and international cooperation, such as the Permanent InterState
Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), the Intergovernmental Authority
for Drought and Development (IGADD), the Southern African Development Coordination
Conference (SADCC), the Arab Maghreb Union and other regional organizations, as well as
such organizations as the Sahara and Sahel Observatory;
b. Establish and/or develop a comprehensive desertification, land degradation and human
condition database component that incorporates both physical and socio-economic
parameters. This should be based on existing and, where necessary, additional facilities, such
as those of Earthwatch and other information systems of international, regional and national
institutions strengthened for this purpose;
c. Determine benchmarks and define indicators of progress that facilitate the work of local and
regional organizations in tracking progress in the fight for anti-desertification. Particular
attention should be paid to indicators of local participation. 
 
 
13.8. National Governments and intergovernmental organizations should:
a. Coordinate regional and international cooperation and facilitate an exchange of
information and experience among the specialized agencies, the World Bank, IFAD and
other international and regional organizations, national Governments, research
institutions and non-governmental organizations working on mountain development;
 
13.18. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional
organizations, should:
a. Strengthen the role of appropriate international research and training institutes such as the
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Centers (CGIAR) and the
International Board for Soil Research and Management (IBSRAM), as well as regional
research centres, such as the Woodland Mountain Institutes and the International Center
for Integrated Mountain Development, in undertaking applied research relevant to
watershed development;
b. Promote regional cooperation and exchange of data and information among countries
sharing the same mountain ranges and river basins, particularly those affected by  mountain disasters and floods;
c. Maintain and establish partnerships with non-governmental organizations and other
private groups working in watershed development
 
(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination
14.20. Appropriate international and regional agencies should:
a. Reinforce their work with non-governmental organizations in collecting and
disseminating information on people's participation and people's organizations, testing
participatory development methods, training and education for human resource
development and strengthening the management structures of rural organizations; 
 
(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination
14.20. Appropriate international and regional agencies should:
a. Reinforce their work with non-governmental organizations in collecting and
disseminating information on people's participation and people's organizations, testing
participatory development methods, training and education for human resource
development and strengthening the management structures of rural organizations; 
 
16.19. Training and technology transfer is needed at the global level, with regions and countries having
access to, and participation in exchange of, information and expertise, particularly indigenous or
traditional knowledge and related biotechnology. It is essential to create or enhance endogenous
capabilities in developing countries to enable them to participate actively in the processes of
biotechnology production. The training of personnel could be undertaken at three levels:
a. That of scientists required for basic and product-oriented research;
b. That of health personnel (to be trained in the safe use of new products) and of science
managers required for complex intermultidisciplinary research;
c. That of tertiary-level technical workers required for delivery in the field.17.81. Coastal States should support the sustainability of small-scale artisanal fisheries. To this end, they
should, as appropriate:
a. Integrate small-scale artisanal fisheries development in marine and coastal planning,
taking into account the interests and, where appropriate, encouraging representation of
fishermen, small-scale fisherworkers, women, local communities and indigenous people;
b. Recognize the rights of small-scale fishworkers and the special situation of indigenous
people and local communities, including their rights to utilization and protection of their
habitats on a sustainable basis; 
 
States recognize:
a. The responsibility of the International Whaling Commission for the conservation and
management of whale stocks and the regulation of whaling pursuant to the 1946
International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling;
b. The work of the International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee in carrying out
studies of large whales in particular, as well as of other cetaceans;  
 
17.89. States recognize:
a. The responsibility of the International Whaling Commission for the conservation and
management of whale stocks and the regulation of whaling pursuant to the 1946
International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling;
b. The work of the International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee in carrying out
studies of large whales in particular, as well as of other cetaceans;
c. The work of other organizations, such as the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission
and the Agreement on Small Cetaceans in the Baltic and North Sea under the Bonn
Convention, in the conservation, management and study of cetaceans and other marine
mammals. 
17.90. States should cooperate for the conservation, management and study of cetaceans. 
 
17.93. States individually, or through bilateral and multilateral cooperation and with the support of
relevant international organizations, whether subregional, regional or global, as appropriate, should
encourage and provide support for developing countries, inter alia, to:
a. Expand multidisciplinary education, training and research on marine living resources,
particularly in the social and economic sciences;
b. Create training opportunities at national and regional levels to support artisanal
(including subsistence) fisheries, to develop small-scale use of marine living resources
and to encourage equitable participation of local communities, small-scale fish workers,
women and indigenous people; 
 
(a) Management-related activities
17.128. Small island developing States, with the assistance as appropriate of the international community
and on the basis of existing work of national and international organizations, should: 
a. Study the special environmental and developmental characteristics of small islands,
producing an environmental profile and inventory of their natural resources, critical
marine habitats and biodiversity;
b. Develop techniques for determining and monitoring the carrying capacity of small islands
under different development assumptions and resource constraints;
c. Prepare medium- and long-term plans for sustainable development that emphasize
multiple use of resources, integrate environmental considerations with economic and
sectoral planning and policies, define measures for maintaining cultural and
18.20. To implement these principles, communities need to have adequate capacities. Those who
establish the framework for water development and management at any level, whether international,
national or local, need to ensure that the means exist to build those capacities. The means will vary
from case to case. They usually include:
a. Awareness-creation programmes, including mobilizing commitment and support at all
levels and initiating global and local action to promote such programmes;
b. Training of water managers at all levels so that they have an appropriate understanding of
all the elements necessary for their decision-making;
c. Strengthening of training capacities in developing countries;
d. Appropriate training of the necessary professionals, including extension workers; 
 
18.32. Because well-trained people are particularly important to water resources assessment and
hydrologic forecasting, personnel matters should receive special attention in this area. The aim
should be to attract and retain personnel to work on water resources assessment who are sufficient in
number and adequate in their level of education to ensure the effective implementation of the
activities that are planned. Education may be called for at both the national and the international
level, with adequate terms of employment being a national responsibility. 
 
(b) Scientific and technological means
18.87. Monitoring of climate change and its impact on freshwater bodies must be closely integrated with
national and international programmes for monitoring the environment, in particular those concerned
with the atmosphere, as discussed under other sections of Agenda 21, and the hydrosphere, as
discussed under programme area B above. The analysis of data for indication of climate change as a
basis for developing remedial measures is a complex task. Extensive research is necessary in this area
and due account has to be taken of the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC), the World Climate Programme, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and other relevant international programmes.
 
(c) Human resource development
18.89. The developmental work and innovation depend for their success on good academic training and staff motivation. International projects can help by enumerating alternatives, but each country needs to establish and implement the necessary policies and to develop its own expertise in the scientific and engineering challenges to be faced, as well as a body of dedicated individuals who are able to interpret the complex issues concerned for those required to make policy decisions. Such specialized personnel need to be trained, hired and retained in service, so that they may serve their countries in these tasks. 
 
19.3. A considerable number of international bodies are involved in work on chemical safety. In many countries work programmes for the promotion of chemical safety are in place. Such work has international implications, as chemical risks do not respect national boundaries. However, a
significant strengthening of both national and international efforts is needed to achieve an
environmentally sound management of chemicals.  
 
19.8. The broadest possible awareness of chemical risks is a prerequisite for achieving chemical safety. The principle of the right of the community and of workers to know those risks should be recognized. However, the right to know the identity of hazardous ingredients should be balanced with industry's right to protect confidential business information. (Industry, as referred to in this chapter, shall be taken to include large industrial enterprises and transnational corporations as well as domestic industries.) The industry initiative on responsible care and product stewardship should be developed and promoted. Industry should apply adequate standards of operation in all countries in order not to
damage human health and the environment
 
19.18. Most of the data and methods for chemical risk assessment are generated in the developed
countries and an expansion and acceleration of the assessment work will call for a considerable
increase in research and safety testing by industry and research institutions. The cost projections
address the needs to strengthen the capacities of relevant United Nations bodies and are based on
current experience in IPCS. It should be noted that there are considerable costs, often not possible toquantify, that are not included. These comprise costs to industry and Governments of generating the safety data underlying the assessments and costs to Governments of providing background documents and draft assessment statements to IPCS, the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) and OECD. They also include the cost of accelerated work in non-United Nations bodies such as OECD and EC. 
 
 
(d) Capacity-building
19.23. International organizations, building on past, present and future assessment work, should support countries, particularly developing countries, in developing and strengthening risk assessment capabilities at national and regional levels to minimize, and as far as possible control and prevent, risk in the manufacturing and use of toxic and hazardous chemicals. Technical cooperation and  financial support or other contributions should be given to activities aimed at expanding and accelerating the national and international assessment and control of chemical risks to enable the best choice of chemicals. 
 
19.36. In order to address this issue, provisions for Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedures were introduced in 1989 in the London Guidelines (UNEP) and in the International Code of Conduct onthe Distribution and Use of Pesticides (FAO). In addition a joint FAO/UNEP programme has been
launched for the operation of the PIC procedures for chemicals, including the selection of chemicals to be included in the PIC procedure and preparation of PIC decision guidance documents. The ILO chemicals convention calls for communication between exporting and importing countries when  hazardous chemicals have been prohibited for reasons of safety and health at work. Within the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) framework, negotiations have been pursued with a view to creating a binding instrument on products banned or severely restricted in the domestic market. Further, the GATT Council has agreed, as stated in its decision contained in C/M/251, to extend the mandate of the working group for a period of three months, to begin from the date of the group's next meeting, and has authorized the Chairman to hold consultations on timing with respect to convening this meeting. 
 
Objectives
20.21. The objectives in this programme area are:
a. To adopt appropriate coordinating, legislative and regulatory measures at the national
level for the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including the
implementation of international and regional conventions;
b. To establish public awareness and information programmes on hazardous waste issues
and to ensure that basic education and training programmes are provided for industry and
government workers in all countries; 
 
23.2. One of the fundamental prerequisites for the achievement of sustainable development is broad public participation in decision-making. Furthermore, in the more specific context of environment and development, the need for new forms of participation has emerged. This includes the need of individuals, groups and organizations to participate in environmental impact assessment procedures and to know about and participate in decisions, particularly those which potentially affect the communities in which they live and work. Individuals, groups and organizations should have access to information relevant to environment and development held by national authorities, including information on products and activities that have or are likely to have a significant impact on the environment, and information on environmental protection measures.
 
23.2. One of the fundamental prerequisites for the achievement of sustainable development is broad public participation in decision-making. Furthermore, in the more specific context of environment and development, the need for new forms of participation has emerged. This includes the need of individuals, groups and organizations to participate in environmental impact assessment procedures and to know about and participate in decisions, particularly those which potentially affect the communities in which they live and work. Individuals, groups and organizations should have access to information relevant to environment and development held by national authorities, including information on products and activities that have or are likely to have a significant impact on the environment, and information on environmental protection measures. 
 
24.2. The following objectives are proposed for national Governments:
a. To implement the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women,
particularly with regard to women's participation in national ecosystem management and
control of environment degradation;
 
b. To increase the proportion of women decision makers, planners, technical advisers,
managers and extension workers in environment and development fields; 
 
24.3. Governments should take active steps to implement the following:  
 
Programmes to promote the reduction of the heavy workload of women and girl children
at home and outside through the establishment of more and affordable nurseries and
kindergartens by Governments, local authorities, employers and other relevant
organizations and the sharing of household tasks by men and women on an equal basis,
and to promote the provision of environmentally sound technologies which have been
designed, developed and improved in consultation with women, accessible and clean
water, an efficient fuel supply and adequate sanitation facilities;
 
24.5. States parties to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women should review and suggest amendments to it by the year 2000, with a view to strengthening those elements of the Convention related to environment and development, giving special attention to the issue of access and entitlements to natural resources, technology, creative banking facilities and lowcost housing, and the control of pollution and toxicity in the home and workplace. States parties should also clarify the extent of the Convention's scope with respect to the issues of environment and development and request the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to develop guidelines regulations
 
24.8. Countries should develop gender-sensitive databases, information systems and participatory action oriented research and policy analyses with the collaboration of academic institutions and local women researchers on the following:
a. Knowledge and experience 
 
e. The integration of the value of unpaid work, including work that is currently designated
"domestic", in resource accounting mechanisms in order better to represent the true value
of the contribution of women to the economy, using revised guidelines for the United
Nations System of National Accounts, to be issued in 1993; 
 
Agenda 21 – Chapter 29
STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS
PROGRAMME AREA
Basis for action
29.1. Efforts to implement sustainable development will involve adjustments and opportunities at the national and enterprise levels, with workers foremost among those concerned. As their
representatives, trade unions are vital actors in facilitating the achievement of sustainable
development in view of their experience in addressing industrial change, the extremely high priority they give to protection of the working environment and the related natural environment, and their promotion of socially responsible and economic development. The existing network of collaboration among trade unions and their extensive membership provide important channels through which the concepts and practices of sustainable development can be supported. The established principles of tripartism provide a basis for strengthened collaboration between workers and their representatives,
 
Governments and employers in the implementation of sustainable development.
Objectives
29.2. The overall objective is poverty alleviation and full and sustainable employment, which contribute to safe, clean and healthy environments - the working environment, the community and the physical environment. Workers should be full participants in the implementation and evaluation of activities related to Agenda 21.
29.3. To that end the following objectives are proposed for accomplishment by the year 2000:
a. To promote ratification of relevant conventions of ILO and the enactment of legislation
in support of those conventions;
b. To establish bipartite and tripartite mechanisms on safety, health and sustainable
development;
c. To increase the number of environmental collective agreements aimed at achieving
sustainable development;
d. To reduce occupational accidents, injuries and diseases according to recognized statistical
reporting procedures;
e. To increase the provision of workers' education, training and retraining, particularly in
the area of occupational health and safety and environment. 
 
Activities
(a) Promoting freedom of association
29.4. For workers and their trade unions to play a full and informed role in support of sustainable
development, Governments and employers should promote the rights of individual workers to
freedom of association and the protection of the right to organize as laid down in ILO conventions.
Governments should consider ratifying and implementing those conventions, if they have not already done so.
(b) Strengthening participation and consultation
29.5. Governments, business and industry should promote the active participation of workers and their trade unions in decisions on the design, implementation and evaluation of national and international policies and programmes on environment and development, including employment policies, industrial strategies, labour adjustment programmes and technology transfers. 
29.6. Trade unions, employers and Governments should cooperate to ensure that the concept of sustainable development is equitably implemented.
29.7. Joint (employer/worker) or tripartite (employer/worker/Government) collaborative mechanisms at the workplace, community and national levels should be established to deal with safety, health and environment, including special reference to the rights and status of women in the workplace.
29.8. Governments and employers should ensure that workers and their representatives are provided with all relevant information to enable effective participation in these decision-making processes.
29.9. Trade unions should continue to define, develop and promote policies on all aspects of sustainable development.
29.10. Trade unions and employers should establish the framework for a joint environmental policy, and set priorities to improve the working environment and the overall environmental performance of enterprise.
29.11. Trade unions should:
a. Seek to ensure that workers are able to participate in environmental audits at the
workplace and in environmental impact assessments;
b. Participate in environment and development activities within the local community and
promote joint action on potential problems of common concern;
c. Play an active role in the sustainable development activities of international and regional
organizations, particularly within the United Nations system.
(c) Provide adequate training
 
29.12. Workers and their representatives should have access to adequate training to augment
environmental awareness, ensure their safety and health, and improve their economic and social
welfare. Such training should ensure that the necessary skills are available to promote sustainable
livelihoods and improve the working environment. Trade unions, employers, Governments and
international agencies should cooperate in assessing training needs within their respective spheres of activity. Workers and their representatives should be involved in the design and implementation of worker training programmes conducted by employers and Governments.
Means of implementation
(a) Financing and cost evaluation
29.13. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of
implementing the activities of this programme to be about $300 million from the international
community on grant or concessional t erms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes
Governments decide upon for implementation.
(b) Capacity-building
29.14. Particular attention should be given to strengthening the capacity of each of the tripartite socialpartners (Governments and employ
 
****WORLD SUMMIT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
16. Yet we recognize that far too many people, particularly women and children,
are vulnerable to stress and deprivation. Poverty, unemployment and social
disintegration too often result in isolation, marginalization and violence. The
insecurity that many people, in particular vulnerable people, face about the
future - their own and their children’s - is intensifying:
 
(f) Over 120 million people world wide are officially unemployed and many
more are underemployed. Too many young people, including those with formal
education, have little hope of finding productive work;
 
Commitment 3
We commit ourselves to promoting the goal of full employment as a basic
priority of our economic and social policies, and to enabling all men and women
to attain secure and sustainable livelihoods through freely chosen productive
employment and work.
 
To this end, at the national level, we will:
(a) Put the creation of employment, the reduction of unemployment and the
promotion of appropriately and adequately remunerated employment at the centre
of strategies and policies of Governments, with full respect for workers’ rights
and with the participation of employers, workers and their respective
organizations, giving special attention to the problems of structural, long-term
unemployment and underemployment of youth, women, people with disabilities, and
all other disadvantaged groups and individuals;
 
(b) Develop policies to expand work opportunities and productivity in both
rural and urban sectors by achieving economic growth, investing in human
resource development, promoting technologies that generate productive
employment, and encouraging self-employment, entrepreneurship, and small and
medium-sized enterprises;
 
(c) Improve access to land, credit, information, infrastructure and other
productive resources for small and micro-enterprises, including those in the
informal sector, with particular emphasis on the disadvantaged sectors of
society;
(d) Develop policies to ensure that workers and employers have the
education, information and training needed to adapt to changing economic
conditions, technologies and labour markets;
 
(e) Explore innovative options for employment creation and seek new
approaches to generating income and purchasing power;
(f) Foster policies that enable people to combine their paid work with
their family responsibilities;
(g) Pay particular attention to women’s access to employment, the
protection of their position in the labour market and the promotion of equal
treatment of women and men, in particular with respect to pay;
(h) Take due account of the importance of the informal sector in our
employment development strategies with a view to increasing its contribution to
the eradication of poverty and to social integration in developing countries,
and to strengthening its linkages with the formal economy;
(i) Pursue the goal of ensuring quality jobs, and safeguard the basic
rights and interests of workers and to this end, freely promote respect for
relevant International Labour Organization conventions, including those on the
prohibition of forced and child labour, the freedom of association, the right to
organize and bargain collectively, and the principle of non-discrimination.
At the international level, we will:
(j) Ensure that migrant workers benefit from the protections provided by
relevant national and international instruments, take concrete and effective
measures against the exploitation of migrant workers, and encourage all
countries to consider the ratification and full implementation of the relevant
international instruments on migrant workers;
(k) Foster international cooperation in macroeconomic policies,
liberalization of trade and investment so as to promote sustained economic
growth and the creation of employment, and exchange experiences on successful
policies and programmes aimed at increasing employment and reducing
unemployment.
 
Commitment 3
We commit ourselves to promoting the goal of full employment as a basic
priority of our economic and social policies, and to enabling all men and women
to attain secure and sustainable livelihoods through freely chosen productive
employment and work.
 
& To this end, at the national level, we will:
(a) Put the creation of employment, the reduction of unemployment and the
promotion of appropriately and adequately remunerated employment at the centre
of strategies and policies of Governments, with full respect for workers’ rights
and with the participation of employers, workers and their respective
organizations, giving special attention to the problems of structural, long-term
unemployment and underemployment of youth, women, people with disabilities, and
all other disadvantaged groups and individuals;
(b) Develop policies to expand work opportunities and productivity in both
rural and urban sectors by achieving economic growth, investing in human
resource development, promoting technologies that generate productive
employment, and encouraging self-employment, entrepreneurship, and small and
medium-sized enterprises;
(c) Improve access to land, credit, information, infrastructure and other
productive resources for small and micro-enterprises, including those in the
informal sector, with particular emphasis on the disadvantaged sectors of
society;
(d) Develop policies to ensure that workers and employers have the
education, information and training needed to adapt to changing economic
conditions, technologies and labour markets;
 
Commitment 4
We commit ourselves to promoting social integration by fostering societies
that are stable, safe and just and that are based on the promotion and
protection of all human rights, as well as on non-discrimination, tolerance,
respect for diversity, equality of opportunity, solidarity, security, and
participation of all people, including disadvantaged and vulnerable groups and
persons.
To this end, at the national level, we will:
(a) Promote respect for democracy, the rule of law, pluralism and
diversity, tolerance and responsibility, non-violence and solidarity by
encouraging educational systems, communication media and local communities and
organizations to raise people’s understanding and awareness of all aspects of
social integration;
(b) Formulate or strengthen policies and strategies geared to the
elimination of discrimination in all its forms and the achievement of social
integration based on equality and respect for human dignity;
 
(c) Promote access for all to education, information, technology and
know-how as essential means for enhancing communication and participation in
civil, political, economic, social and cultural life, and ensure respect for
civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights;
(d) Ensure the protection and full integration into the economy and
society of disadvantaged and vulnerable groups and persons;
(e) Formulate or strengthen measures to ensure respect for and protection
of the human rights of migrants, migrant workers and their families, to
eliminate the increasing acts of racism and xenophobia in sectors of many
societies, and to promote greater harmony and tolerance in all societies;
 
Commitment 5
We commit ourselves to promoting full respect for human dignity and to
achieving equality and equity between women and men, and to recognizing and
enhancing the participation and leadership roles of women in political, civil,
economic, social and cultural life and in development.
To this end, at the national level, we will:
(j) Formulate or strengthen policies and practices to ensure that women
are enabled to participate fully in paid work and in employment through such
measures as positive action, education, training, appropriate protection under
labour legislation, and facilitating the provision of quality child care and
other support services.
 
(n) Devise suitable means to recognize and make visible the full extent of
the work of women and all their contributions to the national economy, including
contributions in the unremunerated and domestic sectors.
 
Commitment 6
We commit ourselves to promoting and attaining the goals of universal and
equitable access to quality education, the highest attainable standard of
physical and mental health, and the access of all to primary health care, making
particular efforts to rectify inequalities relating to social conditions and
without distinction as to race, national origin, gender, age or disability;
respecting and promoting our common and particular cultures; striving to
strengthen the role of culture in development; preserving the essential bases of
people-centred sustainable development; and contributing to the full development
of human resources and to social development. The purpose of these activities
is to eradicate poverty, promote full and productive employment and foster
social integration.
 
B. A favourable national and international
political and legal environment
14. To ensure that the political framework supports the objectives of social
development, the following actions are essential:
 
(f) Establishing similar conditions for professional organizations and
organizations of independent workers;
 
Chapter II
ERADICATION OF POVERTY
Basis for action and objectives
 
19. Poverty has various manifestations, including lack of income and productive
resources sufficient to ensure sustainable livelihoods; hunger and malnutrition;
ill health; limited or lack of access to education and other basic services;
increased morbidity and mortality from illness; homelessness and inadequate
housing; unsafe environments; and social discrimination and exclusion. It is
also characterized by a lack of participation in decision-making and in civil,
social and cultural life. It occurs in all countries: as mass poverty in many
developing countries, pockets of poverty amid wealth in developed countries,
loss of livelihoods as a result of economic recession, sudden poverty as a
result of disaster or conflict, the poverty of low-wage workers, and the utter
destitution of people who fall outside family support systems, social
institutions and safety nets. Women bear a disproportionate burden of poverty,
and children growing up in poverty are often permanently disadvantaged. Older
people, people with disabilities, indigenous people, refugees and internally
displaced persons are also particularly vulnerable to poverty. Furthermore,
poverty in its various forms represents a barrier to communication and access to
services, as well as a major health risk, and people living in poverty are
particularly vulnerable to the consequences of disasters and conflicts.
Absolute poverty is a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic
human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health,
shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on
access to social services.
 
29. There is a need to periodically monitor, assess and share information on
the performance of poverty eradication plans, evaluate policies to combat
poverty, and promote an understanding and awareness of poverty and its causes
and consequences. This could be done, by Governments, inter alia, through:
 
(c) Strengthening international data collection and statistical systems to
support countries in monitoring social development goals, and encouraging the
expansion of international databases to incorporate socially beneficial
activities that are not included in available data, such as women’s
unremunerated work and contributions to society, the informal economy and
sustainable livelihoods;
 
30. Members of the international community should, bilaterally or through
multilateral organizations, foster an enabling environment for poverty
eradication by:
(a) Coordinating policies and programmes to support the measures being
taken in the developing countries, particularly in Africa and the least
developed countries, to eradicate poverty, provide remunerative work and
strengthen social integration in order to meet basic social development goals
and targets;
 
31. The opportunities for income generation, diversification of activities and
increase of productivity in low-income and poor communities should be enhanced
by:
 
(f) Strengthening and improving financial and technical assistance for
community-based development and self-help programmes, and strengthening
cooperation among Governments, community organizations, cooperatives, formal and
informal banking institutions, private enterprises and international agencies,
with the aim of mobilizing local savings, promoting the creation of local
financial networks, and increasing the availability of credit and market
information to small entrepreneurs, small farmers and other low-income
self-employed workers, with particular efforts to ensure the availability of
such services to women;
 
(g) Strengthening organizations of small farmers, landless tenants and
labourers, other small producers, fisherfolk, community-based and workers’
cooperatives, especially those run by women, in order to, inter alia, improve
market access and increase productivity, provide inputs and technical advice,
promote cooperation in production and marketing operations, and strengthen
participation in the planning and implementation of rural development;
(h) Promoting national and international assistance in providing
economically viable alternatives for social groups, especially farmers involved
in the cultivation and processing of crops used for the illegal drug trade;
(i) Improving the competitiveness of natural products with environmental
advantages and strengthening the impact that this could have on promoting
sustainable consumption and production patterns, and strengthening and improving
financial and technical assistaNCE
 
32. Rural poverty should be addressed by:
 
(d) Promoting opportunities for small farmers and other agricultural,
forestry and fishery workers on terms that respect sustainable development;
 
(f) Protecting, within the national context, the traditional rights to
land and other resources of pastoralists, fishery workers and nomadic and
indigenous people, and strengthening land management in the areas of pastoral or
nomadic activity, building on traditional communal practices, controlling
encroachment by others, and developing improved systems of range management and
access to water, markets, credit, animal production, veterinary services, health
including health services, education and information;
 
(h) Strengthening agricultural training and extension services to promote
a more effective use of existing technologies and indigenous knowledge systems
and to disseminate new technologies in order to reach both men and women farmers
and other agricultural workers, including through the hiring of more women as
extension workers;
 
37. Access to social services for people living in poverty and vulnerable
groups should be improved through:
 
(f) Encouraging health-care workers to work in low-income communities and
rural areas, and providing outreach services to make health care available to
otherwise unserved areas, recognizing that investing in a primary health-care
system that ensures prevention, treatment and rehabilitation for all individuals
is an effective means of promoting social and economic development as well as
broad participation in society.
 
D. Enhanced social protection and reduced vulnerability
38. Social protection systems should be based on legislation and, as
appropriate, strengthened and expanded, as necessary, in order to protect from
poverty people who cannot find work; people who cannot work due to sickness,
disability, old age or maternity, or to their caring for children and sick or
 
older relatives; families that have lost a breadwinner through death or marital
breakup; and people who have lost their livelihoods due to natural disasters or
civil violence, wars or forced displacement. Due attention should be given to
people affected by the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic. Actions to this end should include:
 
(g) Expanding and strengthening social protection programmes to protect
working people, including the self-employed and their families, from the risk of
falling into poverty, by extending coverage to as many as possible, providing
benefits quickly and ensuring that entitlements continue when workers change
jobs;
 
(h) Ensuring, through appropriate regulation, that contributory social
protection plans are efficient and transparent so that the contributions of
workers, employers and the State and the accumulation of resources can be
monitored by the participants;
 
(j) Ensuring that social protection and social support programmes meet the
needs of women, and especially that they take into account women’s multiple
roles and concerns, in particular the reintegration of women into formal work
after periods of absence, support for older women, and the promotion of
acceptance of women’s multiple roles and responsibilities.
 
39. Particular efforts should be made to protect children and youth by:
(a) Promoting family stability and supporting families in providing mutual
support, including in their role as nurturers and educators of children;
(b) Promoting social support, including good quality child care and
working conditions that allow both parents to reconcile parenthood with working
life;
 
(e) Improving the situation and protecting the rights of children in
especially difficult circumstances, including children in areas of armed
conflict, children who lack adequate family support, urban street children,
abandoned children, children with disabilities, children addicted to narcotic
drugs, children affected by war or natural and man-made disasters, unaccompanied
minor refugee children, working children, and children who are economically and
sexually exploited or abused, including the victims of the sale and trafficking
of children; ensuring that they have access to food, shelter, education and
health care and are protected from abuse and violence, as well as provided with
the necessary social and psychological assistance for their healthy
reintegration into society and for family reunification consistent with the
Convention on the Rights of the Child; and substituting education for child
work;
 
40. Particular efforts should be made to protect older persons, including those
with disabilities, by:
(a) Strengthening family support systems;
(b) Improving the situation of older persons, in particular in cases where
they lack adequate family support, including rural older persons, working older
persons, those affected by armed conflicts and natural or man-made disasters,
and those who are exploited, physically or psychologically neglected, or abused
 
(f) Strengthening measures and mechanisms to ensure that retired workers
do not fall into poverty, taking into account their contribution to the
development of their countries;
 
41. People and communities should be protected from impoverishment and
long-term displacement and exclusion resulting from disasters through the
following actions at the national and international levels, as appropriate:
 
(e) In disaster-prone areas and in cooperation with community-based
organizations, developing drought and flood mitigation agronomic practices and
resource conservation and infrastructure-building programmes, using
food-for-work, where appropriate, and incorporating traditional
disaster-response practices that can be rapidly expanded into emergency
employment and rebuilding programmes in disaster situations;
 
EXPANSION OF PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND
REDUCTION OF UNEMPLOYMENT
Basis for action and objectives
42. Productive work and employment are central elements of development as well
as decisive elements of human identity. Sustained economic growth and
sustainable development as well as the expansion of productive employment should
go hand in hand. Full and adequately and appropriately remunerated employment
is an effective method of combating poverty and promoting social integration.
The goal of full employment requires that the State, the social partners and all
the other parts of civil society at all levels cooperate to create conditions
that enable everyone to participate in and benefit from productive work. In a
world of increasing globalization and interdependence among countries, national
efforts need to be buttressed by international cooperation.
 
43. Globalization and rapid technological development give rise to increased
labour mobility, bringing new employment opportunities as well as new
uncertainties. There has been an increase in part-time, casual and other forms
of atypical employment. In addition to requiring the creation of new employment
opportunities on an unprecedented scale, such an environment calls for expanded
efforts to enhance human resource development for sustainable development by,
inter alia, enhancing the knowledge and skills necessary for people,
particularly for women and youth, to work productively and adapt to changing
requirements
 
44. In many developed countries, growth in employment is currently great in
small and medium-sized enterprises and in self-employment. In many developing
countries, informal sector activities are often the leading source of employment
opportunities for people with limited access to formal-sector wage employment,
in particular for women. The removal of obstacles to the operation of such
enterprises and the provision of support for their creation and expansion must
be accompanied by protection of the basic rights, health and safety of workers
and the progressive improvement of overall working conditions, together with the
strengthening of efforts to make some enterprises part of the formal sector.
 
46. Much unremunerated productive work, such as caring for children and older
persons, producing and preparing food for the family, protecting the environment
and providing voluntary assistance to vulnerable and disadvantaged individuals
and groups, is of great social importance. World wide, most of this work is
done by women who often face the double burden of remunerated and unremunerated
work. Efforts are needed to acknowledge the social and economic importance and
value of unremunerated work, to facilitate labour-force participation in
combination with such work through flexible working arrangements, encouraging
 
voluntary social activities as well as broadening the very conception of
productive work, and to accord social recognition for such work, including by
developing methods for reflecting its value in quantitative terms for possible
reflection in accounts that may be produced separately from, but consistent
with, core national accounts.
 
47. There is therefore an urgent need, in the overall context of promoting
sustained economic growth and sustainable development, for:
• Placing the creation of employment at the centre of national
strategies and policies, with the full participation of employers and
trade unions and other parts of civil society;
• Policies to expand work opportunities and increase productivity in
both rural and urban sectors;
• Education and training that enable workers and entrepreneurs to adapt
to changing technologies and economic conditions;
• Quality jobs, with full respect for the basic rights of workers as
defined by relevant International Labour Organization and other
international instruments;
• Giving special priority, in the design of policies, to the problems of
structural, long-term unemployment and underemployment of youth,
women, persons with disabilities and all other disadvantaged groups
and individuals;
• Empowerment of women, gender balance in decision-making processes at
all levels and gender analysis in policy development to ensure equal
employment opportunities and wage rates for women and to enhance
harmonious and mutually beneficial partnerships between women and men
in sharing family and employment responsibilities;
• Empowerment of members of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups,
including through the provision of education and training;
• A broader recognition and understanding of work and employment and
greater flexibility in working time arrangements for both men and
women.
 
49. Minimizing the negative impact on jobs of measures for macroeconomic
stability requires:
 
(g) Establishing appropriate social safety mechanisms to minimize the
adverse effects of structural adjustment, stabilization or reform programmes on
the workforce, especially the vulnerable, and for those who lose their jobs,
creating conditions for their re-entry through, inter alia, continuing education
and retraining.
 
50. Promoting patterns of economic growth that maximize employment creation
requires:
(a) Encouraging, as appropriate, labour-intensive investments in economic
and social infrastructure that use local resources and create, maintain and
rehabilitate community assets in both rural and urban areas;
(b) Promoting technological innovations and industrial policies that have
the potential to stimulate short and long-term employment creation, and
considering their impact on vulnerable and disadvantaged groups;
.
 
51. Enhancing opportunities for the creation and growth of private-sector
enterprises that would generate additional employment requires:
(a) Removing obstacles faced by small and medium-sized enterprises and
easing regulations that discourage private initiative;
(b) Facilitating access by small and medium-sized enterprises to credit,
national and international markets, management training and technological
information;
(c) Facilitating arrangements between large and small enterprises, such as
subcontracting programmes, with full respect for workers’ rights;
(d) Improving opportunities and working conditions for women and youth
entrepreneurs by eliminating discrimination in access to credit, productive
resources and social security protection, and providing and increasing, as
appropriate, family benefits and social support, such as health care and child
care;
(e) Promoting, supporting and establishing legal frameworks to foster the
development of cooperative enterprises, and encouraging them to mobilize
capital, develop innovative lending programmes and promote entrepreneurship;
(f) Assisting informal sectors and local enterprises to become more
productive and progressively integrated into the formal economy through access
to affordable credit, information, wider markets, new technology and appropriate
technological and management skills, opportunities to upgrade technical and
management skills, and improved premises and other physical infrastructure, as
well as by progressively extending labour standards and social protection
without destroying the ability of informal sectors to generate employment;
(g) Promoting the creation and development of independent organizations,
such as chambers of commerce and other associations or self-help institutions of
small formal and informal enterprises;
(h) Facilitating the expansion of the training and employment-generating
opportunities of industries.
 
52. Facilitating people’s access to productive employment in today’s rapidly
changing global environment and developing better quality jobs requires:
 
(e) Promoting lifelong learning to ensure that education and training
programmes respond to changes in the economy, provide full and equal access to
training opportunities, secure the access of women to training programmes, offer
incentives for public and private sectors to provide and for workers to acquire
training on a continuous basis, and stimulate entrepreneurial skills;
(f) Encouraging and supporting through technical assistance programmes,
including those of the United Nations system, well-designed and adaptable
vocational training and apprenticeship programmes to enhance productivity and
productive employment;
(g) Promoting and strengthening training programmes for the employment of
new entrants to the job market and retraining programmes for displaced and
retrenched workers;
(i) Developing, in the area of vocational and continuing education,
innovative methods of teaching and learning, including interactive technologies
and inductive methods involving close coordination between working experience
and training.
 
53. Helping workers to adapt and to enhance their employment opportunities
under changing economic conditions requires:
(a) Designing, developing, implementing, analysing and monitoring active
labour policies to stimulate the demand for labour in order to ensure that the
burden of indirect labour costs on employers does not constitute a disincentive
to hiring workers, identifying skill shortages and surpluses, providing
vocational guidance and counselling services and active help in job searches,
promoting occupational choice and mobility, offering advisory services and
support to enterprises, particularly small enterprises, for the more effective
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use and development of their workforce, and establishing institutions and
processes that prevent all forms of discrimination and improve the employment
opportunities of groups that are vulnerable and disadvantaged;
 
(e) Promoting labour mobility, retraining and maintenance of adequate
levels of social protection to facilitate worker redeployment when there is
phasing out of production or closure of an enterprise, giving special attention
to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups;
 
(f) Facilitating the integration or reintegration of women into the
workforce by developing adequate child care, care for older persons and other
support services and facilities;
(g) Encouraging cooperation between employers and workers to prepare for
the introduction of new technologies and to plan for their employment effects as
far in advance as possible, while ensuring adequate protection and adjustment;
(h) Strengthening public and private employment services to assist workers
to adapt to changing job markets and provide social safety mechanisms,
occupational guidance, employment and job search counselling  training,
placement, apprenticeships and the sharing of information;
 
(i) Strengthening labour market information systems, particularly through
development of appropriate data and indicators on employment, underemployment,
unemployment and earnings, as well as dissemination of information concerning
labour markets, including, as far as possible, work situations outside formal
markets. All such data should be disaggregated by gender in order to monitor
the status of women relative to men.
 
C. Enhanced quality of work and employment
 
54. Governments should enhance the quality of work and employment by:
(a) Observing and fully implementing the human rights obligations that
they have assumed;
(b) Safeguarding and promoting respect for basic workers’ rights,
including the prohibition of forced labour and child labour, freedom of
association and the right to organize and bargain collectively, equal
remuneration for men and women for work of equal value, and non-discrimination
in employment, fully implementing the conventions of the International Labour
Organization (ILO) in the case of States parties to those conventions, and
taking into account the principles embodied in those conventions in the case of
those countries that are not States parties to thus achieve truly sustained
economic growth and sustainable development;
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(c) Strongly considering ratification and full implementation of ILO
conventions in these areas, as well as those relating to the employment rights
of minors, women, youth, persons with disabilities and indigenous people;
(d) Using existing international labour standards to guide the formulation
of national labour legislation and policies;
(e) Promoting the role of ILO, particularly as regards improving the level
of employment and the quality of work;
(f) Encouraging, where appropriate, employers and workers to consider ways
and means for enhancing the sharing of workers in the profits of enterprises and
promoting cooperation between workers and employers in the decisions of
enterprises.
55. To achieve a healthy and safe working environment, remove exploitation,
abolish child labour, raise productivity and enhance the quality of life
requires:
(a) Developing and implementing policies designed to promote improved
working conditions, including health and safety conditions;
(b) Improving health policies that reduce, with a view to eliminating,
environmental health hazards and provide for occupational health and safety, in
conformity with the relevant conventions, and providing informal sector
enterprises and all workers with accessible information and guidance on how to
enhance occupational safety and reduce health risks;
(c) Promoting, in accordance with national laws and regulations, sound
labour relations based on tripartite cooperation and full respect for freedom of
association and the right to organize and bargain collectively;
(d) Setting specific target dates for eliminating all forms of child
labour that are contrary to accepted international standards and ensuring the
full enforcement of relevant existing laws, and, where appropriate, enacting the
legislation necessary to implement the Convention on the Rights of the Child and
ILO standards, ensuring the protection of working children, in particular of
street children, through the provision of appropriate health, education and
other social services;
(e) Designing labour policies and programmes to help eradicate family
poverty, which is a main cause of child labour, eliminating child labour and
encouraging parents to send their children to school through, inter alia, the
provision of social services and other incentives;
(f) Establishing policies and programmes to protect workers, especially
women, from sexual harassment and violence;
(g) Encouraging incentives to public and private enterprises to develop,
transfer and adopt technologies and know-how that improve the working
environment, enhance occupational safety and reduce, with a view to eliminating,
health risks.
 
55. To achieve a healthy and safe working environment, remove exploitation,
abolish child labour, raise productivity and enhance the quality of life
requires:
(a) Developing and implementing policies designed to promote improved
working conditions, including health and safety conditions;
(b) Improving health policies that reduce, with a view to eliminating,
environmental health hazards and provide for occupational health and safety, in
conformity with the relevant conventions, and providing informal sector
enterprises and all workers with accessible information and guidance on how to
enhance occupational safety and reduce health risks;
(c) Promoting, in accordance with national laws and regulations, sound
labour relations based on tripartite cooperation and full respect for freedom of
association and the right to organize and bargain collectively;
(d) Setting specific target dates for eliminating all forms of child
labour that are contrary to accepted international standards and ensuring the
full enforcement of relevant existing laws, and, where appropriate, enacting the
legislation necessary to implement the Convention on the Rights of the Child and
ILO standards, ensuring the protection of working children, in particular of
street children, through the provision of appropriate health, education and
other social services;
(e) Designing labour policies and programmes to help eradicate family poverty, which is a main cause of child labour, eliminating child labour and encouraging parents to send their children to school through, inter alia, the provision of social services and other incentives;
(f) Establishing policies and programmes to protect workers, especially
women, from sexual harassment and violence;
(g) Encouraging incentives to public and private enterprises to develop,
transfer and adopt technologies and know-how that improve the working
environment, enhance occupational safety and reduce, with a view to eliminating,
health risks.
 
56. The full participation of women in the labour market and their equal access
to employment opportunities require:
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(a) Establishing the principle of equality between men and women as a
basis for employment policy and promoting gender-sensitivity training to eliminate prejudice against the employment of women;
(b) Eliminating gender discrimination, including by taking positive
action, where appropriate, in hiring, wages, access to credit, benefits,
promotion, training, career development, job assignment, working conditions, job
security and social security benefits;
(c) Improving women’s access to technologies that facilitate their occupational and domestic work, encourage self-support, generate income, transform gender-prescribed roles within the productive process and enable them
to move out of stereotyped, low-paying jobs;
(d) Changing those policies and attitudes that reinforce the division of labour based on gender, and providing institutional support, such as social protection for maternity, parental leave, technologies that facilitate the sharing and reduce the burden of domestic chores, and flexible working arrangements, including parental voluntary part-time employment and
work-sharing, as well as accessible and affordable quality child-care
facilities, to enable working parents to reconcile work with family
responsibilities, paying particular attention to the needs of single-parent
households;
(e) Encouraging men to take an active part in all areas of family and household responsibilities, including the sharing of child-rearing and housework.
 
D. Enhanced employment opportunities for groups
with specific needs
57. The improvement of the design of policies and programmes requires:
(a) Identifying and reflecting the specific needs of particular groups, and ensuring that programmes are equitable and non-discriminatory, efficient and
effective in meeting the needs of those groups;
(b) Actively involving representatives of these groups in planning, design
and management, and monitoring, evaluating and reorienting these programmes by
providing access to accurate information and sufficient resources to ensure that
they reach their intended beneficiaries.
58. Employment policies can better address the problem of short- and long-term
unemployment by:
 
(a) Incorporating, with the involvement of the unemployed and/or their associations, a comprehensive set of measures, including employment planning, re-education and training programmes, literacy, skills upgrading, counselling and job-search assistance, temporary work schemes, frequent contact with employment service offices and preparing for entry and re-entry into the labour market;
 
(b) Analysing the underlying causes of long-term unemployment and their effect on different groups, including older workers and single parents, and designing employment and other supporting policies that address specific situations and needs;
 
(c) Promoting social security schemes that reduce barriers and disincentives to employment so as to enable the unemployed to improve their capacity to participate actively in society, to maintain an adequate standard of living and to be able to take advantage of employment opportunities.
 
58. Employment policies can better address the problem of short- and long-term
unemployment by:
(a) Incorporating, with the involvement of the unemployed and/or their associations, a comprehensive set of measures, including employment planning, re-education and training programmes, literacy, skills upgrading, counselling and job-search assistance, temporary work schemes, frequent contact with employment service offices and preparing for entry and re-entry into the labour market;
 
(b) Analysing the underlying causes of long-term unemployment and their effect on different groups, including older workers and single parents, and designing employment and other supporting policies that address specific situations and needs;
 
(c) Promoting social security schemes that reduce barriers and disincentives to employment so as to enable the unemployed to improve their capacity to participate actively in society, to maintain an adequate standard of living and to be able to take advantage of employment opportunities.
 
59. Programmes for entry or re-entry into the labour market aimed at vulnerable
and disadvantaged groups can effectively combat the causes of exclusion on the
labour market by:
(a) Complementing literacy actions, general education or vocational training by work experience that may include support and instruction on business management and training so as to give better knowledge of the value of entrepreneurship and other private-sector contributions to society;
(b) Increasing the level of skills, and also improving the ability to get a job through improvements in housing, health and family life.
 
63. There is need for intensified international cooperation and national attention to the situation of migrant workers and their families. To that end:
(a) Governments are invited to consider ratifying existing instruments pertaining to migrant workers, particularly the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; 15/
 
(b) In accordance with national legislation, Governments of receiving countries are urged to consider extending to documented migrants who meet appropriate length-of-stay requirements and to members of their families whose stay in the receiving country is regular, treatment equal to that accorded their own nationals with regard to the enjoyment of basic human rights, including
equality of opportunity and treatment in respect of religious practices, working conditions, social security, participation in trade unions and access to health, education, cultural and other social services, as well as equal access to the judicial system and equal treatment before the law;
 
e) Governments of countries of origin are urged to facilitate the return of migrants and their reintegration into their home communities and to devise ways of using their skills. Governments of countries of origin should consider collaborating with countries of destination and engaging the support of appropriate international organizations in promoting the return on a voluntary
basis of qualified migrants who can play a crucial role in the transfer of knowledge, skills and technology. Countries of destination are encouraged to facilitate return migration on a voluntary basis by adopting flexible policies, such as the transferability of pensions and other work benefits.
 
64. A broader recognition and understanding of work and employment requires:
(a) Acknowledging the important contribution of unremunerated work to societal well-being and bringing respect, dignity and value to societal perceptions of such work and the people who do it;
 
(b) Developing a more comprehensive knowledge of work and employment through, inter alia, efforts to measure and better understand the type, extent and distribution of unremunerated work, particularly work in caring for dependants and unremunerated work done for family farms or businesses, and encouraging, sharing and disseminating information, studies and experience in
this field, including on the development of methods for assessing its value in quantitative terms, for possible reflection in accounts that may be produced separately from, but are consistent with, core national accounts;
(c) Recognizing the relationship between remunerated employment and unremunerated work in developing strategies to expand productive employment, to ensure equal access by women and men to employment, and to ensure the care and well-being of children and other dependants, as well as to combat poverty and promote social integration;
(d) Encouraging an open dialogue on the possibilities and institutional requirements for a broader understanding of various forms of work and employment;
(e) Examining a range of policies and programmes, including social security legislation, and taxation systems, in accordance with national priorities and policies, to ascertain how to facilitate flexibility in the way people divide their time between education and training, paid employment, family responsibilities, volunteer activity and other socially useful forms of work,
leisure and retirement, giving particular attention to the situation of women,
especially in female-maintained households;
(f) Promoting socially useful volunteer work and allocating appropriate resources to support such work without diluting the objectives regarding employment expansion;
(g) Intensifying international exchange of experience on various aspects
of change in the recognition and understanding of work and employment and on new
forms of flexible working time arrangements over the lifetime.
65. The development of additional socially useful new types of employment and
work requires, inter alia:
1. (a) Helping vulnerable and disadvantaged groups to integrate better into society and thus participate more effectively in economic and social
development;
(b) Helping older persons who are dependent or providing support for families in need of educational assistance or social support;
(c) Strengthening social ties through these forms of employment and work, which represents an important achievement of social development policy.
 
 
(h) Expanding basic education by developing special measures to provide schooling for children and youth living in sparsely populated and remote areas, for children and youth of nomadic, pastoral, migrant or indigenous parents, and for street children, children and youth working or looking after younger siblings and disabled or aged parents, and disabled children and youth;
 
C. Equality and social justice
74. Governments should promote equality and social justice by:
 
(h) Expanding basic education by developing special measures to provide schooling for children and youth living in sparsely populated and remote areas, for children and youth of nomadic, pastoral, migrant or indigenous parents, and for street children, children and youth working or looking after younger
siblings and disabled or aged parents, and disabled children and youth;
 
(i) Ensuring that the expansion of basic education is accompanied by improved quality, appropriate attention to children of different abilities, cooperation between family and school, and a close link between the school curriculum and the needs of the workplace;
 
(k) Ensuring that all people can have access to a variety of formal and non-formal learning activities throughout their lives that allows them to contribute to and benefit from full participation in society; making use of all forms of education, including non-conventional and experimental means of education, such as tele-courses and correspondence courses, through public institutions, the institutions of civil society and the private sector, to
provide educational opportunities for those who in childhood missed necessary
schooling, for youth in the process of transition from school to work, and for
those who wish to continue education and upgrade skills throughout their lives;
 
D. Responses to special social needs
75. Governmental responses to special needs of social groups should include:
 
(c) Ensuring access to work and social services through such measures as education, language training and technical assistance for people adversely affected by language barriers;
 
77. To promote the equitable treatment and integration of documented migrants, particularly documented migrant workers and members of their families:
 
(a) Governments should ensure that documented migrants receive fair and equal treatment, including full respect of their human rights, protection of the laws of the host society, appropriate access to economic opportunities and social services; protection against racism, ethnocentrism and xenophobia; and -protection from violence and exploitation.
 
F. Violence, crime, the problem of illicit drugs
and substance abuse
79. Addressing the problems created by violence, crime, substance abuse and the
production, use and trafficking of illicit drugs, and the rehabilitation of
addicts requires:
 
B. Involvement of civil society
85. Effective implementation of the Copenhagen Declaration on Social
Development and the Programme of Action of the Summit requires strengthening community organizations and non-profit non-governmental organizations in the spheres of education, health, poverty, social integration, human rights, improvement of the quality of life, and relief and rehabilitation, enabling them to participate constructively in policy-making and implementation. This will require:
 
(c) Enabling and encouraging trade unions to participate in the planning and implementation of social development programmes, especially in relation to the generation of work opportunities under fair conditions, the provision of training, health care and other basic services, and the development of an economic environment that facilitates sustained economic growth and sustainable development;
 
B. Attendance
2. The following States and regional economic integration organization were
represented at the Summit:
 
 
****1995 Beijing Declaration of Action
Chapter I
MISSION STATEMENT
1. The Platform for Action is an agenda for women’s empowerment. It aims at accelerating the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women 1/ and at removing all the obstacles to women’s active participation in all spheres of public and private life through a full and equal share in economic, social, cultural and political decision-making. This means that the principle of shared power and responsibility should be established
between women and men at home, in the workplace and in the wider national and
international communities. Equality between women and men is a matter of human
rights and a condition for social justice and is also a necessary and fundamental prerequisite for equality, development and peace. A transformed partnership based on equality between women and men is a condition for people centred sustainable development. A sustained and long-term commitment is essential, so that women and men can work together for themselves, for their
children and for society to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century.
 
19. Economic recession in many developed and developing countries, as well as ongoing restructuring in countries with economies in transition, have had a
disproportionately negative impact on women’s employment. Women often have no
choice but to take employment that lacks long-term job security or involves
dangerous working conditions, to work in unprotected home-based production or to
be unemployed. Many women enter the labour market in under-remunerated and
undervalued jobs, seeking to improve their household income; others decide to
migrate for the same purpose. Without any reduction in their other
responsibilities, this has increased the total burden of work for women.
 
21. Women are key contributors to the economy and to combating poverty through
both remunerated and unremunerated work at home, in the community and in the
workplace. Growing numbers of women have achieved economic independence through
gainful employment.
 
27. Since 1975, knowledge of the status of women and men, respectively, has
increased and is contributing to further actions aimed at promoting equality
between women and men. In several countries, there have been important changes
in the relationships between women and men, especially where there have been
major advances in education for women and significant increases in their
participation in the paid labour force. The boundaries of the gender division
of labour between productive and reproductive roles are gradually being crossed
as women have started to enter formerly male-dominated areas of work and men
have started to accept greater responsibility for domestic tasks, including
child care. However, changes in women’s roles have been greater and much more
rapid than changes in men’s roles. In many countries, the differences between
women’s and men’s achievements and activities are still not recognized as the
consequences of socially constructed gender roles rather than immutable
biological differences.
 
30. While the rate of growth of world population is on the decline, world
population is at an all-time high in absolute numbers, with current increments
approaching 86 million persons annually. Two other major demographic trends
have had profound repercussions on the dependency ratio within families. In
many developing countries, 45 to 50 per cent of the population is less than
15 years old, while in industrialized nations both the number and proportion of
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elderly people are increasing. According to United Nations projections,
72 per cent of the population over 60 years of age will be living in developing
countries by the year 2025, and more than half of that population will be women.
Care of children, the sick and the elderly is a responsibility that falls
disproportionately on women, owing to lack of equality and the unbalanced
distribution of remunerated and unremunerated work between women and men.
 
46. The Platform for Action recognizes that women face barriers to full
equality and advancement because of such factors as their race, age, language,
ethnicity, culture, religion or disability, because they are indigenous women or
because of other status. Many women encounter specific obstacles related to
their family status, particularly as single parents; and to their socio-economic
status, including their living conditions in rural, isolated or impoverished
areas. Additional barriers also exist for refugee women, other displaced women,
including internally displaced women as well as for immigrant women and migrant
women, including women migrant workers. Many women are also particularly
affected by environmental disasters, serious and infectious diseases and various
forms of violence against women.
 
A. Women and poverty
47. More than 1 billion people in the world today, the great majority of whom
are women, live in unacceptable conditions of poverty, mostly in the developing
countries. Poverty has various causes, including structural ones. Poverty is a
complex, multidimensional problem, with origins in both the national and
international domains. The globalization of the world’s economy and the
deepening interdependence among nations present challenges and opportunities for
sustained economic growth and development, as well as risks and uncertainties
for the future of the world economy. The uncertain global economic climate has
been accompanied by economic restructuring as well as, in a certain number of
countries, persistent, unmanageable levels of external debt and structural
adjustment programmes. In addition, all types of conflict, displacement of
people and environmental degradation have undermined the capacity of Governments
to meet the basic needs of their populations. Transformations in the world
economy are profoundly changing the parameters of social development in all
countries. One significant trend has been the increased poverty of women, the
extent of which varies from region to region. The gender disparities in
economic power-sharing are also an important contributing factor to the poverty
of women. Migration and consequent changes in family structures have placed
additional burdens on women, especially those who provide for several
dependants. Macroeconomic policies need rethinking and reformulation to address
such trends. These policies focus almost exclusively on the formal sector.
They also tend to impede the initiatives of women and fail to consider the
differential impact on women and men. The application of gender analysis to a
wide range of policies and programmes is therefore critical to poverty reduction
strategies. In order to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development,
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women and men must participate fully and equally in the formulation of
macroeconomic and social policies and strategies for the eradication of poverty.
The eradication of poverty cannot be accomplished through anti-poverty
programmes alone but will require democratic participation and changes in
economic structures in order to ensure access for all women to resources,
opportunities and public services. Poverty has various manifestations,
including lack of income and productive resources sufficient to ensure a
sustainable livelihood; hunger and malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of
access to education and other basic services; increasing morbidity and mortality
from illness; homelessness and inadequate housing; unsafe environments; and
social discrimination and exclusion. It is also characterized by lack of
participation in decision-making and in civil, social and cultural life. It
occurs in all countries - as mass poverty in many developing countries and as
pockets of poverty amidst wealth in developed countries. Poverty may be caused
by an economic recession that results in loss of livelihood or by disaster or
conflict. There is also the poverty of low-wage workers and the utter
destitution of people who fall outside family support systems, social
institutions and safety nets.
 
49. Women contribute to the economy and to combating poverty through both
remunerated and unremunerated work at home, in the community and in the
workplace. The empowerment of women is a critical factor in the eradication of
 
poverty.
 
52. In too many countries, social welfare systems do not take sufficient
account of the specific conditions of women living in poverty, and there is a
tendency to scale back the services provided by such systems. The risk of
falling into poverty is greater for women than for men, particularly in old age,
where social security systems are based on the principle of continuous
remunerated employment. In some cases, women do not fulfil this requirement
because of interruptions in their work, due to the unbalanced distribution of
remunerated and unremunerated work. Moreover, older women also face greater
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obstacles to labour-market re-entry.
 
Actions to be taken
58. By Governments:
(h) Generate economic policies that have a positive impact on the
employment and income of women workers in both the formal and informal
sectors and adopt specific measures to address women’s unemployment,
in particular their long-term unemployment;
 
(k) Ensure the full realization of the human rights of all women migrants,
including women migrant workers, and their protection against violence
and exploitation; introduce measures for the empowerment of documented
women migrants, including women migrant workers; facilitate the
productive employment of documented migrant women through greater
recognition of their skills, foreign education and credentials, and
facilitate their full integration into the labour force;
 
68. By national and international statistical organizations:
(a) Collect gender and age-disaggregated data on poverty and all aspects
of economic activity and develop qualitative and quantitative
statistical indicators to facilitate the assessment of economic
performance from a gender perspective;
(b) Devise suitable statistical means to recognize and make visible the
full extent of the work of women and all their contributions to the
national economy, including their contribution in the unremunerated
and domestic sectors, and examine the relationship of women’s
unremunerated work to the incidence of and their vulnerability to
poverty.
 
 
68. By national and international statistical organizations:
(a) Collect gender and age-disaggregated data on poverty and all aspects
of economic activity and develop qualitative and quantitative
statistical indicators to facilitate the assessment of economic
performance from a gender perspective;
(b) Devise suitable statistical means to recognize and make visible the
full extent of the work of women and all their contributions to the
national economy, including their contribution in the unremunerated
and domestic sectors, and examine the relationship of women’s
unremunerated work to the incidence of and their vulnerability to
poverty.
 
71. Discrimination in girls’ access to education persists in many areas, owing
to customary attitudes, early marriages and pregnancies, inadequate and genderbiased
teaching and educational materials, sexual harassment and lack of
adequate and physically and otherwise accessible schooling facilities. Girls
undertake heavy domestic work at a very early age. Girls and young women are
expected to manage both educational and domestic responsibilities, often
resulting in poor scholastic performance and early drop-out from the educational
system. This has long-lasting consequences for all aspects of women’s lives.
 
73. Women should be enabled to benefit from an ongoing acquisition of knowledge
and skills beyond those acquired during youth. This concept of lifelong
learning includes knowledge and skills gained in formal education and training,
as well as learning that occurs in informal ways, including volunteer activity,
 
 
(e) Provide - in collaboration with parents, non-governmental
organizations, including youth organizations, communities and the
private sector - young women with academic and technical training,
career planning, leadership and social skills and work experience to
prepare them to participate fully in society;
 
Strategic objective B.1. Ensure equal access to education
Actions to be taken
80. By Governments:
(e) Provide - in collaboration with parents, non-governmental
organizations, including youth organizations, communities and the
private sector - young women with academic and technical training,
career planning, leadership and social skills and work experience to
prepare them to participate fully in society;
 
 
(e) Provide - in collaboration with parents, non-governmental
organizations, including youth organizations, communities and the
private sector - young women with academic and technical training,
career planning, leadership and social skills and work experience to
prepare them to participate fully in society;
 
Actions to be taken
82. By Governments, in cooperation with employers, workers and trade unions,
international and non-governmental organizations, including women’s and youth
organizations, and educational institutions:
(a) Develop and implement education, training and retraining policies for
women, especially young women and women re-entering the labour market,
to provide skills to meet the needs of a changing socio-economic
context for improving their employment opportunities;
(b) Provide recognition to non-formal educational opportunities for girls
and women in the educational system;
(c) Provide information to women and girls on the availability and
benefits of vocational training, training programmes in science and
technology and programmes of continuing education;
(d) Design educational and training programmes for women who are
unemployed in order to provide them with new knowledge and skills that
will enhance and broaden their employment opportunities, including
self-employment, and development of their entrepreneurial skills;
(e) Diversify vocational and technical training and improve access for and
retention of girls and women in education and vocational training in
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such fields as science, mathematics, engineering, environmental
sciences and technology, information technology and high technology,
as well as management training;
 
100. Mental disorders related to marginalization, powerlessness and poverty,
along with overwork and stress and the growing incidence of domestic violence as
well as substance abuse, are among other health issues of growing concern to
women. Women throughout the world, especially young women, are increasing their
use of tobacco with serious effects on their health and that of their children.
Occupational health issues are also growing in importance, as a large number of
women work in low-paid jobs in either the formal or the informal labour market
under tedious and unhealthy conditions, and the number is rising. Cancers of
the breast and cervix and other cancers of the reproductive system, as well as
infertility affect growing numbers of women and may be preventable, or curable,
if detected early.
 
Actions to be taken
106. By Governments, in collaboration with non-governmental organizations and
employers’ and workers’ organizations and with the support of international
institutions:
(a) Support and implement the commitments made in the Programme of Action
of the International Conference on Population and Development, as
established in the report of that Conference and the Copenhagen
Declaration on Social Development and Programme of Action of the World
Summit for Social Development 15/ and the obligations of States
parties under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women and other relevant international
agreements, to meet the health needs of girls and women of all ages;
 
 
f) Redesign health information, services and training for health workers
so that they are gender-sensitive and reflect the user’s perspectives
with regard to interpersonal and communications skills and the user’s
right to privacy and confidentiality; these services, information and
training should be based on a holistic approach;
 
(g) Ensure that all health services and workers conform to human rights
and to ethical, professional and gender-sensitive standards in the
delivery of women’s health services aimed at ensuring responsible,
voluntary and informed consent; encourage the development,
implementation and dissemination of codes of ethics guided by existing
international codes of medical ethics as well as ethical principles
that govern other health professionals;
 
(p) Formulate special policies, design programmes and enact the
legislation necessary to alleviate and eliminate environmental and
occupational health hazards associated with work in the home, in the
workplace and elsewhere with attention to pregnant and lactating
women;
 
(q) Integrate mental health services into primary health-care systems or
other appropriate levels, develop supportive programmes and train
primary health workers to recognize and care for girls and women of
all ages who have experienced any form of violence especially domestic
violence, sexual abuse or other abuse resulting from armed and non-armed conflict;
 
(s) Establish mechanisms to support and involve non-governmental
organizations, particularly women’s organizations, professional groups
and other bodies working to improve the health of girls and women, in
government policy-making, programme design, as appropriate, and
implementation within the health sector and related sectors at all
levels;
 
(t) Support non-governmental organizations working on women’s health and
help develop networks aimed at improving coordination and
collaboration between all sectors that affect health;
 
Actions to be taken
107. By Governments, in cooperation with non-governmental organizations, the
mass media, the private sector and relevant international organizations,
including United Nations bodies, as appropriate:
(c) Encourage men to share equally in child care and household work and to
provide their share of financial support for their families, even if
they do not live with them;
 
(f) Create and support programmes in the educational system, in the
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workplace and in the community to make opportunities to participate in sport, physical activity and recreation available to girls and women of all ages on the same basis as they are made available to men and boys;
 
(i) Adopt regulations to ensure that the working conditions, including
remuneration and promotion of women at all levels of the health system, are non-discriminatory and meet fair and professional standards to enable them to work effectively;
 
Actions to be taken
108. By Governments, international bodies including relevant United Nations organizations, bilateral and multilateral donors and non-governmental
organizations:
 
(i) Give all women and health workers all relevant information and education about sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS and pregnancy and the implications for the baby, including breast-feeding;
 
113. The term "violence against women" means any act of gender-based violence
that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. Accordingly, violence against women encompasses but is not limited to the following:
 
116. Some groups of women, such as women belonging to minority groups, indigenous women, refugee women, women migrants, including women migrant workers, women in poverty living in rural or remote communities, destitute women, women in institutions or in detention, female children, women with disabilities, elderly women, displaced women, repatriated women, women living in poverty and women in situations of armed conflict, foreign occupation, wars of
aggression, civil wars, terrorism, including hostage-taking, are also
particularly vulnerable to violence.
 
118. Violence against women is a manifestation of the historically unequal power relations between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of women’s full advancement. Violence against women throughout the life cycle derives essentially from cultural patterns, in particular the harmful effects of certain
traditional or customary practices and all acts of extremism linked to race, sex, language or religion that perpetuate the lower status accorded to women in the family, the workplace, the community and society. Violence against women is exacerbated by social pressures, notably the shame of denouncing certain acts that have been perpetrated against women; women’s lack of access to legal
information, aid or protection; the lack of laws that effectively prohibit violence against women; failure to reform existing laws; inadequate efforts on the part of public authorities to promote awareness of and enforce existing laws; and the absence of educational and other means to address the causes and consequences of violence. Images in the media of violence against women, in
particular those that depict rape or sexual slavery as well as the use of women and girls as sex objects, including pornography, are factors contributing to thecontinued prevalence of such violence, adversely influencing the community at large, in particular children and young people.
 
(b) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the
general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and
intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere,
trafficking in women and forced prostitution;
 
120. The absence of adequate gender-disaggregated data and statistics on the
incidence of violence makes the elaboration of programmes and monitoring of
changes difficult. Lack of or inadequate documentation and research on domestic
violence, sexual harassment and violence against women and girls in private and
in public, including the workplace, impede efforts to design specific
intervention strategies. Experience in a number of countries shows that women
and men can be mobilized to overcome violence in all its forms and that
effective public measures can be taken to address both the causes and the
consequences of violence. Men’s groups mobilizing against gender violence are
necessary allies for change.
 
Actions to be taken
124. By Governments:
 
(c) Enact and/or reinforce penal, civil, labour and administrative sanctions in domestic legislation to punish and redress the wrongs done to women and girls who are subjected to any form of violence, whether in the home, the workplace, the community or society;
 
(e) Work actively to ratify and/or implement international human rights norms and instruments as they relate to violence against women, including those contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 21/ the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 13/ the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 13/ and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; 22/
 
125. By Governments, including local governments, community organizations, non-governmental organizations, educational institutions, the public and private sectors, particularly enterprises, and the mass media, as appropriate:
 
(b) Establish linguistically and culturally accessible services for migrant women and girls, including women migrant workers, who are victims of gender-based violence;
 
126. By Governments, employers, trade unions, community and youth organizations
and non-governmental organizations, as appropriate:
(a) Develop programmes and procedures to eliminate sexual harassment and
other forms of violence against women in all educational institutions,
workplaces and elsewhere;
 
(d) Take special measures to eliminate violence against women, particularly those in vulnerable situations, such as young women, refugee, displaced and internally displaced women, women with
disabilities and women migrant workers, including enforcing any existing legislation and developing, as appropriate, new legislation for women migrant workers in both sending and receiving countries.
 
F. Women and the economy
150. There are considerable differences in women’s and men’s access to and opportunities to exert power over economic structures in their societies. In most parts of the world, women are virtually absent from or are poorly represented in economic decision-making, including the formulation of financial, monetary, commercial and other economic policies, as well as tax systems and
rules governing pay. Since it is often within the framework of such policies that individual men and women make their decisions, inter alia, on how to divide their time between remunerated and unremunerated work, the actual development of these economic structures and policies has a direct impact on women’s and men’s access to economic resources, their economic power and consequently the extent of equality between them at the individual and family levels as well as in
society as a whole.
 
151. In many regions, women’s participation in remunerated work in the formal and non-formal labour market has increased significantly and has changed during the past decade. While women continue to work in agriculture and fisheries, they have also become increasingly involved in micro, small and medium-sized enterprises and, in some cases, have become more dominant in the expanding informal sector. Due to, inter alia, difficult economic situations and a lack
of bargaining power resulting from gender inequality, many women have been forced to accept low pay and poor working conditions and thus have often become preferred workers. On the other hand, women have entered the workforce increasingly by choice when they have become aware of and demanded their rights. Some have succeeded in entering and advancing in the workplace and improving their pay and working conditions. However, women have been particularly
 
152. Discrimination in education and training, hiring and remuneration, promotion and horizontal mobility practices, as well as inflexible working conditions, lack of access to productive resources and inadequate sharing of family responsibilities, combined with a lack of or insufficient services such as child care, continue to restrict employment, economic, professional and other
opportunities and mobility for women and make their involvement stressful. Moreover, attitudinal obstacles inhibit women’s participation in developing economic policy and in some regions restrict the access of women and girls to education and training for economic management.
 
153. Women’s share in the labour force continues to rise and almost everywhere women are working more outside the household, although there has not been a parallel lightening of responsibility for unremunerated work in the household and community. Women’s income is becoming increasingly necessary to households of all types. In some regions, there has been a growth in women’s entrepreneurship and other self-reliant activities, particularly in the informal
sector. In many countries, women are the majority of workers in non-standard
work, such as temporary, casual, multiple part-time, contract and home-based
employment.
 
154. Women migrant workers, including domestic workers, contribute to the economy of the sending country through their remittances and also to the economy of the receiving country through their participation in the labour force. However, in many receiving countries, migrant women experience higher levels of unemployment compared with both non-migrant workers and male migrant workers.
 
155. Insufficient attention to gender analysis has meant that women’s contributions and concerns remain too often ignored in economic structures, such as financial markets and institutions, labour markets, economics as an academic discipline, economic and social infrastructure, taxation and social security systems, as well as in families and households. As a result, many policies and
programmes may continue to contribute to inequalities between women and men. Where progress has been made in integrating gender perspectives, programme and policy effectiveness has also been enhanced.
 
156. Although many women have advanced in economic structures, for the majority of women, particularly those who face additional barriers, continuing obstacles have hindered their ability to achieve economic autonomy and to ensuresustainable livelihoods for themselves and their dependants. Women are active in a variety of economic areas, which they often combine, ranging from wagelabour and subsistence farming and fishing to the informal sector. However,
legal and customary barriers to ownership of or access to land, natural resources, capital, credit, technology and other means of production, as well as wage differentials, contribute to impeding the economic progress of women. Women contribute to development not only through remunerated work but also through a great deal of unremunerated work. On the one hand, women participate
in the production of goods and services for the market and household consumption, in agriculture, food production or family enterprises. Though included in the United Nations System of National Accounts and therefore in international standards for labour statistics, this unremunerated work -
particularly that related to agriculture - is often undervalued and underrecorded.
On the other hand, women still also perform the great majority of unremunerated domestic work and community work, such as caring for children andolder persons, preparing food for the family, protecting the environment andproviding voluntary assistance to vulnerable and disadvantaged individuals and groups. This work is often not measured in quantitative terms and is not valued
in national accounts. Women’s contribution to development is seriously underestimated, and thus its social recognition is limited. The full visibility of the type, extent and distribution of this unremunerated work will also contribute to a better sharing of responsibilities. done of the impact of globalization on women’s economic status.
 
158. These trends have been characterized by low wages, little or no labour standards protection, poor working conditions, particularly with regard to women’s occupational health and safety, low skill levels, and a lack of job security and social security, in both the formal and informal sectors. Women’s unemployment is a serious and increasing problem in many countries and sectors.
Young workers in the informal and rural sectors and migrant female workers remain the least protected by labour and immigration laws. Women, particularly those who are heads of households with young children, are limited in their employment opportunities for reasons that include inflexible working conditionsand inadequate sharing, by men and by society, of family responsibilities.
 
159. In countries that are undergoing fundamental political, economic and social transformation, the skills of women, if better utilized, could constitute a major contribution to the economic life of their respective countries. Their input should continue to be developed and supported and their potential further  realized.
 
160. Lack of employment in the private sector and reductions in public services
and public service jobs have affected women disproportionately. In some
countries, women take on more unpaid work, such as the care of children and
those who are ill or elderly, compensating for lost household income,
particularly when public services are not available. In many cases, employment
creation strategies have not paid sufficient attention to occupations and
sectors where women predominate; nor have they adequately promoted the access of
women to those occupations and sectors that are traditionally male.
161. For those women in paid work, many experience obstacles that prevent them
from achieving their potential. While some are increasingly found in lower
levels of management, attitudinal discrimination often prevents them from being
promoted further. The experience of sexual harassment is an affront to a
worker’s dignity and prevents women from making a contribution commensurate with
their abilities. The lack of a family-friendly work environment, including a
lack of appropriate and affordable child care, and inflexible working hours
further prevent women from achieving their full potential.
 
162. In the private sector, including transnational and national enterprises,
 
women are largely absent from management and policy levels, denoting
discriminatory hiring and promotion policies and practices. The unfavourable
work environment as well as the limited number of employment opportunities
available have led many women to seek alternatives. Women have increasingly
become self-employed and owners and managers of micro, small and medium-scale
enterprises. The expansion of the informal sector, in many countries, and of
self-organized and independent enterprises is in large part due to women, whose
collaborative, self-help and traditional practices and initiatives in production
and trade represent a vital economic resource. When they gain access to and
control over capital, credit and other resources, technology and training, women
can increase production, marketing and income for sustainable development.
 
163. Taking into account the fact that continuing inequalities and noticeable
progress coexist, rethinking employment policies is necessary in order to
integrate the gender perspective and to draw attention to a wider range of
opportunities as well as to address any negative gender implications of current
patterns of work and employment. To realize fully equality between women and
men in their contribution to the economy, active efforts are required for equal
recognition and appreciation of the influence that the work, experience,
knowledge and values of both women and men have in society.
164. In addressing the economic potential and independence of women, Governments
and other actors should promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a
gender perspective in all policies and programmes so that before decisions are
taken, an analysis is made of the effects on women and men, respectively.
 
Strategic objective F.1. Promote women’s economic rights and
independence, including access to
employment, appropriate working
conditions and control over economic
resources
Actions to be taken
165. By Governments:
(a) Enact and enforce legislation to guarantee the rights of women and men
to equal pay for equal work or work of equal value;
(b) Adopt and implement laws against discrimination based on sex in the
labour market, especially considering older women workers, hiring and
promotion, the extension of employment benefits and social security,
and working conditions;
(c) Eliminate discriminatory practices by employers and take appropriate
measures in consideration of women’s reproductive role and functions,
such as the denial of employment and dismissal due to pregnancy or
breast-feeding, or requiring proof of contraceptive use, and take
effective measures to ensure that pregnant women, women on maternity
leave or women re-entering the labour market after childbearing are
not discriminated against;
(d) Devise mechanisms and take positive action to enable women to gain
access to full and equal participation in the formulation of policies
and definition of structures through such bodies as ministries of
finance and trade, national economic commissions, economic research
 
e) Undertake legislation and administrative reforms to give women equal
rights with men to economic resources, including access to ownership
and control over land and other forms of property, credit,
inheritance, natural resources and appropriate new technology;
(f) Conduct reviews of national income and inheritance tax and social
security systems to eliminate any existing bias against women;
(g) Seek to develop a more comprehensive knowledge of work and employment
through, inter alia, efforts to measure and better understand the
type, extent and distribution of unremunerated work, particularly work
in caring for dependants and unremunerated work done for family farms
or businesses, and encourage the sharing and dissemination of
information on studies and experience in this field, including the
development of methods for assessing its value in quantitative terms,
for possible reflection in accounts that may be produced separately
from, but consistent with, core national accounts;
(h) Review and amend laws governing the operation of financial
institutions to ensure that they provide services to women and men on
an equal basis;
(i) Facilitate, at appropriate levels, more open and transparent budget
processes;
(j) Revise and implement national policies that support the traditional
savings, credit and lending mechanisms for women;
(k) Seek to ensure that national policies related to international and
regional trade agreements do not have an adverse impact on women’s new
and traditional economic activities;
(l) Ensure that all corporations, including transnational corporations,
comply with national laws and codes, social security regulations,
applicable international agreements, instruments and conventions,
including those related to the environment, and other relevant laws;
(m) Adjust employment policies to facilitate the restructuring of work
patterns in order to promote the sharing of family responsibilities;
(n) Establish mechanisms and other forums to enable women entrepreneurs
and women workers to contribute to the formulation of policies and
programmes being developed by economic ministries and financial
institutions;
(o) Enact and enforce equal opportunity laws, take positive action and
ensure compliance by the public and private sectors through various
means;
 
(p) Use gender-impact analyses in the development of macro and microeconomic
and social policies in order to monitor such impact and
restructure policies in cases where harmful impact occurs;
(q) Promote gender-sensitive policies and measures to empower women as
-69-
equal partners with men in technical, managerial and entrepreneurial
fields;
(r) Reform laws or enact national policies that support the establishment
of labour laws to ensure the protection of all women workers,
including safe work practices, the right to organize and access to
justice.
 
Strategic objective F.2. Facilitate women’s equal access to
resources, employment, markets and
trade
 
Actions to be taken
166. By Governments:
(a) Promote and support women’s self-employment and the development of
small enterprises, and strengthen women’s access to credit and capital
on appropriate terms equal to those of men through the scaling-up of
institutions dedicated to promoting women’s entrepreneurship,
including, as appropriate, non-traditional and mutual credit schemes,
as well as innovative linkages with financial institutions;
(b) Strengthen the incentive role of the State as employer to develop a
policy of equal opportunities for women and men;
(c) Enhance, at the national and local levels, rural women’s income generating
potential by facilitating their equal access to and control
over productive resources, land, credit, capital, property rights,
development programmes and cooperative structures;
(d) Promote and strengthen micro-enterprises, new small businesses,
cooperative enterprises, expanded markets and other employment
opportunities and, where appropriate, facilitate the transition from
the informal to the formal sector, especially in rural areas;
(e) Create and modify programmes and policies that recognize and
strengthen women’s vital role in food security and provide paid and
unpaid women producers, especially those involved in food production,
such as farming, fishing and aquaculture, as well as urban
enterprises, with equal access to appropriate technologies,
transportation, extension services, marketing and credit facilities at
the local and community levels;
(f) Establish appropriate mechanisms and encourage intersectoral
institutions that enable women’s cooperatives to optimize access to
necessary services;
(g) Increase the proportion of women extension workers and other
government personnel who provide technical assistance or administer
economic programmes;
(h) Review, reformulate, if necessary, and implement policies, including
business, commercial and contract law and government regulations, to
ensure that they do not discriminate against micro, small and mediumscale
enterprises owned by women in rural and urban areas;
-70-
(i) Analyse, advise on, coordinate and implement policies that integrate
the needs and interests of employed, self-employed and entrepreneurial
women into sectoral and inter-ministerial policies, programmes and
budgets;
(j) Ensure equal access for women to effective job training, retraining,
counselling and placement services that are not limited to traditional
employment areas;
(k) Remove policy and regulatory obstacles faced by women in social and
development programmes that discourage private and individual
initiative;
(l) Safeguard and promote respect for basic workers’ rights, including the
prohibition of forced labour and child labour, freedom of association
and the right to organize and bargain collectively, equal remuneration
for men and women for work of equal value and non-discrimination in
employment, fully implementing the conventions of the International
Labour Organization in the case of States Parties to those conventions
and, taking into account the principles embodied in the case of those
countries that are not parties to those conventions in order to
achieve truly sustained economic growth and sustainable development.
 
167. By Governments, central banks and national development banks, and private
banking institutions, as appropriate:
(a) Increase the participation of women, including women entrepreneurs, in
advisory boards and other forums to enable women entrepreneurs from
all sectors and their organizations to contribute to the formulation
and review of policies and programmes being developed by economic
ministries and banking institutions;
(b) Mobilize the banking sector to increase lending and refinancing
through incentives and the development of intermediaries that serve
the needs of women entrepreneurs and producers in both rural and urban
areas, and include women in their leadership, planning and decisionmaking;
(c) Structure services to reach rural and urban women involved in micro,
small and medium-scale enterprises, with special attention to young
women, low-income women, those belonging to ethnic and racial
minorities, and indigenous women who lack access to capital and
assets; and expand women’s access to financial markets by identifying
and encouraging financial supervisory and regulatory reforms that
support financial institutions’ direct and indirect efforts to better
meet the credit and other financial needs of the micro, small and
medium-scale enterprises of women;
(d) Ensure that women’s priorities are included in public investment
programmes for economic infrastructure, such as water and sanitation,
electrification and energy conservation, transport and road
construction; promote greater involvement of women beneficiaries at
the project planning and implementation stages to ensure access to
jobs and contracts
 
168. By Governments and non-governmental organizations:
 
(a) Pay special attention to women’s needs when disseminating market,
trade and resource information and provide appropriate training in
these fields;
(b) Encourage community economic development strategies that build on
partnerships among Governments, and encourage members of civil society
to create jobs and address the social circumstances of individuals,
families and communities.
 
Strategic objective F.2. Facilitate women’s equal access to
resources, employment, markets and
trade
Actions to be taken
166. By Governments:
(a) Promote and support women’s self-employment and the development of
small enterprises, and strengthen women’s access to credit and capital
on appropriate terms equal to those of men through the scaling-up of
institutions dedicated to promoting women’s entrepreneurship,
including, as appropriate, non-traditional and mutual credit schemes,
as well as innovative linkages with financial institutions;
(b) Strengthen the incentive role of the State as employer to develop a
policy of equal opportunities for women and men;
(c) Enhance, at the national and local levels, rural women’s incomegenerating
potential by facilitating their equal access to and control
over productive resources, land, credit, capital, property rights,
development programmes and cooperative structures;
(d) Promote and strengthen micro-enterprises, new small businesses,
cooperative enterprises, expanded markets and other employment
opportunities and, where appropriate, facilitate the transition from
the informal to the formal sector, especially in rural areas;
(e) Create and modify programmes and policies that recognize and
strengthen women’s vital role in food security and provide paid and
unpaid women producers, especially those involved in food production,
such as farming, fishing and aquaculture, as well as urban
enterprises, with equal access to appropriate technologies,
transportation, extension services, marketing and credit facilities at
the local and community levels;
(f) Establish appropriate mechanisms and encourage intersectoral
institutions that enable women’s cooperatives to optimize access to
necessary services;
(g) Increase the proportion of women extension workers and other
government personnel who provide technical assistance or administer
economic programmes;
(h) Review, reformulate, if necessary, and implement policies, including
business, commercial and contract law and government regulations, to
ensure that they do not discriminate against micro, small and mediumscale
enterprises owned by women in rural and urban areas;
-70-
(i) Analyse, advise on, coordinate and implement policies that integrate
the needs and interests of employed, self-employed and entrepreneurial
women into sectoral and inter-ministerial policies, programmes and
budgets;
(j) Ensure equal access for women to effective job training, retraining,
counselling and placement services that are not limited to traditional
employment areas;
(k) Remove policy and regulatory obstacles faced by women in social and
development programmes that discourage private and individual
initiative;
(l) Safeguard and promote respect for basic workers’ rights, including the
prohibition of forced labour and child labour, freedom of association
and the right to organize and bargain collectively, equal remuneration
for men and women for work of equal value and non-discrimination in
employment, fully implementing the conventions of the International
Labour Organization in the case of States Parties to those conventions
and, taking into account the principles embodied in the case of those
countries that are not parties to those conventions in order to
achieve truly sustained economic growth and sustainable development.
 
167. By Governments, central banks and national development banks, and private
banking institutions, as appropriate:
(a) Increase the participation of women, including women entrepreneurs, in
advisory boards and other forums to enable women entrepreneurs from
all sectors and their organizations to contribute to the formulation
and review of policies and programmes being developed by economic
ministries and banking institutions;
(b) Mobilize the banking sector to increase lending and refinancing
through incentives and the development of intermediaries that serve
the needs of women entrepreneurs and producers in both rural and urban
areas, and include women in their leadership, planning and decision making;
(c) Structure services to reach rural and urban women involved in micro,
small and medium-scale enterprises, with special attention to young
women, low-income women, those belonging to ethnic and racial
minorities, and indigenous women who lack access to capital and
assets; and expand women’s access to financial markets by identifying
and encouraging financial supervisory and regulatory reforms that
support financial institutions’ direct and indirect efforts to better
meet the credit and other financial needs of the micro, small and
medium-scale enterprises of women;
(d) Ensure that women’s priorities are included in public investment
programmes for economic infrastructure, such as water and sanitation,
electrification and energy conservation, transport and road
construction; promote greater involvement of women beneficiaries at
the project planning and implementation stages to ensure access to
jobs and contracts.
 
168. By Governments and non-governmental organizations:
-71-
(a) Pay special attention to women’s needs when disseminating market,
trade and resource information and provide appropriate training in
these fields;
(b) Encourage community economic development strategies that build on
partnerships among Governments, and encourage members of civil society
to create jobs and address the social circumstances of individuals,
families and communities.
 
**** 1996 HABITAT II AGENDA TO DO 
 
****2002 WSSD TO DO SDG; 8  Socially equitable and environmental sound employment and  fair and just transition principle
 
by Joan Russow 
Global compliance Research Project.
This piece  is under construction 
 
While the following goal and indicators are useful, it is important to recognized that there have been years of unfulfilled state obligations and commitments that should be discharged and fulfilled.  Often Sates have used language such as “ensure that” or “action to be done’. The goals of the  SDGs must be perceived not in a vacuum of international instruments. In many cases each SDG Goal ia placed in the context of many of the other SDG Goals.  I have done a survey of relevant statements related to “work” For example in the 1995 Beijing Declaration is the following commitment; 
(a) Enact and enforce legislation to guarantee the rights of women and men
to equal pay for equal work or work of equal value; Also in Agenda 21 ia the commitment to STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS and also in agenda 21 a commitment wit a target;29.3. the following objectives are proposed for accomplishment by the year 2000:
a. To promote ratification of relevant conventions of ILO and the enactment of legislation
in support of those conventions;29.4. For workers and their trade unions to play a full and informed role in support of sustainable
development, Governments and employers should promote the rights of individual workers to
freedom of association and the protection of the right to organize as laid down in ILO conventions.
 
 
 
SDG 8 Sustainable Economic Growth full and productive Employment and decent work for all
GNI per capita (PPP, current US$ Atlas method)
IMF, World Bank,
UN Statistics
Division
11
60 Country implements and reports on System of Environmenta lEconomic
Accounting (SEEA) accounts
UN Statistics
Division 12, 17
61 Youth employment rate, by formal and informal sector ILO 3, 11
62 [Placeholder for index of decent work] ILO
63 Ratification and implementation of fundamental ILO labor
standards and compliance in law and practice ILO 5, 9, 10, 17
Tier 2 Indicators:
o Employment to population ratio (EPR) by gender and age group (15–64)
o Share of informal employment in total employment
o Percentage of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET)
o Percentage of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment
o Working poverty rate measured at $2 PPP per capita per day
o Growth rate of GDP per person employed (MDG indicator)
Link to indicators 
://unsdsn.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/140724-Indicator-working-draft.pdf
 
A. PREVIOUS INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS AND COMMITMENTS
 
A survey is being done to place ‘work” in the context of previous international obligations and commitments
 
****1975
 
Resolution adopted by the General Assembly 
 
3384 (XXX). Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind
 
 
The General Assembly,
Noting that scientific and technological progress has become one of the most important factors in the development of human society,
 
Taking into consideration that, while scientific and technological developments provide ever increasing opportunities to better the conditions of life of peoples and nations, in a number of instances they can give rise to social problems, as well as threaten the human rights and fundamental freedoms of the individual,
 
Noting with concern that scientific and technological achievements can be used to intensify the arms race, suppress national liberation movements and deprive individuals and peoples of their human rights and fundamental freedoms,
 
Also noting with concern that scientific and technological achievements can entail dangers for the civil and political rights of the individual or of the group and for human dignity,
 
Noting the urgent need to make full use of scientific and technological developments for the welfare of man and to neutralize the present and possible future harmful consequences of certain scientific and technological achievements,
 
Recognizing that scientific and technological progress is of great importance in accelerating the social and economic development of developing countries,
 
Aware that the transfer of science and technology is one of the principal ways of accelerating the economic development of developing countries,
 
Reaffirming the right of peoples to self-determination and the need to respect human rights and freedoms and the dignity of the human person in the conditions of scientific and technological progress,
 
Desiring to promote the realization of the principles which form the basis of the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights, the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, the Declaration on Social Progress and Development, and the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States,
 
Solemnly proclaims that:
 
All States shall promote international co-operation to ensure that the results of scientific and technological developments are used in the interests of strengthening international peace and security, freedom and independence, and also for the purpose of the economic and social development of peoples and the realization of human rights and freedoms in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.
 
All States shall take appropriate measures to prevent the use of scientific and technological developments, particularly by the State organs, to limit or interfere with the enjoyment of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of the individual as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenants on Human Rights and other relevant international instruments.
 
All States shall take measures to ensure that scientific and technological achievements satisfy the material and spiritual needs of all sectors of the population.
All States shall refrain from any acts involving the use of scientific and technological achievements for the purposes of violating the sovereignty and territorial integrity of other Stares, interfering in their internal affairs, waging aggressive wars, suppressing national liberation movements or pursuing a policy of racial discrimination. Such acts are not only a flagrant violation of the Charter of the United Nations and principles of international law, but constitute an inadmissible distortion of the purposes that should guide scientific and technological developments for the benefit of mankind.
 
All States shall co-operate in the establishment, strengthening and development of the scientific and technological capacity of developing countries with a view to accelerating the realization of the social and economic rights of the peoples of those countries.
All States shall take measures to extend the benefits of science and technology to all strata of the population and to protect them, both socially and materially, from possible harmful effects of the misuse of scientific and technological developments, including their misuse to infringe upon the rights of the individual or of the group, particularly with regard to respect for privacy and the protection of the human personality and its physical and intellectual integrity.
 
All States shall take the necessary measures, including legislative measures, to ensure that the utilization of scientific and technological achievements promotes the fullest realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms without any discrimination whatsoever on grounds of race, sex, language or religious beliefs.
 
All States shall take effective measures, including legislative measures, to prevent and preclude the utilization of scientific and technological achievements to the detriment of human rights and fundamental freedoms and the dignity of the human person.
All States shall, whenever necessary take action to ensure compliance with legislation guaranteeing human rights and freedoms in the conditions of scientific and technological developments.
 
 
****1975 CEDAW
Article 5
 
In compliance with the fundamental obligations laid down in article 2 of this Convention, States Parties undertake to prohibit and to eliminate racial discrimination in all its forms and to guarantee the right of everyone, without distinction as to race, colour, or national or ethnic origin, to equality before the law, notably in the enjoyment of the following rights:
 
i) The rights to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work, to protection against unemployment, to equal pay for equal work, to just and favourable remuneration;
 
**** ICESCR
 
Article 6
1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right to work, which includes the right of everyone to the opportunity to gain his living by work which he freely chooses or accepts, and will take appropriate steps to safeguard this right. 
 
Article 7
The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of just and favourable conditions of work which ensure, in particular:
(a) Remuneration which provides all workers, as a minimum, with: 
3
(i) Fair wages and equal remuneration for work of equal value without distinction of any kind, in
particular women being guaranteed conditions of work not inferior to those enjoyed by men, with equal pay for equal work;
(ii) A decent living for themselves and their families in accordance with the provisions of the present Covenant;
(b) Safe and healthy working conditions; (c) Equal opportunity for everyone to be promoted in his employment to an appropriate higher level, subject to no considerations other than those of seniority and competence;
(d ) Rest, leisure and reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay, as well as remuneration for public holidays 
 
Article 10
The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize that:
 
2. Special protection should be accorded to mothers during a reasonable period before and after
childbirth. During such period working mothers should be accorded paid leave or leave with adequate social security benefits. 
 
 
3. Special measures of protection and assistance should be taken on behalf of all children and young persons without any discrimination for reasons of parentage or other conditions. Children and young persons should be protected from economic and social exploitation. Their employment in work harmful to their morals or health or dangerous to life or likely to hamper their normal development should be punishable by law. States should also set age limits below which the paid employment of child labour should be prohibited and punishable by law. 
 
Article 14
Each State Party to the present Covenant which, at the time of becoming a Party, has not been able to secure in its metropolitan territory or other territories under its jurisdiction compulsory primary education, free of charge, undertakes, within two years, to work out and adopt a detailed plan of action for the progressive implementation, within a reasonable number of years, to be fixed in the plan, of the principle of compulsory education free of charge for all. 
 
 
****1992 AGENDA 21 UNCED
29. Strengthening the role of workers and their trade unions
 
5.21. Vulnerable population groups (such as rural landless workers, ethnic minorities, refugees,
migrants, displaced people, women heads of household) whose changes in demographic structure may have specific impacts on sustainable development should be identified.
 
(d) Capacity-building
6.9. Governments should consider adopting enabling and facilitating strategies to promote the participation of communities in meeting their own needs, in addition to providing direct support to the provision of health-care services. A major focus should be the preparation of community-based health and health related
workers to assume an active role in community health education, with emphasis on team work,
social mobilization and the support of other development workers. National programmes should cover district health systems in urban, peri-urban and rural areas, the delivery of health programmes at the district level, and the development and support of referral services. 
 
6.11. With HIV infection levels estimated to increase to 30-40 million by the year 2000, the socioeconomic impact of the pandemic is expected to be devastating for all countries, and increasingly for women and children. While direct health costs will be substantial, they will be dwarfed by the indirect costs of the pandemic - mainly costs associated with the loss of income and decreased productivity of the workforce. The pandemic will inhibit growth of the service and industrial sectors and significantly increase the costs of human capacity-building and retraining. The agricultural sector is particularly affected where production is labour-intensive. 
 
6.13. Each national Government, in accordance with national plans for public health, priorities and objectives, should consider developing a national health action plan with appropriate international assistance and support, including, at a minimum, the following components: 
 
f 3iii. Undertake studies in the population and among health workers to determine the
influence of cultural, behavioural and social factors on control policies; 
 
6.16. National and regional training institutions should promote broad intersectoral approaches to
prevention and control of communicable diseases, including training in epidemiology and community prevention and control, immunology, molecular biology and the application of new vaccines. Health education materials should be developed for use by community workers and for the education of mothers for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoeal diseases in the home. 
 
6.27. National Governments, in cooperation with local and non-governmental organizations, should
initiate or enhance programmes in the following areas:
a. Infants and children:
iii. Promote the creation, amendment and enforcement of a legal framework protecting
children from sexual and workplace exploitation; 
 
6.30. The development of human resources for the health of children, youth and women should include reinforcement of educational institutions, promotion of interactive methods of education for health and increased use of mass media in disseminating information to the target groups. This requires the training of more community health workers, nurses, midwives, physicians, social scientists and educators, the education of mothers, families and communities and the strengthening of ministries of education, health, population etc. 
 
6.34. Local authorities, with the appropriate support of national Governments and international
organizations should be encouraged to take effective measures to initiate or strengthen the following activities:
a. Develop and implement municipal and local health plans:
ii. Ensure that public health education in schools, workplace, mass media etc. is
provided or strengthened; 
 
E. Reducing health risks from environmental pollution and hazards
Basis for action
 
6.39. In many locations around the world the general environment (air, water and land), workplaces and even individual dwellings are so badly polluted that the health of hundreds of millions of people is adversely affected. This is, inter alia, due to past and present developments in consumption and production patterns and lifestyles, in energy production and use, in industry, in transportation etc., with little or no regard for environmental protection. There have been notable improvements in some countries, but deterioration of the environment continues. The ability of countries to tackle pollution and health problems is greatly restrained because of lack of resources. Pollution control and health protection measures have often not kept pace with economic development. Considerable development related environmental health hazards exist in the newly industrializing countries. Furthermore, the recent analysis of WHO has clearly established the interdependence among the factors of health,environment and development and has revealed that most countries are lacking such integration as would lead to an effective pollution control mechanism. 
2/ Without prejudice to such criteria as may be agreed upon by the international community, or to standards which will have to be determined nationally, it will be essential in all cases to consider the systems of values prevailing in each country and the extent of the applicability of standards that are valid for the most advanced countries but maybe inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost for the developing countries. 
 
Activities
6.41. Nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance, support and coordination, where necessary, in this area should include:
a. Urban air pollution: 
a. Urban air pollution:
i. Develop appropriate pollution control technology on the basis of risk
assessment and epidemiological research for the introduction of
environmentally sound production processes and suitable safe mass
transport;
ii. Develop air pollution control capacities in large cities, emphasizing
enforcement programmes and using monitoring networks, as appropriate;
 
b. Indoor air pollution:
i. Support research and develop programmes for applying prevention and
control methods to reducing indoor air pollution, including the provision of
economic incentives for the installation of appropriate technology;
 
ii. Develop and implement health education campaigns, particularly in
developing countries, to reduce the health impact of domestic use of
biomass and coal;
c. Water pollution:
i. Develop appropriate water pollution control technologies on the basis of
health risk assessment;
ii. Develop water pollution control capacities in large cities;
d. Pesticides: Develop mechanisms to control the distribution and use of pesticides in
order to minimize the risks to human health by transportation, storage, application
and residual effects of pesticides used in agriculture and preservation of wood;
e. Solid waste:
i. Develop appropriate solid waste disposal technologies on the basis of health
risk assessment;
ii. Develop appropriate solid waste disposal capacities in large cities;
f. Human settlements: Develop programmes for improving health conditions in human
settlements, in particular within slums and non-tenured settlements, on the basis of
health risk assessment;
g. Noise: Develop criteria for maximum permitted safe noise exposure levels and
promote noise assessment and control as part of environmental health programmes;
h. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation: Develop and implement appropriate national
legislation, standards and enforcement procedures on the basis of existing
international guidelines; 
i. Effects of ultraviolet radiation: Undertake, as a matter of urgency, research
on the effects on human health of the increasing ultraviolet radiation
reaching the earth's surface as a consequence of depletion of the
stratospheric ozone layer;
ii. On the basis of the outcome of this research, consider taking appropriate
remedial measures to mitigate the above-mentioned effects on human
beings; 
 
Agenda 21 – Chapter 7
PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT
 
7.3. This is the foundation of the "enabling approach" advocated for the human settlement sector. External
assistance will help to generate the internal resources needed to improve the living and working
environments of all people by the year 2000 and beyond, including the growing number of
unemployed - the no-income group. At the same time the environmental implications of urban
development should be recognized and addressed in an integrated fashion by all countries, with high
priority being given to the needs of the urban and rural poor, the unemployed and the growing number
of people without any source of income. 
i. Industry and energy production: 
iii. Establish industrial hygiene programmes in all major industries for the
surveillance of workers' exposure to health hazards; 
Human settlement objective
7.4. The overall human settlement objective is to improve the social, economic and environmental quality
of human settlements and the living and working environments of all people, in particular the urban
and rural poor. Such improvement should be based on technical cooperation activities, partnerships
among the public, private and community sectors and participation in the decision-making process by
community groups and special interest groups such as women, indigenous people, the elderly and the
disabled. These approaches should form the core principles of national settlement strategies. In
developing these strategies, countries will need to set priorities among the eight programme areas in
this chapter in accordance with their national plans and objectives, taking fully into account their
social and cultural capabilities. Furthermore, countries should make appropriate provision to monitor
the impact of their strategies on marginalized and disenfranchised groups, with particular reference to
the needs of women.
 
7.20. All cities, particularly those characterized by severe sustainable development problems, should, in
accordance with national laws, rules and regulations, develop and strengthen programmes aimed at
addressing such problems and guiding their development along a sustainable path. Some international
initiatives in support of such efforts, as in the Sustainable Cities Programme of Habitat and the
Healthy Cities Programme of WHO, should be intensified. Additional initiatives involving the World
Bank, the regional development banks and bilateral agencies, as well as other interested stakeholders,
particularly international and national representatives of local authorities, should be strengthened and
coordinated. Individual cities should, as appropriate:
a. Institutionalize a participatory approach to sustainable urban development, based on
a continuous dialogue between the actors involved in urban development (the public
sector, private sector and communities), especially women and indigenous people;
b. Improve the urban environment by promoting social organization and environmental
awareness through the participation of local communities in the identification of
public services needs, the provision of urban infrastructure, the enhancement of
public amenities and the protection and/or rehabilitation of older buildings, historic
precincts and other cultural artifacts. In addition, "green works" programmes should
be activated to create self-sustaining human development activities and both formal
and informal employment opportunities for low-income urban residents; 
 
8.24. The programme relies essentially on a continuation of ongoing work for legal data collection,
translation and assessment. Closer cooperation between existing databases may be expected to lead to
better division of labour (e.g., in geographical coverage of national legislative gazettes and other
reference sources) and to improved standardization and compatibility of data, as appropriate
 
8.45. At the national level, the programme could be adopted mainly by the agencies dealing with
national accounts, in close cooperation with environmental statistics and natural resource departments,
with a view to assisting national economic analysts and decision makers in charge of national
economic planning. National institutions should play a crucial role not only as the depositary of the
system but also in its adaptation, establishment and continuous use. Unpaid productive work such as
domestic work and child care should be included, where appropriate, in satellite national accounts and
economic statistics. Time-use surveys could be a first step in the process of developing these satellite
accounts.
(c) Establishing 
 
12.10. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional
organizations, should:
a. Strengthen regional programmes and international cooperation, such as the Permanent InterState
Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), the Intergovernmental Authority
for Drought and Development (IGADD), the Southern African Development Coordination
Conference (SADCC), the Arab Maghreb Union and other regional organizations, as well as
such organizations as the Sahara and Sahel Observatory;
b. Establish and/or develop a comprehensive desertification, land degradation and human
condition database component that incorporates both physical and socio-economic
parameters. This should be based on existing and, where necessary, additional facilities, such
as those of Earthwatch and other information systems of international, regional and national
institutions strengthened for this purpose;
c. Determine benchmarks and define indicators of progress that facilitate the work of local and
regional organizations in tracking progress in the fight for anti-desertification. Particular
attention should be paid to indicators of local participation. 
 
 
13.8. National Governments and intergovernmental organizations should:
a. Coordinate regional and international cooperation and facilitate an exchange of
information and experience among the specialized agencies, the World Bank, IFAD and
other international and regional organizations, national Governments, research
institutions and non-governmental organizations working on mountain development;
 
13.18. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional
organizations, should:
a. Strengthen the role of appropriate international research and training institutes such as the
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Centers (CGIAR) and the
International Board for Soil Research and Management (IBSRAM), as well as regional
research centres, such as the Woodland Mountain Institutes and the International Center
for Integrated Mountain Development, in undertaking applied research relevant to
watershed development;
b. Promote regional cooperation and exchange of data and information among countries
sharing the same mountain ranges and river basins, particularly those affected by  mountain disasters and floods;
c. Maintain and establish partnerships with non-governmental organizations and other
private groups working in watershed development
 
(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination
14.20. Appropriate international and regional agencies should:
a. Reinforce their work with non-governmental organizations in collecting and
disseminating information on people's participation and people's organizations, testing
participatory development methods, training and education for human resource
development and strengthening the management structures of rural organizations; 
 
(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination
14.20. Appropriate international and regional agencies should:
a. Reinforce their work with non-governmental organizations in collecting and
disseminating information on people's participation and people's organizations, testing
participatory development methods, training and education for human resource
development and strengthening the management structures of rural organizations; 
 
16.19. Training and technology transfer is needed at the global level, with regions and countries having
access to, and participation in exchange of, information and expertise, particularly indigenous or
traditional knowledge and related biotechnology. It is essential to create or enhance endogenous
capabilities in developing countries to enable them to participate actively in the processes of
biotechnology production. The training of personnel could be undertaken at three levels:
a. That of scientists required for basic and product-oriented research;
b. That of health personnel (to be trained in the safe use of new products) and of science
managers required for complex intermultidisciplinary research;
c. That of tertiary-level technical workers required for delivery in the field.17.81. Coastal States should support the sustainability of small-scale artisanal fisheries. To this end, they
should, as appropriate:
a. Integrate small-scale artisanal fisheries development in marine and coastal planning,
taking into account the interests and, where appropriate, encouraging representation of
fishermen, small-scale fisherworkers, women, local communities and indigenous people;
b. Recognize the rights of small-scale fishworkers and the special situation of indigenous
people and local communities, including their rights to utilization and protection of their
habitats on a sustainable basis; 
 
States recognize:
a. The responsibility of the International Whaling Commission for the conservation and
management of whale stocks and the regulation of whaling pursuant to the 1946
International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling;
b. The work of the International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee in carrying out
studies of large whales in particular, as well as of other cetaceans;  
 
17.89. States recognize:
a. The responsibility of the International Whaling Commission for the conservation and
management of whale stocks and the regulation of whaling pursuant to the 1946
International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling;
b. The work of the International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee in carrying out
studies of large whales in particular, as well as of other cetaceans;
c. The work of other organizations, such as the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission
and the Agreement on Small Cetaceans in the Baltic and North Sea under the Bonn
Convention, in the conservation, management and study of cetaceans and other marine
mammals. 
17.90. States should cooperate for the conservation, management and study of cetaceans. 
 
17.93. States individually, or through bilateral and multilateral cooperation and with the support of
relevant international organizations, whether subregional, regional or global, as appropriate, should
encourage and provide support for developing countries, inter alia, to:
a. Expand multidisciplinary education, training and research on marine living resources,
particularly in the social and economic sciences;
b. Create training opportunities at national and regional levels to support artisanal
(including subsistence) fisheries, to develop small-scale use of marine living resources
and to encourage equitable participation of local communities, small-scale fish workers,
women and indigenous people; 
 
(a) Management-related activities
17.128. Small island developing States, with the assistance as appropriate of the international community
and on the basis of existing work of national and international organizations, should: 
a. Study the special environmental and developmental characteristics of small islands,
producing an environmental profile and inventory of their natural resources, critical
marine habitats and biodiversity;
b. Develop techniques for determining and monitoring the carrying capacity of small islands
under different development assumptions and resource constraints;
c. Prepare medium- and long-term plans for sustainable development that emphasize
multiple use of resources, integrate environmental considerations with economic and
sectoral planning and policies, define measures for maintaining cultural and
18.20. To implement these principles, communities need to have adequate capacities. Those who
establish the framework for water development and management at any level, whether international,
national or local, need to ensure that the means exist to build those capacities. The means will vary
from case to case. They usually include:
a. Awareness-creation programmes, including mobilizing commitment and support at all
levels and initiating global and local action to promote such programmes;
b. Training of water managers at all levels so that they have an appropriate understanding of
all the elements necessary for their decision-making;
c. Strengthening of training capacities in developing countries;
d. Appropriate training of the necessary professionals, including extension workers; 
 
18.32. Because well-trained people are particularly important to water resources assessment and
hydrologic forecasting, personnel matters should receive special attention in this area. The aim
should be to attract and retain personnel to work on water resources assessment who are sufficient in
number and adequate in their level of education to ensure the effective implementation of the
activities that are planned. Education may be called for at both the national and the international
level, with adequate terms of employment being a national responsibility. 
 
(b) Scientific and technological means
18.87. Monitoring of climate change and its impact on freshwater bodies must be closely integrated with
national and international programmes for monitoring the environment, in particular those concerned
with the atmosphere, as discussed under other sections of Agenda 21, and the hydrosphere, as
discussed under programme area B above. The analysis of data for indication of climate change as a
basis for developing remedial measures is a complex task. Extensive research is necessary in this area
and due account has to be taken of the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC), the World Climate Programme, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and other relevant international programmes.
 
(c) Human resource development
18.89. The developmental work and innovation depend for their success on good academic training and staff motivation. International projects can help by enumerating alternatives, but each country needs to establish and implement the necessary policies and to develop its own expertise in the scientific and engineering challenges to be faced, as well as a body of dedicated individuals who are able to interpret the complex issues concerned for those required to make policy decisions. Such specialized personnel need to be trained, hired and retained in service, so that they may serve their countries in these tasks. 
 
19.3. A considerable number of international bodies are involved in work on chemical safety. In many countries work programmes for the promotion of chemical safety are in place. Such work has international implications, as chemical risks do not respect national boundaries. However, a
significant strengthening of both national and international efforts is needed to achieve an
environmentally sound management of chemicals.  
 
19.8. The broadest possible awareness of chemical risks is a prerequisite for achieving chemical safety. The principle of the right of the community and of workers to know those risks should be recognized. However, the right to know the identity of hazardous ingredients should be balanced with industry's right to protect confidential business information. (Industry, as referred to in this chapter, shall be taken to include large industrial enterprises and transnational corporations as well as domestic industries.) The industry initiative on responsible care and product stewardship should be developed and promoted. Industry should apply adequate standards of operation in all countries in order not to
damage human health and the environment
 
19.18. Most of the data and methods for chemical risk assessment are generated in the developed
countries and an expansion and acceleration of the assessment work will call for a considerable
increase in research and safety testing by industry and research institutions. The cost projections
address the needs to strengthen the capacities of relevant United Nations bodies and are based on
current experience in IPCS. It should be noted that there are considerable costs, often not possible toquantify, that are not included. These comprise costs to industry and Governments of generating the safety data underlying the assessments and costs to Governments of providing background documents and draft assessment statements to IPCS, the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) and OECD. They also include the cost of accelerated work in non-United Nations bodies such as OECD and EC. 
 
 
(d) Capacity-building
19.23. International organizations, building on past, present and future assessment work, should support countries, particularly developing countries, in developing and strengthening risk assessment capabilities at national and regional levels to minimize, and as far as possible control and prevent, risk in the manufacturing and use of toxic and hazardous chemicals. Technical cooperation and  financial support or other contributions should be given to activities aimed at expanding and accelerating the national and international assessment and control of chemical risks to enable the best choice of chemicals. 
 
19.36. In order to address this issue, provisions for Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedures were introduced in 1989 in the London Guidelines (UNEP) and in the International Code of Conduct onthe Distribution and Use of Pesticides (FAO). In addition a joint FAO/UNEP programme has been
launched for the operation of the PIC procedures for chemicals, including the selection of chemicals to be included in the PIC procedure and preparation of PIC decision guidance documents. The ILO chemicals convention calls for communication between exporting and importing countries when  hazardous chemicals have been prohibited for reasons of safety and health at work. Within the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) framework, negotiations have been pursued with a view to creating a binding instrument on products banned or severely restricted in the domestic market. Further, the GATT Council has agreed, as stated in its decision contained in C/M/251, to extend the mandate of the working group for a period of three months, to begin from the date of the group's next meeting, and has authorized the Chairman to hold consultations on timing with respect to convening this meeting. 
 
Objectives
20.21. The objectives in this programme area are:
a. To adopt appropriate coordinating, legislative and regulatory measures at the national
level for the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including the
implementation of international and regional conventions;
b. To establish public awareness and information programmes on hazardous waste issues
and to ensure that basic education and training programmes are provided for industry and
government workers in all countries; 
 
23.2. One of the fundamental prerequisites for the achievement of sustainable development is broad public participation in decision-making. Furthermore, in the more specific context of environment and development, the need for new forms of participation has emerged. This includes the need of individuals, groups and organizations to participate in environmental impact assessment procedures and to know about and participate in decisions, particularly those which potentially affect the communities in which they live and work. Individuals, groups and organizations should have access to information relevant to environment and development held by national authorities, including information on products and activities that have or are likely to have a significant impact on the environment, and information on environmental protection measures.
 
23.2. One of the fundamental prerequisites for the achievement of sustainable development is broad public participation in decision-making. Furthermore, in the more specific context of environment and development, the need for new forms of participation has emerged. This includes the need of individuals, groups and organizations to participate in environmental impact assessment procedures and to know about and participate in decisions, particularly those which potentially affect the communities in which they live and work. Individuals, groups and organizations should have access to information relevant to environment and development held by national authorities, including information on products and activities that have or are likely to have a significant impact on the environment, and information on environmental protection measures. 
 
24.2. The following objectives are proposed for national Governments:
a. To implement the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women,
particularly with regard to women's participation in national ecosystem management and
control of environment degradation;
 
b. To increase the proportion of women decision makers, planners, technical advisers,
managers and extension workers in environment and development fields; 
 
24.3. Governments should take active steps to implement the following:  
 
Programmes to promote the reduction of the heavy workload of women and girl children
at home and outside through the establishment of more and affordable nurseries and
kindergartens by Governments, local authorities, employers and other relevant
organizations and the sharing of household tasks by men and women on an equal basis,
and to promote the provision of environmentally sound technologies which have been
designed, developed and improved in consultation with women, accessible and clean
water, an efficient fuel supply and adequate sanitation facilities;
 
24.5. States parties to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women should review and suggest amendments to it by the year 2000, with a view to strengthening those elements of the Convention related to environment and development, giving special attention to the issue of access and entitlements to natural resources, technology, creative banking facilities and lowcost housing, and the control of pollution and toxicity in the home and workplace. States parties should also clarify the extent of the Convention's scope with respect to the issues of environment and development and request the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to develop guidelines regulations
 
24.8. Countries should develop gender-sensitive databases, information systems and participatory action oriented research and policy analyses with the collaboration of academic institutions and local women researchers on the following:
a. Knowledge and experience 
 
e. The integration of the value of unpaid work, including work that is currently designated
"domestic", in resource accounting mechanisms in order better to represent the true value
of the contribution of women to the economy, using revised guidelines for the United
Nations System of National Accounts, to be issued in 1993; 
 
Agenda 21 – Chapter 29
STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE UNIONS
PROGRAMME AREA
Basis for action
29.1. Efforts to implement sustainable development will involve adjustments and opportunities at the national and enterprise levels, with workers foremost among those concerned. As their
representatives, trade unions are vital actors in facilitating the achievement of sustainable
development in view of their experience in addressing industrial change, the extremely high priority they give to protection of the working environment and the related natural environment, and their promotion of socially responsible and economic development. The existing network of collaboration among trade unions and their extensive membership provide important channels through which the concepts and practices of sustainable development can be supported. The established principles of tripartism provide a basis for strengthened collaboration between workers and their representatives,
 
Governments and employers in the implementation of sustainable development.
Objectives
29.2. The overall objective is poverty alleviation and full and sustainable employment, which contribute to safe, clean and healthy environments - the working environment, the community and the physical environment. Workers should be full participants in the implementation and evaluation of activities related to Agenda 21.
29.3. To that end the following objectives are proposed for accomplishment by the year 2000:
a. To promote ratification of relevant conventions of ILO and the enactment of legislation
in support of those conventions;
b. To establish bipartite and tripartite mechanisms on safety, health and sustainable
development;
c. To increase the number of environmental collective agreements aimed at achieving
sustainable development;
d. To reduce occupational accidents, injuries and diseases according to recognized statistical
reporting procedures;
e. To increase the provision of workers' education, training and retraining, particularly in
the area of occupational health and safety and environment. 
 
Activities
(a) Promoting freedom of association
29.4. For workers and their trade unions to play a full and informed role in support of sustainable
development, Governments and employers should promote the rights of individual workers to
freedom of association and the protection of the right to organize as laid down in ILO conventions.
Governments should consider ratifying and implementing those conventions, if they have not already done so.
(b) Strengthening participation and consultation
29.5. Governments, business and industry should promote the active participation of workers and their trade unions in decisions on the design, implementation and evaluation of national and international policies and programmes on environment and development, including employment policies, industrial strategies, labour adjustment programmes and technology transfers. 
29.6. Trade unions, employers and Governments should cooperate to ensure that the concept of sustainable development is equitably implemented.
29.7. Joint (employer/worker) or tripartite (employer/worker/Government) collaborative mechanisms at the workplace, community and national levels should be established to deal with safety, health and environment, including special reference to the rights and status of women in the workplace.
29.8. Governments and employers should ensure that workers and their representatives are provided with all relevant information to enable effective participation in these decision-making processes.
29.9. Trade unions should continue to define, develop and promote policies on all aspects of sustainable development.
29.10. Trade unions and employers should establish the framework for a joint environmental policy, and set priorities to improve the working environment and the overall environmental performance of enterprise.
29.11. Trade unions should:
a. Seek to ensure that workers are able to participate in environmental audits at the
workplace and in environmental impact assessments;
b. Participate in environment and development activities within the local community and
promote joint action on potential problems of common concern;
c. Play an active role in the sustainable development activities of international and regional
organizations, particularly within the United Nations system.
(c) Provide adequate training
 
29.12. Workers and their representatives should have access to adequate training to augment
environmental awareness, ensure their safety and health, and improve their economic and social
welfare. Such training should ensure that the necessary skills are available to promote sustainable
livelihoods and improve the working environment. Trade unions, employers, Governments and
international agencies should cooperate in assessing training needs within their respective spheres of activity. Workers and their representatives should be involved in the design and implementation of worker training programmes conducted by employers and Governments.
Means of implementation
(a) Financing and cost evaluation
29.13. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of
implementing the activities of this programme to be about $300 million from the international
community on grant or concessional t erms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes
Governments decide upon for implementation.
(b) Capacity-building
29.14. Particular attention should be given to strengthening the capacity of each of the tripartite socialpartners (Governments and employ
 
****WORLD SUMMIT ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
16. Yet we recognize that far too many people, particularly women and children,
are vulnerable to stress and deprivation. Poverty, unemployment and social
disintegration too often result in isolation, marginalization and violence. The
insecurity that many people, in particular vulnerable people, face about the
future - their own and their children’s - is intensifying:
 
(f) Over 120 million people world wide are officially unemployed and many
more are underemployed. Too many young people, including those with formal
education, have little hope of finding productive work;
 
Commitment 3
We commit ourselves to promoting the goal of full employment as a basic
priority of our economic and social policies, and to enabling all men and women
to attain secure and sustainable livelihoods through freely chosen productive
employment and work.
 
To this end, at the national level, we will:
(a) Put the creation of employment, the reduction of unemployment and the
promotion of appropriately and adequately remunerated employment at the centre
of strategies and policies of Governments, with full respect for workers’ rights
and with the participation of employers, workers and their respective
organizations, giving special attention to the problems of structural, long-term
unemployment and underemployment of youth, women, people with disabilities, and
all other disadvantaged groups and individuals;
 
(b) Develop policies to expand work opportunities and productivity in both
rural and urban sectors by achieving economic growth, investing in human
resource development, promoting technologies that generate productive
employment, and encouraging self-employment, entrepreneurship, and small and
medium-sized enterprises;
 
(c) Improve access to land, credit, information, infrastructure and other
productive resources for small and micro-enterprises, including those in the
informal sector, with particular emphasis on the disadvantaged sectors of
society;
(d) Develop policies to ensure that workers and employers have the
education, information and training needed to adapt to changing economic
conditions, technologies and labour markets;
 
(e) Explore innovative options for employment creation and seek new
approaches to generating income and purchasing power;
(f) Foster policies that enable people to combine their paid work with
their family responsibilities;
(g) Pay particular attention to women’s access to employment, the
protection of their position in the labour market and the promotion of equal
treatment of women and men, in particular with respect to pay;
(h) Take due account of the importance of the informal sector in our
employment development strategies with a view to increasing its contribution to
the eradication of poverty and to social integration in developing countries,
and to strengthening its linkages with the formal economy;
(i) Pursue the goal of ensuring quality jobs, and safeguard the basic
rights and interests of workers and to this end, freely promote respect for
relevant International Labour Organization conventions, including those on the
prohibition of forced and child labour, the freedom of association, the right to
organize and bargain collectively, and the principle of non-discrimination.
At the international level, we will:
(j) Ensure that migrant workers benefit from the protections provided by
relevant national and international instruments, take concrete and effective
measures against the exploitation of migrant workers, and encourage all
countries to consider the ratification and full implementation of the relevant
international instruments on migrant workers;
(k) Foster international cooperation in macroeconomic policies,
liberalization of trade and investment so as to promote sustained economic
growth and the creation of employment, and exchange experiences on successful
policies and programmes aimed at increasing employment and reducing
unemployment.
 
Commitment 3
We commit ourselves to promoting the goal of full employment as a basic
priority of our economic and social policies, and to enabling all men and women
to attain secure and sustainable livelihoods through freely chosen productive
employment and work.
 
& To this end, at the national level, we will:
(a) Put the creation of employment, the reduction of unemployment and the
promotion of appropriately and adequately remunerated employment at the centre
of strategies and policies of Governments, with full respect for workers’ rights
and with the participation of employers, workers and their respective
organizations, giving special attention to the problems of structural, long-term
unemployment and underemployment of youth, women, people with disabilities, and
all other disadvantaged groups and individuals;
(b) Develop policies to expand work opportunities and productivity in both
rural and urban sectors by achieving economic growth, investing in human
resource development, promoting technologies that generate productive
employment, and encouraging self-employment, entrepreneurship, and small and
medium-sized enterprises;
(c) Improve access to land, credit, information, infrastructure and other
productive resources for small and micro-enterprises, including those in the
informal sector, with particular emphasis on the disadvantaged sectors of
society;
(d) Develop policies to ensure that workers and employers have the
education, information and training needed to adapt to changing economic
conditions, technologies and labour markets;
 
Commitment 4
We commit ourselves to promoting social integration by fostering societies
that are stable, safe and just and that are based on the promotion and
protection of all human rights, as well as on non-discrimination, tolerance,
respect for diversity, equality of opportunity, solidarity, security, and
participation of all people, including disadvantaged and vulnerable groups and
persons.
To this end, at the national level, we will:
(a) Promote respect for democracy, the rule of law, pluralism and
diversity, tolerance and responsibility, non-violence and solidarity by
encouraging educational systems, communication media and local communities and
organizations to raise people’s understanding and awareness of all aspects of
social integration;
(b) Formulate or strengthen policies and strategies geared to the
elimination of discrimination in all its forms and the achievement of social
integration based on equality and respect for human dignity;
 
(c) Promote access for all to education, information, technology and
know-how as essential means for enhancing communication and participation in
civil, political, economic, social and cultural life, and ensure respect for
civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights;
(d) Ensure the protection and full integration into the economy and
society of disadvantaged and vulnerable groups and persons;
(e) Formulate or strengthen measures to ensure respect for and protection
of the human rights of migrants, migrant workers and their families, to
eliminate the increasing acts of racism and xenophobia in sectors of many
societies, and to promote greater harmony and tolerance in all societies;
 
Commitment 5
We commit ourselves to promoting full respect for human dignity and to
achieving equality and equity between women and men, and to recognizing and
enhancing the participation and leadership roles of women in political, civil,
economic, social and cultural life and in development.
To this end, at the national level, we will:
(j) Formulate or strengthen policies and practices to ensure that women
are enabled to participate fully in paid work and in employment through such
measures as positive action, education, training, appropriate protection under
labour legislation, and facilitating the provision of quality child care and
other support services.
 
(n) Devise suitable means to recognize and make visible the full extent of
the work of women and all their contributions to the national economy, including
contributions in the unremunerated and domestic sectors.
 
Commitment 6
We commit ourselves to promoting and attaining the goals of universal and
equitable access to quality education, the highest attainable standard of
physical and mental health, and the access of all to primary health care, making
particular efforts to rectify inequalities relating to social conditions and
without distinction as to race, national origin, gender, age or disability;
respecting and promoting our common and particular cultures; striving to
strengthen the role of culture in development; preserving the essential bases of
people-centred sustainable development; and contributing to the full development
of human resources and to social development. The purpose of these activities
is to eradicate poverty, promote full and productive employment and foster
social integration.
 
B. A favourable national and international
political and legal environment
14. To ensure that the political framework supports the objectives of social
development, the following actions are essential:
 
(f) Establishing similar conditions for professional organizations and
organizations of independent workers;
 
Chapter II
ERADICATION OF POVERTY
Basis for action and objectives
 
19. Poverty has various manifestations, including lack of income and productive
resources sufficient to ensure sustainable livelihoods; hunger and malnutrition;
ill health; limited or lack of access to education and other basic services;
increased morbidity and mortality from illness; homelessness and inadequate
housing; unsafe environments; and social discrimination and exclusion. It is
also characterized by a lack of participation in decision-making and in civil,
social and cultural life. It occurs in all countries: as mass poverty in many
developing countries, pockets of poverty amid wealth in developed countries,
loss of livelihoods as a result of economic recession, sudden poverty as a
result of disaster or conflict, the poverty of low-wage workers, and the utter
destitution of people who fall outside family support systems, social
institutions and safety nets. Women bear a disproportionate burden of poverty,
and children growing up in poverty are often permanently disadvantaged. Older
people, people with disabilities, indigenous people, refugees and internally
displaced persons are also particularly vulnerable to poverty. Furthermore,
poverty in its various forms represents a barrier to communication and access to
services, as well as a major health risk, and people living in poverty are
particularly vulnerable to the consequences of disasters and conflicts.
Absolute poverty is a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic
human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health,
shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on
access to social services.
 
29. There is a need to periodically monitor, assess and share information on
the performance of poverty eradication plans, evaluate policies to combat
poverty, and promote an understanding and awareness of poverty and its causes
and consequences. This could be done, by Governments, inter alia, through:
 
(c) Strengthening international data collection and statistical systems to
support countries in monitoring social development goals, and encouraging the
expansion of international databases to incorporate socially beneficial
activities that are not included in available data, such as women’s
unremunerated work and contributions to society, the informal economy and
sustainable livelihoods;
 
30. Members of the international community should, bilaterally or through
multilateral organizations, foster an enabling environment for poverty
eradication by:
(a) Coordinating policies and programmes to support the measures being
taken in the developing countries, particularly in Africa and the least
developed countries, to eradicate poverty, provide remunerative work and
strengthen social integration in order to meet basic social development goals
and targets;
 
31. The opportunities for income generation, diversification of activities and
increase of productivity in low-income and poor communities should be enhanced
by:
 
(f) Strengthening and improving financial and technical assistance for
community-based development and self-help programmes, and strengthening
cooperation among Governments, community organizations, cooperatives, formal and
informal banking institutions, private enterprises and international agencies,
with the aim of mobilizing local savings, promoting the creation of local
financial networks, and increasing the availability of credit and market
information to small entrepreneurs, small farmers and other low-income
self-employed workers, with particular efforts to ensure the availability of
such services to women;
 
(g) Strengthening organizations of small farmers, landless tenants and
labourers, other small producers, fisherfolk, community-based and workers’
cooperatives, especially those run by women, in order to, inter alia, improve
market access and increase productivity, provide inputs and technical advice,
promote cooperation in production and marketing operations, and strengthen
participation in the planning and implementation of rural development;
(h) Promoting national and international assistance in providing
economically viable alternatives for social groups, especially farmers involved
in the cultivation and processing of crops used for the illegal drug trade;
(i) Improving the competitiveness of natural products with environmental
advantages and strengthening the impact that this could have on promoting
sustainable consumption and production patterns, and strengthening and improving
financial and technical assistaNCE
 
32. Rural poverty should be addressed by:
 
(d) Promoting opportunities for small farmers and other agricultural,
forestry and fishery workers on terms that respect sustainable development;
 
(f) Protecting, within the national context, the traditional rights to
land and other resources of pastoralists, fishery workers and nomadic and
indigenous people, and strengthening land management in the areas of pastoral or
nomadic activity, building on traditional communal practices, controlling
encroachment by others, and developing improved systems of range management and
access to water, markets, credit, animal production, veterinary services, health
including health services, education and information;
 
(h) Strengthening agricultural training and extension services to promote
a more effective use of existing technologies and indigenous knowledge systems
and to disseminate new technologies in order to reach both men and women farmers
and other agricultural workers, including through the hiring of more women as
extension workers;
 
37. Access to social services for people living in poverty and vulnerable
groups should be improved through:
 
(f) Encouraging health-care workers to work in low-income communities and
rural areas, and providing outreach services to make health care available to
otherwise unserved areas, recognizing that investing in a primary health-care
system that ensures prevention, treatment and rehabilitation for all individuals
is an effective means of promoting social and economic development as well as
broad participation in society.
 
D. Enhanced social protection and reduced vulnerability
38. Social protection systems should be based on legislation and, as
appropriate, strengthened and expanded, as necessary, in order to protect from
poverty people who cannot find work; people who cannot work due to sickness,
disability, old age or maternity, or to their caring for children and sick or
 
older relatives; families that have lost a breadwinner through death or marital
breakup; and people who have lost their livelihoods due to natural disasters or
civil violence, wars or forced displacement. Due attention should be given to
people affected by the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic. Actions to this end should include:
 
(g) Expanding and strengthening social protection programmes to protect
working people, including the self-employed and their families, from the risk of
falling into poverty, by extending coverage to as many as possible, providing
benefits quickly and ensuring that entitlements continue when workers change
jobs;
 
(h) Ensuring, through appropriate regulation, that contributory social
protection plans are efficient and transparent so that the contributions of
workers, employers and the State and the accumulation of resources can be
monitored by the participants;
 
(j) Ensuring that social protection and social support programmes meet the
needs of women, and especially that they take into account women’s multiple
roles and concerns, in particular the reintegration of women into formal work
after periods of absence, support for older women, and the promotion of
acceptance of women’s multiple roles and responsibilities.
 
39. Particular efforts should be made to protect children and youth by:
(a) Promoting family stability and supporting families in providing mutual
support, including in their role as nurturers and educators of children;
(b) Promoting social support, including good quality child care and
working conditions that allow both parents to reconcile parenthood with working
life;
 
(e) Improving the situation and protecting the rights of children in
especially difficult circumstances, including children in areas of armed
conflict, children who lack adequate family support, urban street children,
abandoned children, children with disabilities, children addicted to narcotic
drugs, children affected by war or natural and man-made disasters, unaccompanied
minor refugee children, working children, and children who are economically and
sexually exploited or abused, including the victims of the sale and trafficking
of children; ensuring that they have access to food, shelter, education and
health care and are protected from abuse and violence, as well as provided with
the necessary social and psychological assistance for their healthy
reintegration into society and for family reunification consistent with the
Convention on the Rights of the Child; and substituting education for child
work;
 
40. Particular efforts should be made to protect older persons, including those
with disabilities, by:
(a) Strengthening family support systems;
(b) Improving the situation of older persons, in particular in cases where
they lack adequate family support, including rural older persons, working older
persons, those affected by armed conflicts and natural or man-made disasters,
and those who are exploited, physically or psychologically neglected, or abused
 
(f) Strengthening measures and mechanisms to ensure that retired workers
do not fall into poverty, taking into account their contribution to the
development of their countries;
 
41. People and communities should be protected from impoverishment and
long-term displacement and exclusion resulting from disasters through the
following actions at the national and international levels, as appropriate:
 
(e) In disaster-prone areas and in cooperation with community-based
organizations, developing drought and flood mitigation agronomic practices and
resource conservation and infrastructure-building programmes, using
food-for-work, where appropriate, and incorporating traditional
disaster-response practices that can be rapidly expanded into emergency
employment and rebuilding programmes in disaster situations;
 
EXPANSION OF PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND
REDUCTION OF UNEMPLOYMENT
Basis for action and objectives
42. Productive work and employment are central elements of development as well
as decisive elements of human identity. Sustained economic growth and
sustainable development as well as the expansion of productive employment should
go hand in hand. Full and adequately and appropriately remunerated employment
is an effective method of combating poverty and promoting social integration.
The goal of full employment requires that the State, the social partners and all
the other parts of civil society at all levels cooperate to create conditions
that enable everyone to participate in and benefit from productive work. In a
world of increasing globalization and interdependence among countries, national
efforts need to be buttressed by international cooperation.
 
43. Globalization and rapid technological development give rise to increased
labour mobility, bringing new employment opportunities as well as new
uncertainties. There has been an increase in part-time, casual and other forms
of atypical employment. In addition to requiring the creation of new employment
opportunities on an unprecedented scale, such an environment calls for expanded
efforts to enhance human resource development for sustainable development by,
inter alia, enhancing the knowledge and skills necessary for people,
particularly for women and youth, to work productively and adapt to changing
requirements
 
44. In many developed countries, growth in employment is currently great in
small and medium-sized enterprises and in self-employment. In many developing
countries, informal sector activities are often the leading source of employment
opportunities for people with limited access to formal-sector wage employment,
in particular for women. The removal of obstacles to the operation of such
enterprises and the provision of support for their creation and expansion must
be accompanied by protection of the basic rights, health and safety of workers
and the progressive improvement of overall working conditions, together with the
strengthening of efforts to make some enterprises part of the formal sector.
 
46. Much unremunerated productive work, such as caring for children and older
persons, producing and preparing food for the family, protecting the environment
and providing voluntary assistance to vulnerable and disadvantaged individuals
and groups, is of great social importance. World wide, most of this work is
done by women who often face the double burden of remunerated and unremunerated
work. Efforts are needed to acknowledge the social and economic importance and
value of unremunerated work, to facilitate labour-force participation in
combination with such work through flexible working arrangements, encouraging
 
voluntary social activities as well as broadening the very conception of
productive work, and to accord social recognition for such work, including by
developing methods for reflecting its value in quantitative terms for possible
reflection in accounts that may be produced separately from, but consistent
with, core national accounts.
 
47. There is therefore an urgent need, in the overall context of promoting
sustained economic growth and sustainable development, for:
• Placing the creation of employment at the centre of national
strategies and policies, with the full participation of employers and
trade unions and other parts of civil society;
• Policies to expand work opportunities and increase productivity in
both rural and urban sectors;
• Education and training that enable workers and entrepreneurs to adapt
to changing technologies and economic conditions;
• Quality jobs, with full respect for the basic rights of workers as
defined by relevant International Labour Organization and other
international instruments;
• Giving special priority, in the design of policies, to the problems of
structural, long-term unemployment and underemployment of youth,
women, persons with disabilities and all other disadvantaged groups
and individuals;
• Empowerment of women, gender balance in decision-making processes at
all levels and gender analysis in policy development to ensure equal
employment opportunities and wage rates for women and to enhance
harmonious and mutually beneficial partnerships between women and men
in sharing family and employment responsibilities;
• Empowerment of members of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups,
including through the provision of education and training;
• A broader recognition and understanding of work and employment and
greater flexibility in working time arrangements for both men and
women.
 
49. Minimizing the negative impact on jobs of measures for macroeconomic
stability requires:
 
(g) Establishing appropriate social safety mechanisms to minimize the
adverse effects of structural adjustment, stabilization or reform programmes on
the workforce, especially the vulnerable, and for those who lose their jobs,
creating conditions for their re-entry through, inter alia, continuing education
and retraining.
 
50. Promoting patterns of economic growth that maximize employment creation
requires:
(a) Encouraging, as appropriate, labour-intensive investments in economic
and social infrastructure that use local resources and create, maintain and
rehabilitate community assets in both rural and urban areas;
(b) Promoting technological innovations and industrial policies that have
the potential to stimulate short and long-term employment creation, and
considering their impact on vulnerable and disadvantaged groups;
.
 
51. Enhancing opportunities for the creation and growth of private-sector
enterprises that would generate additional employment requires:
(a) Removing obstacles faced by small and medium-sized enterprises and
easing regulations that discourage private initiative;
(b) Facilitating access by small and medium-sized enterprises to credit,
national and international markets, management training and technological
information;
(c) Facilitating arrangements between large and small enterprises, such as
subcontracting programmes, with full respect for workers’ rights;
(d) Improving opportunities and working conditions for women and youth
entrepreneurs by eliminating discrimination in access to credit, productive
resources and social security protection, and providing and increasing, as
appropriate, family benefits and social support, such as health care and child
care;
(e) Promoting, supporting and establishing legal frameworks to foster the
development of cooperative enterprises, and encouraging them to mobilize
capital, develop innovative lending programmes and promote entrepreneurship;
(f) Assisting informal sectors and local enterprises to become more
productive and progressively integrated into the formal economy through access
to affordable credit, information, wider markets, new technology and appropriate
technological and management skills, opportunities to upgrade technical and
management skills, and improved premises and other physical infrastructure, as
well as by progressively extending labour standards and social protection
without destroying the ability of informal sectors to generate employment;
(g) Promoting the creation and development of independent organizations,
such as chambers of commerce and other associations or self-help institutions of
small formal and informal enterprises;
(h) Facilitating the expansion of the training and employment-generating
opportunities of industries.
 
52. Facilitating people’s access to productive employment in today’s rapidly
changing global environment and developing better quality jobs requires:
 
(e) Promoting lifelong learning to ensure that education and training
programmes respond to changes in the economy, provide full and equal access to
training opportunities, secure the access of women to training programmes, offer
incentives for public and private sectors to provide and for workers to acquire
training on a continuous basis, and stimulate entrepreneurial skills;
(f) Encouraging and supporting through technical assistance programmes,
including those of the United Nations system, well-designed and adaptable
vocational training and apprenticeship programmes to enhance productivity and
productive employment;
(g) Promoting and strengthening training programmes for the employment of
new entrants to the job market and retraining programmes for displaced and
retrenched workers;
(i) Developing, in the area of vocational and continuing education,
innovative methods of teaching and learning, including interactive technologies
and inductive methods involving close coordination between working experience
and training.
 
53. Helping workers to adapt and to enhance their employment opportunities
under changing economic conditions requires:
(a) Designing, developing, implementing, analysing and monitoring active
labour policies to stimulate the demand for labour in order to ensure that the
burden of indirect labour costs on employers does not constitute a disincentive
to hiring workers, identifying skill shortages and surpluses, providing
vocational guidance and counselling services and active help in job searches,
promoting occupational choice and mobility, offering advisory services and
support to enterprises, particularly small enterprises, for the more effective
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use and development of their workforce, and establishing institutions and
processes that prevent all forms of discrimination and improve the employment
opportunities of groups that are vulnerable and disadvantaged;
 
(e) Promoting labour mobility, retraining and maintenance of adequate
levels of social protection to facilitate worker redeployment when there is
phasing out of production or closure of an enterprise, giving special attention
to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups;
 
(f) Facilitating the integration or reintegration of women into the
workforce by developing adequate child care, care for older persons and other
support services and facilities;
(g) Encouraging cooperation between employers and workers to prepare for
the introduction of new technologies and to plan for their employment effects as
far in advance as possible, while ensuring adequate protection and adjustment;
(h) Strengthening public and private employment services to assist workers
to adapt to changing job markets and provide social safety mechanisms,
occupational guidance, employment and job search counselling  training,
placement, apprenticeships and the sharing of information;
 
(i) Strengthening labour market information systems, particularly through
development of appropriate data and indicators on employment, underemployment,
unemployment and earnings, as well as dissemination of information concerning
labour markets, including, as far as possible, work situations outside formal
markets. All such data should be disaggregated by gender in order to monitor
the status of women relative to men.
 
C. Enhanced quality of work and employment
 
54. Governments should enhance the quality of work and employment by:
(a) Observing and fully implementing the human rights obligations that
they have assumed;
(b) Safeguarding and promoting respect for basic workers’ rights,
including the prohibition of forced labour and child labour, freedom of
association and the right to organize and bargain collectively, equal
remuneration for men and women for work of equal value, and non-discrimination
in employment, fully implementing the conventions of the International Labour
Organization (ILO) in the case of States parties to those conventions, and
taking into account the principles embodied in those conventions in the case of
those countries that are not States parties to thus achieve truly sustained
economic growth and sustainable development;
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(c) Strongly considering ratification and full implementation of ILO
conventions in these areas, as well as those relating to the employment rights
of minors, women, youth, persons with disabilities and indigenous people;
(d) Using existing international labour standards to guide the formulation
of national labour legislation and policies;
(e) Promoting the role of ILO, particularly as regards improving the level
of employment and the quality of work;
(f) Encouraging, where appropriate, employers and workers to consider ways
and means for enhancing the sharing of workers in the profits of enterprises and
promoting cooperation between workers and employers in the decisions of
enterprises.
55. To achieve a healthy and safe working environment, remove exploitation,
abolish child labour, raise productivity and enhance the quality of life
requires:
(a) Developing and implementing policies designed to promote improved
working conditions, including health and safety conditions;
(b) Improving health policies that reduce, with a view to eliminating,
environmental health hazards and provide for occupational health and safety, in
conformity with the relevant conventions, and providing informal sector
enterprises and all workers with accessible information and guidance on how to
enhance occupational safety and reduce health risks;
(c) Promoting, in accordance with national laws and regulations, sound
labour relations based on tripartite cooperation and full respect for freedom of
association and the right to organize and bargain collectively;
(d) Setting specific target dates for eliminating all forms of child
labour that are contrary to accepted international standards and ensuring the
full enforcement of relevant existing laws, and, where appropriate, enacting the
legislation necessary to implement the Convention on the Rights of the Child and
ILO standards, ensuring the protection of working children, in particular of
street children, through the provision of appropriate health, education and
other social services;
(e) Designing labour policies and programmes to help eradicate family
poverty, which is a main cause of child labour, eliminating child labour and
encouraging parents to send their children to school through, inter alia, the
provision of social services and other incentives;
(f) Establishing policies and programmes to protect workers, especially
women, from sexual harassment and violence;
(g) Encouraging incentives to public and private enterprises to develop,
transfer and adopt technologies and know-how that improve the working
environment, enhance occupational safety and reduce, with a view to eliminating,
health risks.
 
55. To achieve a healthy and safe working environment, remove exploitation,
abolish child labour, raise productivity and enhance the quality of life
requires:
(a) Developing and implementing policies designed to promote improved
working conditions, including health and safety conditions;
(b) Improving health policies that reduce, with a view to eliminating,
environmental health hazards and provide for occupational health and safety, in
conformity with the relevant conventions, and providing informal sector
enterprises and all workers with accessible information and guidance on how to
enhance occupational safety and reduce health risks;
(c) Promoting, in accordance with national laws and regulations, sound
labour relations based on tripartite cooperation and full respect for freedom of
association and the right to organize and bargain collectively;
(d) Setting specific target dates for eliminating all forms of child
labour that are contrary to accepted international standards and ensuring the
full enforcement of relevant existing laws, and, where appropriate, enacting the
legislation necessary to implement the Convention on the Rights of the Child and
ILO standards, ensuring the protection of working children, in particular of
street children, through the provision of appropriate health, education and
other social services;
(e) Designing labour policies and programmes to help eradicate family poverty, which is a main cause of child labour, eliminating child labour and encouraging parents to send their children to school through, inter alia, the provision of social services and other incentives;
(f) Establishing policies and programmes to protect workers, especially
women, from sexual harassment and violence;
(g) Encouraging incentives to public and private enterprises to develop,
transfer and adopt technologies and know-how that improve the working
environment, enhance occupational safety and reduce, with a view to eliminating,
health risks.
 
56. The full participation of women in the labour market and their equal access
to employment opportunities require:
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(a) Establishing the principle of equality between men and women as a
basis for employment policy and promoting gender-sensitivity training to eliminate prejudice against the employment of women;
(b) Eliminating gender discrimination, including by taking positive
action, where appropriate, in hiring, wages, access to credit, benefits,
promotion, training, career development, job assignment, working conditions, job
security and social security benefits;
(c) Improving women’s access to technologies that facilitate their occupational and domestic work, encourage self-support, generate income, transform gender-prescribed roles within the productive process and enable them
to move out of stereotyped, low-paying jobs;
(d) Changing those policies and attitudes that reinforce the division of labour based on gender, and providing institutional support, such as social protection for maternity, parental leave, technologies that facilitate the sharing and reduce the burden of domestic chores, and flexible working arrangements, including parental voluntary part-time employment and
work-sharing, as well as accessible and affordable quality child-care
facilities, to enable working parents to reconcile work with family
responsibilities, paying particular attention to the needs of single-parent
households;
(e) Encouraging men to take an active part in all areas of family and household responsibilities, including the sharing of child-rearing and housework.
 
D. Enhanced employment opportunities for groups
with specific needs
57. The improvement of the design of policies and programmes requires:
(a) Identifying and reflecting the specific needs of particular groups, and ensuring that programmes are equitable and non-discriminatory, efficient and
effective in meeting the needs of those groups;
(b) Actively involving representatives of these groups in planning, design
and management, and monitoring, evaluating and reorienting these programmes by
providing access to accurate information and sufficient resources to ensure that
they reach their intended beneficiaries.
58. Employment policies can better address the problem of short- and long-term
unemployment by:
 
(a) Incorporating, with the involvement of the unemployed and/or their associations, a comprehensive set of measures, including employment planning, re-education and training programmes, literacy, skills upgrading, counselling and job-search assistance, temporary work schemes, frequent contact with employment service offices and preparing for entry and re-entry into the labour market;
 
(b) Analysing the underlying causes of long-term unemployment and their effect on different groups, including older workers and single parents, and designing employment and other supporting policies that address specific situations and needs;
 
(c) Promoting social security schemes that reduce barriers and disincentives to employment so as to enable the unemployed to improve their capacity to participate actively in society, to maintain an adequate standard of living and to be able to take advantage of employment opportunities.
 
58. Employment policies can better address the problem of short- and long-term
unemployment by:
(a) Incorporating, with the involvement of the unemployed and/or their associations, a comprehensive set of measures, including employment planning, re-education and training programmes, literacy, skills upgrading, counselling and job-search assistance, temporary work schemes, frequent contact with employment service offices and preparing for entry and re-entry into the labour market;
 
(b) Analysing the underlying causes of long-term unemployment and their effect on different groups, including older workers and single parents, and designing employment and other supporting policies that address specific situations and needs;
 
(c) Promoting social security schemes that reduce barriers and disincentives to employment so as to enable the unemployed to improve their capacity to participate actively in society, to maintain an adequate standard of living and to be able to take advantage of employment opportunities.
 
59. Programmes for entry or re-entry into the labour market aimed at vulnerable
and disadvantaged groups can effectively combat the causes of exclusion on the
labour market by:
(a) Complementing literacy actions, general education or vocational training by work experience that may include support and instruction on business management and training so as to give better knowledge of the value of entrepreneurship and other private-sector contributions to society;
(b) Increasing the level of skills, and also improving the ability to get a job through improvements in housing, health and family life.
 
63. There is need for intensified international cooperation and national attention to the situation of migrant workers and their families. To that end:
(a) Governments are invited to consider ratifying existing instruments pertaining to migrant workers, particularly the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; 15/
 
(b) In accordance with national legislation, Governments of receiving countries are urged to consider extending to documented migrants who meet appropriate length-of-stay requirements and to members of their families whose stay in the receiving country is regular, treatment equal to that accorded their own nationals with regard to the enjoyment of basic human rights, including
equality of opportunity and treatment in respect of religious practices, working conditions, social security, participation in trade unions and access to health, education, cultural and other social services, as well as equal access to the judicial system and equal treatment before the law;
 
e) Governments of countries of origin are urged to facilitate the return of migrants and their reintegration into their home communities and to devise ways of using their skills. Governments of countries of origin should consider collaborating with countries of destination and engaging the support of appropriate international organizations in promoting the return on a voluntary
basis of qualified migrants who can play a crucial role in the transfer of knowledge, skills and technology. Countries of destination are encouraged to facilitate return migration on a voluntary basis by adopting flexible policies, such as the transferability of pensions and other work benefits.
 
64. A broader recognition and understanding of work and employment requires:
(a) Acknowledging the important contribution of unremunerated work to societal well-being and bringing respect, dignity and value to societal perceptions of such work and the people who do it;
 
(b) Developing a more comprehensive knowledge of work and employment through, inter alia, efforts to measure and better understand the type, extent and distribution of unremunerated work, particularly work in caring for dependants and unremunerated work done for family farms or businesses, and encouraging, sharing and disseminating information, studies and experience in
this field, including on the development of methods for assessing its value in quantitative terms, for possible reflection in accounts that may be produced separately from, but are consistent with, core national accounts;
(c) Recognizing the relationship between remunerated employment and unremunerated work in developing strategies to expand productive employment, to ensure equal access by women and men to employment, and to ensure the care and well-being of children and other dependants, as well as to combat poverty and promote social integration;
(d) Encouraging an open dialogue on the possibilities and institutional requirements for a broader understanding of various forms of work and employment;
(e) Examining a range of policies and programmes, including social security legislation, and taxation systems, in accordance with national priorities and policies, to ascertain how to facilitate flexibility in the way people divide their time between education and training, paid employment, family responsibilities, volunteer activity and other socially useful forms of work,
leisure and retirement, giving particular attention to the situation of women,
especially in female-maintained households;
(f) Promoting socially useful volunteer work and allocating appropriate resources to support such work without diluting the objectives regarding employment expansion;
(g) Intensifying international exchange of experience on various aspects
of change in the recognition and understanding of work and employment and on new
forms of flexible working time arrangements over the lifetime.
65. The development of additional socially useful new types of employment and
work requires, inter alia:
1. (a) Helping vulnerable and disadvantaged groups to integrate better into society and thus participate more effectively in economic and social
development;
(b) Helping older persons who are dependent or providing support for families in need of educational assistance or social support;
(c) Strengthening social ties through these forms of employment and work, which represents an important achievement of social development policy.
 
 
(h) Expanding basic education by developing special measures to provide schooling for children and youth living in sparsely populated and remote areas, for children and youth of nomadic, pastoral, migrant or indigenous parents, and for street children, children and youth working or looking after younger siblings and disabled or aged parents, and disabled children and youth;
 
C. Equality and social justice
74. Governments should promote equality and social justice by:
 
(h) Expanding basic education by developing special measures to provide schooling for children and youth living in sparsely populated and remote areas, for children and youth of nomadic, pastoral, migrant or indigenous parents, and for street children, children and youth working or looking after younger
siblings and disabled or aged parents, and disabled children and youth;
 
(i) Ensuring that the expansion of basic education is accompanied by improved quality, appropriate attention to children of different abilities, cooperation between family and school, and a close link between the school curriculum and the needs of the workplace;
 
(k) Ensuring that all people can have access to a variety of formal and non-formal learning activities throughout their lives that allows them to contribute to and benefit from full participation in society; making use of all forms of education, including non-conventional and experimental means of education, such as tele-courses and correspondence courses, through public institutions, the institutions of civil society and the private sector, to
provide educational opportunities for those who in childhood missed necessary
schooling, for youth in the process of transition from school to work, and for
those who wish to continue education and upgrade skills throughout their lives;
 
D. Responses to special social needs
75. Governmental responses to special needs of social groups should include:
 
(c) Ensuring access to work and social services through such measures as education, language training and technical assistance for people adversely affected by language barriers;
 
77. To promote the equitable treatment and integration of documented migrants, particularly documented migrant workers and members of their families:
 
(a) Governments should ensure that documented migrants receive fair and equal treatment, including full respect of their human rights, protection of the laws of the host society, appropriate access to economic opportunities and social services; protection against racism, ethnocentrism and xenophobia; and -protection from violence and exploitation.
 
F. Violence, crime, the problem of illicit drugs
and substance abuse
79. Addressing the problems created by violence, crime, substance abuse and the
production, use and trafficking of illicit drugs, and the rehabilitation of
addicts requires:
 
B. Involvement of civil society
85. Effective implementation of the Copenhagen Declaration on Social
Development and the Programme of Action of the Summit requires strengthening community organizations and non-profit non-governmental organizations in the spheres of education, health, poverty, social integration, human rights, improvement of the quality of life, and relief and rehabilitation, enabling them to participate constructively in policy-making and implementation. This will require:
 
(c) Enabling and encouraging trade unions to participate in the planning and implementation of social development programmes, especially in relation to the generation of work opportunities under fair conditions, the provision of training, health care and other basic services, and the development of an economic environment that facilitates sustained economic growth and sustainable development;
 
B. Attendance
2. The following States and regional economic integration organization were
represented at the Summit:
 
 
****1995 Beijing Declaration of Action
Chapter I
MISSION STATEMENT
1. The Platform for Action is an agenda for women’s empowerment. It aims at accelerating the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women 1/ and at removing all the obstacles to women’s active participation in all spheres of public and private life through a full and equal share in economic, social, cultural and political decision-making. This means that the principle of shared power and responsibility should be established
between women and men at home, in the workplace and in the wider national and
international communities. Equality between women and men is a matter of human
rights and a condition for social justice and is also a necessary and fundamental prerequisite for equality, development and peace. A transformed partnership based on equality between women and men is a condition for people centred sustainable development. A sustained and long-term commitment is essential, so that women and men can work together for themselves, for their
children and for society to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century.
 
19. Economic recession in many developed and developing countries, as well as ongoing restructuring in countries with economies in transition, have had a
disproportionately negative impact on women’s employment. Women often have no
choice but to take employment that lacks long-term job security or involves
dangerous working conditions, to work in unprotected home-based production or to
be unemployed. Many women enter the labour market in under-remunerated and
undervalued jobs, seeking to improve their household income; others decide to
migrate for the same purpose. Without any reduction in their other
responsibilities, this has increased the total burden of work for women.
 
21. Women are key contributors to the economy and to combating poverty through
both remunerated and unremunerated work at home, in the community and in the
workplace. Growing numbers of women have achieved economic independence through
gainful employment.
 
27. Since 1975, knowledge of the status of women and men, respectively, has
increased and is contributing to further actions aimed at promoting equality
between women and men. In several countries, there have been important changes
in the relationships between women and men, especially where there have been
major advances in education for women and significant increases in their
participation in the paid labour force. The boundaries of the gender division
of labour between productive and reproductive roles are gradually being crossed
as women have started to enter formerly male-dominated areas of work and men
have started to accept greater responsibility for domestic tasks, including
child care. However, changes in women’s roles have been greater and much more
rapid than changes in men’s roles. In many countries, the differences between
women’s and men’s achievements and activities are still not recognized as the
consequences of socially constructed gender roles rather than immutable
biological differences.
 
30. While the rate of growth of world population is on the decline, world
population is at an all-time high in absolute numbers, with current increments
approaching 86 million persons annually. Two other major demographic trends
have had profound repercussions on the dependency ratio within families. In
many developing countries, 45 to 50 per cent of the population is less than
15 years old, while in industrialized nations both the number and proportion of
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elderly people are increasing. According to United Nations projections,
72 per cent of the population over 60 years of age will be living in developing
countries by the year 2025, and more than half of that population will be women.
Care of children, the sick and the elderly is a responsibility that falls
disproportionately on women, owing to lack of equality and the unbalanced
distribution of remunerated and unremunerated work between women and men.
 
46. The Platform for Action recognizes that women face barriers to full
equality and advancement because of such factors as their race, age, language,
ethnicity, culture, religion or disability, because they are indigenous women or
because of other status. Many women encounter specific obstacles related to
their family status, particularly as single parents; and to their socio-economic
status, including their living conditions in rural, isolated or impoverished
areas. Additional barriers also exist for refugee women, other displaced women,
including internally displaced women as well as for immigrant women and migrant
women, including women migrant workers. Many women are also particularly
affected by environmental disasters, serious and infectious diseases and various
forms of violence against women.
 
A. Women and poverty
47. More than 1 billion people in the world today, the great majority of whom
are women, live in unacceptable conditions of poverty, mostly in the developing
countries. Poverty has various causes, including structural ones. Poverty is a
complex, multidimensional problem, with origins in both the national and
international domains. The globalization of the world’s economy and the
deepening interdependence among nations present challenges and opportunities for
sustained economic growth and development, as well as risks and uncertainties
for the future of the world economy. The uncertain global economic climate has
been accompanied by economic restructuring as well as, in a certain number of
countries, persistent, unmanageable levels of external debt and structural
adjustment programmes. In addition, all types of conflict, displacement of
people and environmental degradation have undermined the capacity of Governments
to meet the basic needs of their populations. Transformations in the world
economy are profoundly changing the parameters of social development in all
countries. One significant trend has been the increased poverty of women, the
extent of which varies from region to region. The gender disparities in
economic power-sharing are also an important contributing factor to the poverty
of women. Migration and consequent changes in family structures have placed
additional burdens on women, especially those who provide for several
dependants. Macroeconomic policies need rethinking and reformulation to address
such trends. These policies focus almost exclusively on the formal sector.
They also tend to impede the initiatives of women and fail to consider the
differential impact on women and men. The application of gender analysis to a
wide range of policies and programmes is therefore critical to poverty reduction
strategies. In order to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development,
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women and men must participate fully and equally in the formulation of
macroeconomic and social policies and strategies for the eradication of poverty.
The eradication of poverty cannot be accomplished through anti-poverty
programmes alone but will require democratic participation and changes in
economic structures in order to ensure access for all women to resources,
opportunities and public services. Poverty has various manifestations,
including lack of income and productive resources sufficient to ensure a
sustainable livelihood; hunger and malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of
access to education and other basic services; increasing morbidity and mortality
from illness; homelessness and inadequate housing; unsafe environments; and
social discrimination and exclusion. It is also characterized by lack of
participation in decision-making and in civil, social and cultural life. It
occurs in all countries - as mass poverty in many developing countries and as
pockets of poverty amidst wealth in developed countries. Poverty may be caused
by an economic recession that results in loss of livelihood or by disaster or
conflict. There is also the poverty of low-wage workers and the utter
destitution of people who fall outside family support systems, social
institutions and safety nets.
 
49. Women contribute to the economy and to combating poverty through both
remunerated and unremunerated work at home, in the community and in the
workplace. The empowerment of women is a critical factor in the eradication of
 
poverty.
 
52. In too many countries, social welfare systems do not take sufficient
account of the specific conditions of women living in poverty, and there is a
tendency to scale back the services provided by such systems. The risk of
falling into poverty is greater for women than for men, particularly in old age,
where social security systems are based on the principle of continuous
remunerated employment. In some cases, women do not fulfil this requirement
because of interruptions in their work, due to the unbalanced distribution of
remunerated and unremunerated work. Moreover, older women also face greater
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obstacles to labour-market re-entry.
 
Actions to be taken
58. By Governments:
(h) Generate economic policies that have a positive impact on the
employment and income of women workers in both the formal and informal
sectors and adopt specific measures to address women’s unemployment,
in particular their long-term unemployment;
 
(k) Ensure the full realization of the human rights of all women migrants,
including women migrant workers, and their protection against violence
and exploitation; introduce measures for the empowerment of documented
women migrants, including women migrant workers; facilitate the
productive employment of documented migrant women through greater
recognition of their skills, foreign education and credentials, and
facilitate their full integration into the labour force;
 
68. By national and international statistical organizations:
(a) Collect gender and age-disaggregated data on poverty and all aspects
of economic activity and develop qualitative and quantitative
statistical indicators to facilitate the assessment of economic
performance from a gender perspective;
(b) Devise suitable statistical means to recognize and make visible the
full extent of the work of women and all their contributions to the
national economy, including their contribution in the unremunerated
and domestic sectors, and examine the relationship of women’s
unremunerated work to the incidence of and their vulnerability to
poverty.
 
 
68. By national and international statistical organizations:
(a) Collect gender and age-disaggregated data on poverty and all aspects
of economic activity and develop qualitative and quantitative
statistical indicators to facilitate the assessment of economic
performance from a gender perspective;
(b) Devise suitable statistical means to recognize and make visible the
full extent of the work of women and all their contributions to the
national economy, including their contribution in the unremunerated
and domestic sectors, and examine the relationship of women’s
unremunerated work to the incidence of and their vulnerability to
poverty.
 
71. Discrimination in girls’ access to education persists in many areas, owing
to customary attitudes, early marriages and pregnancies, inadequate and genderbiased
teaching and educational materials, sexual harassment and lack of
adequate and physically and otherwise accessible schooling facilities. Girls
undertake heavy domestic work at a very early age. Girls and young women are
expected to manage both educational and domestic responsibilities, often
resulting in poor scholastic performance and early drop-out from the educational
system. This has long-lasting consequences for all aspects of women’s lives.
 
73. Women should be enabled to benefit from an ongoing acquisition of knowledge
and skills beyond those acquired during youth. This concept of lifelong
learning includes knowledge and skills gained in formal education and training,
as well as learning that occurs in informal ways, including volunteer activity,
 
 
(e) Provide - in collaboration with parents, non-governmental
organizations, including youth organizations, communities and the
private sector - young women with academic and technical training,
career planning, leadership and social skills and work experience to
prepare them to participate fully in society;
 
Strategic objective B.1. Ensure equal access to education
Actions to be taken
80. By Governments:
(e) Provide - in collaboration with parents, non-governmental
organizations, including youth organizations, communities and the
private sector - young women with academic and technical training,
career planning, leadership and social skills and work experience to
prepare them to participate fully in society;
 
 
(e) Provide - in collaboration with parents, non-governmental
organizations, including youth organizations, communities and the
private sector - young women with academic and technical training,
career planning, leadership and social skills and work experience to
prepare them to participate fully in society;
 
Actions to be taken
82. By Governments, in cooperation with employers, workers and trade unions,
international and non-governmental organizations, including women’s and youth
organizations, and educational institutions:
(a) Develop and implement education, training and retraining policies for
women, especially young women and women re-entering the labour market,
to provide skills to meet the needs of a changing socio-economic
context for improving their employment opportunities;
(b) Provide recognition to non-formal educational opportunities for girls
and women in the educational system;
(c) Provide information to women and girls on the availability and
benefits of vocational training, training programmes in science and
technology and programmes of continuing education;
(d) Design educational and training programmes for women who are
unemployed in order to provide them with new knowledge and skills that
will enhance and broaden their employment opportunities, including
self-employment, and development of their entrepreneurial skills;
(e) Diversify vocational and technical training and improve access for and
retention of girls and women in education and vocational training in
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such fields as science, mathematics, engineering, environmental
sciences and technology, information technology and high technology,
as well as management training;
 
100. Mental disorders related to marginalization, powerlessness and poverty,
along with overwork and stress and the growing incidence of domestic violence as
well as substance abuse, are among other health issues of growing concern to
women. Women throughout the world, especially young women, are increasing their
use of tobacco with serious effects on their health and that of their children.
Occupational health issues are also growing in importance, as a large number of
women work in low-paid jobs in either the formal or the informal labour market
under tedious and unhealthy conditions, and the number is rising. Cancers of
the breast and cervix and other cancers of the reproductive system, as well as
infertility affect growing numbers of women and may be preventable, or curable,
if detected early.
 
Actions to be taken
106. By Governments, in collaboration with non-governmental organizations and
employers’ and workers’ organizations and with the support of international
institutions:
(a) Support and implement the commitments made in the Programme of Action
of the International Conference on Population and Development, as
established in the report of that Conference and the Copenhagen
Declaration on Social Development and Programme of Action of the World
Summit for Social Development 15/ and the obligations of States
parties under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women and other relevant international
agreements, to meet the health needs of girls and women of all ages;
 
 
f) Redesign health information, services and training for health workers
so that they are gender-sensitive and reflect the user’s perspectives
with regard to interpersonal and communications skills and the user’s
right to privacy and confidentiality; these services, information and
training should be based on a holistic approach;
 
(g) Ensure that all health services and workers conform to human rights
and to ethical, professional and gender-sensitive standards in the
delivery of women’s health services aimed at ensuring responsible,
voluntary and informed consent; encourage the development,
implementation and dissemination of codes of ethics guided by existing
international codes of medical ethics as well as ethical principles
that govern other health professionals;
 
(p) Formulate special policies, design programmes and enact the
legislation necessary to alleviate and eliminate environmental and
occupational health hazards associated with work in the home, in the
workplace and elsewhere with attention to pregnant and lactating
women;
 
(q) Integrate mental health services into primary health-care systems or
other appropriate levels, develop supportive programmes and train
primary health workers to recognize and care for girls and women of
all ages who have experienced any form of violence especially domestic
violence, sexual abuse or other abuse resulting from armed and non-armed conflict;
 
(s) Establish mechanisms to support and involve non-governmental
organizations, particularly women’s organizations, professional groups
and other bodies working to improve the health of girls and women, in
government policy-making, programme design, as appropriate, and
implementation within the health sector and related sectors at all
levels;
 
(t) Support non-governmental organizations working on women’s health and
help develop networks aimed at improving coordination and
collaboration between all sectors that affect health;
 
Actions to be taken
107. By Governments, in cooperation with non-governmental organizations, the
mass media, the private sector and relevant international organizations,
including United Nations bodies, as appropriate:
(c) Encourage men to share equally in child care and household work and to
provide their share of financial support for their families, even if
they do not live with them;
 
(f) Create and support programmes in the educational system, in the
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workplace and in the community to make opportunities to participate in sport, physical activity and recreation available to girls and women of all ages on the same basis as they are made available to men and boys;
 
(i) Adopt regulations to ensure that the working conditions, including
remuneration and promotion of women at all levels of the health system, are non-discriminatory and meet fair and professional standards to enable them to work effectively;
 
Actions to be taken
108. By Governments, international bodies including relevant United Nations organizations, bilateral and multilateral donors and non-governmental
organizations:
 
(i) Give all women and health workers all relevant information and education about sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS and pregnancy and the implications for the baby, including breast-feeding;
 
113. The term "violence against women" means any act of gender-based violence
that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. Accordingly, violence against women encompasses but is not limited to the following:
 
116. Some groups of women, such as women belonging to minority groups, indigenous women, refugee women, women migrants, including women migrant workers, women in poverty living in rural or remote communities, destitute women, women in institutions or in detention, female children, women with disabilities, elderly women, displaced women, repatriated women, women living in poverty and women in situations of armed conflict, foreign occupation, wars of
aggression, civil wars, terrorism, including hostage-taking, are also
particularly vulnerable to violence.
 
118. Violence against women is a manifestation of the historically unequal power relations between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of women’s full advancement. Violence against women throughout the life cycle derives essentially from cultural patterns, in particular the harmful effects of certain
traditional or customary practices and all acts of extremism linked to race, sex, language or religion that perpetuate the lower status accorded to women in the family, the workplace, the community and society. Violence against women is exacerbated by social pressures, notably the shame of denouncing certain acts that have been perpetrated against women; women’s lack of access to legal
information, aid or protection; the lack of laws that effectively prohibit violence against women; failure to reform existing laws; inadequate efforts on the part of public authorities to promote awareness of and enforce existing laws; and the absence of educational and other means to address the causes and consequences of violence. Images in the media of violence against women, in
particular those that depict rape or sexual slavery as well as the use of women and girls as sex objects, including pornography, are factors contributing to thecontinued prevalence of such violence, adversely influencing the community at large, in particular children and young people.
 
(b) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the
general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and
intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere,
trafficking in women and forced prostitution;
 
120. The absence of adequate gender-disaggregated data and statistics on the
incidence of violence makes the elaboration of programmes and monitoring of
changes difficult. Lack of or inadequate documentation and research on domestic
violence, sexual harassment and violence against women and girls in private and
in public, including the workplace, impede efforts to design specific
intervention strategies. Experience in a number of countries shows that women
and men can be mobilized to overcome violence in all its forms and that
effective public measures can be taken to address both the causes and the
consequences of violence. Men’s groups mobilizing against gender violence are
necessary allies for change.
 
Actions to be taken
124. By Governments:
 
(c) Enact and/or reinforce penal, civil, labour and administrative sanctions in domestic legislation to punish and redress the wrongs done to women and girls who are subjected to any form of violence, whether in the home, the workplace, the community or society;
 
(e) Work actively to ratify and/or implement international human rights norms and instruments as they relate to violence against women, including those contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 21/ the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 13/ the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 13/ and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; 22/
 
125. By Governments, including local governments, community organizations, non-governmental organizations, educational institutions, the public and private sectors, particularly enterprises, and the mass media, as appropriate:
 
(b) Establish linguistically and culturally accessible services for migrant women and girls, including women migrant workers, who are victims of gender-based violence;
 
126. By Governments, employers, trade unions, community and youth organizations
and non-governmental organizations, as appropriate:
(a) Develop programmes and procedures to eliminate sexual harassment and
other forms of violence against women in all educational institutions,
workplaces and elsewhere;
 
(d) Take special measures to eliminate violence against women, particularly those in vulnerable situations, such as young women, refugee, displaced and internally displaced women, women with
disabilities and women migrant workers, including enforcing any existing legislation and developing, as appropriate, new legislation for women migrant workers in both sending and receiving countries.
 
F. Women and the economy
150. There are considerable differences in women’s and men’s access to and opportunities to exert power over economic structures in their societies. In most parts of the world, women are virtually absent from or are poorly represented in economic decision-making, including the formulation of financial, monetary, commercial and other economic policies, as well as tax systems and
rules governing pay. Since it is often within the framework of such policies that individual men and women make their decisions, inter alia, on how to divide their time between remunerated and unremunerated work, the actual development of these economic structures and policies has a direct impact on women’s and men’s access to economic resources, their economic power and consequently the extent of equality between them at the individual and family levels as well as in
society as a whole.
 
151. In many regions, women’s participation in remunerated work in the formal and non-formal labour market has increased significantly and has changed during the past decade. While women continue to work in agriculture and fisheries, they have also become increasingly involved in micro, small and medium-sized enterprises and, in some cases, have become more dominant in the expanding informal sector. Due to, inter alia, difficult economic situations and a lack
of bargaining power resulting from gender inequality, many women have been forced to accept low pay and poor working conditions and thus have often become preferred workers. On the other hand, women have entered the workforce increasingly by choice when they have become aware of and demanded their rights. Some have succeeded in entering and advancing in the workplace and improving their pay and working conditions. However, women have been particularly
 
152. Discrimination in education and training, hiring and remuneration, promotion and horizontal mobility practices, as well as inflexible working conditions, lack of access to productive resources and inadequate sharing of family responsibilities, combined with a lack of or insufficient services such as child care, continue to restrict employment, economic, professional and other
opportunities and mobility for women and make their involvement stressful. Moreover, attitudinal obstacles inhibit women’s participation in developing economic policy and in some regions restrict the access of women and girls to education and training for economic management.
 
153. Women’s share in the labour force continues to rise and almost everywhere women are working more outside the household, although there has not been a parallel lightening of responsibility for unremunerated work in the household and community. Women’s income is becoming increasingly necessary to households of all types. In some regions, there has been a growth in women’s entrepreneurship and other self-reliant activities, particularly in the informal
sector. In many countries, women are the majority of workers in non-standard
work, such as temporary, casual, multiple part-time, contract and home-based
employment.
 
154. Women migrant workers, including domestic workers, contribute to the economy of the sending country through their remittances and also to the economy of the receiving country through their participation in the labour force. However, in many receiving countries, migrant women experience higher levels of unemployment compared with both non-migrant workers and male migrant workers.
 
155. Insufficient attention to gender analysis has meant that women’s contributions and concerns remain too often ignored in economic structures, such as financial markets and institutions, labour markets, economics as an academic discipline, economic and social infrastructure, taxation and social security systems, as well as in families and households. As a result, many policies and
programmes may continue to contribute to inequalities between women and men. Where progress has been made in integrating gender perspectives, programme and policy effectiveness has also been enhanced.
 
156. Although many women have advanced in economic structures, for the majority of women, particularly those who face additional barriers, continuing obstacles have hindered their ability to achieve economic autonomy and to ensuresustainable livelihoods for themselves and their dependants. Women are active in a variety of economic areas, which they often combine, ranging from wagelabour and subsistence farming and fishing to the informal sector. However,
legal and customary barriers to ownership of or access to land, natural resources, capital, credit, technology and other means of production, as well as wage differentials, contribute to impeding the economic progress of women. Women contribute to development not only through remunerated work but also through a great deal of unremunerated work. On the one hand, women participate
in the production of goods and services for the market and household consumption, in agriculture, food production or family enterprises. Though included in the United Nations System of National Accounts and therefore in international standards for labour statistics, this unremunerated work -
particularly that related to agriculture - is often undervalued and underrecorded.
On the other hand, women still also perform the great majority of unremunerated domestic work and community work, such as caring for children andolder persons, preparing food for the family, protecting the environment andproviding voluntary assistance to vulnerable and disadvantaged individuals and groups. This work is often not measured in quantitative terms and is not valued
in national accounts. Women’s contribution to development is seriously underestimated, and thus its social recognition is limited. The full visibility of the type, extent and distribution of this unremunerated work will also contribute to a better sharing of responsibilities. done of the impact of globalization on women’s economic status.
 
158. These trends have been characterized by low wages, little or no labour standards protection, poor working conditions, particularly with regard to women’s occupational health and safety, low skill levels, and a lack of job security and social security, in both the formal and informal sectors. Women’s unemployment is a serious and increasing problem in many countries and sectors.
Young workers in the informal and rural sectors and migrant female workers remain the least protected by labour and immigration laws. Women, particularly those who are heads of households with young children, are limited in their employment opportunities for reasons that include inflexible working conditionsand inadequate sharing, by men and by society, of family responsibilities.
 
159. In countries that are undergoing fundamental political, economic and social transformation, the skills of women, if better utilized, could constitute a major contribution to the economic life of their respective countries. Their input should continue to be developed and supported and their potential further  realized.
 
160. Lack of employment in the private sector and reductions in public services
and public service jobs have affected women disproportionately. In some
countries, women take on more unpaid work, such as the care of children and
those who are ill or elderly, compensating for lost household income,
particularly when public services are not available. In many cases, employment
creation strategies have not paid sufficient attention to occupations and
sectors where women predominate; nor have they adequately promoted the access of
women to those occupations and sectors that are traditionally male.
161. For those women in paid work, many experience obstacles that prevent them
from achieving their potential. While some are increasingly found in lower
levels of management, attitudinal discrimination often prevents them from being
promoted further. The experience of sexual harassment is an affront to a
worker’s dignity and prevents women from making a contribution commensurate with
their abilities. The lack of a family-friendly work environment, including a
lack of appropriate and affordable child care, and inflexible working hours
further prevent women from achieving their full potential.
 
162. In the private sector, including transnational and national enterprises,
 
women are largely absent from management and policy levels, denoting
discriminatory hiring and promotion policies and practices. The unfavourable
work environment as well as the limited number of employment opportunities
available have led many women to seek alternatives. Women have increasingly
become self-employed and owners and managers of micro, small and medium-scale
enterprises. The expansion of the informal sector, in many countries, and of
self-organized and independent enterprises is in large part due to women, whose
collaborative, self-help and traditional practices and initiatives in production
and trade represent a vital economic resource. When they gain access to and
control over capital, credit and other resources, technology and training, women
can increase production, marketing and income for sustainable development.
 
163. Taking into account the fact that continuing inequalities and noticeable
progress coexist, rethinking employment policies is necessary in order to
integrate the gender perspective and to draw attention to a wider range of
opportunities as well as to address any negative gender implications of current
patterns of work and employment. To realize fully equality between women and
men in their contribution to the economy, active efforts are required for equal
recognition and appreciation of the influence that the work, experience,
knowledge and values of both women and men have in society.
164. In addressing the economic potential and independence of women, Governments
and other actors should promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a
gender perspective in all policies and programmes so that before decisions are
taken, an analysis is made of the effects on women and men, respectively.
 
Strategic objective F.1. Promote women’s economic rights and
independence, including access to
employment, appropriate working
conditions and control over economic
resources
Actions to be taken
165. By Governments:
(a) Enact and enforce legislation to guarantee the rights of women and men
to equal pay for equal work or work of equal value;
(b) Adopt and implement laws against discrimination based on sex in the
labour market, especially considering older women workers, hiring and
promotion, the extension of employment benefits and social security,
and working conditions;
(c) Eliminate discriminatory practices by employers and take appropriate
measures in consideration of women’s reproductive role and functions,
such as the denial of employment and dismissal due to pregnancy or
breast-feeding, or requiring proof of contraceptive use, and take
effective measures to ensure that pregnant women, women on maternity
leave or women re-entering the labour market after childbearing are
not discriminated against;
(d) Devise mechanisms and take positive action to enable women to gain
access to full and equal participation in the formulation of policies
and definition of structures through such bodies as ministries of
finance and trade, national economic commissions, economic research
 
e) Undertake legislation and administrative reforms to give women equal
rights with men to economic resources, including access to ownership
and control over land and other forms of property, credit,
inheritance, natural resources and appropriate new technology;
(f) Conduct reviews of national income and inheritance tax and social
security systems to eliminate any existing bias against women;
(g) Seek to develop a more comprehensive knowledge of work and employment
through, inter alia, efforts to measure and better understand the
type, extent and distribution of unremunerated work, particularly work
in caring for dependants and unremunerated work done for family farms
or businesses, and encourage the sharing and dissemination of
information on studies and experience in this field, including the
development of methods for assessing its value in quantitative terms,
for possible reflection in accounts that may be produced separately
from, but consistent with, core national accounts;
(h) Review and amend laws governing the operation of financial
institutions to ensure that they provide services to women and men on
an equal basis;
(i) Facilitate, at appropriate levels, more open and transparent budget
processes;
(j) Revise and implement national policies that support the traditional
savings, credit and lending mechanisms for women;
(k) Seek to ensure that national policies related to international and
regional trade agreements do not have an adverse impact on women’s new
and traditional economic activities;
(l) Ensure that all corporations, including transnational corporations,
comply with national laws and codes, social security regulations,
applicable international agreements, instruments and conventions,
including those related to the environment, and other relevant laws;
(m) Adjust employment policies to facilitate the restructuring of work
patterns in order to promote the sharing of family responsibilities;
(n) Establish mechanisms and other forums to enable women entrepreneurs
and women workers to contribute to the formulation of policies and
programmes being developed by economic ministries and financial
institutions;
(o) Enact and enforce equal opportunity laws, take positive action and
ensure compliance by the public and private sectors through various
means;
 
(p) Use gender-impact analyses in the development of macro and microeconomic
and social policies in order to monitor such impact and
restructure policies in cases where harmful impact occurs;
(q) Promote gender-sensitive policies and measures to empower women as
-69-
equal partners with men in technical, managerial and entrepreneurial
fields;
(r) Reform laws or enact national policies that support the establishment
of labour laws to ensure the protection of all women workers,
including safe work practices, the right to organize and access to
justice.
 
Strategic objective F.2. Facilitate women’s equal access to
resources, employment, markets and
trade
 
Actions to be taken
166. By Governments:
(a) Promote and support women’s self-employment and the development of
small enterprises, and strengthen women’s access to credit and capital
on appropriate terms equal to those of men through the scaling-up of
institutions dedicated to promoting women’s entrepreneurship,
including, as appropriate, non-traditional and mutual credit schemes,
as well as innovative linkages with financial institutions;
(b) Strengthen the incentive role of the State as employer to develop a
policy of equal opportunities for women and men;
(c) Enhance, at the national and local levels, rural women’s income generating
potential by facilitating their equal access to and control
over productive resources, land, credit, capital, property rights,
development programmes and cooperative structures;
(d) Promote and strengthen micro-enterprises, new small businesses,
cooperative enterprises, expanded markets and other employment
opportunities and, where appropriate, facilitate the transition from
the informal to the formal sector, especially in rural areas;
(e) Create and modify programmes and policies that recognize and
strengthen women’s vital role in food security and provide paid and
unpaid women producers, especially those involved in food production,
such as farming, fishing and aquaculture, as well as urban
enterprises, with equal access to appropriate technologies,
transportation, extension services, marketing and credit facilities at
the local and community levels;
(f) Establish appropriate mechanisms and encourage intersectoral
institutions that enable women’s cooperatives to optimize access to
necessary services;
(g) Increase the proportion of women extension workers and other
government personnel who provide technical assistance or administer
economic programmes;
(h) Review, reformulate, if necessary, and implement policies, including
business, commercial and contract law and government regulations, to
ensure that they do not discriminate against micro, small and mediumscale
enterprises owned by women in rural and urban areas;
-70-
(i) Analyse, advise on, coordinate and implement policies that integrate
the needs and interests of employed, self-employed and entrepreneurial
women into sectoral and inter-ministerial policies, programmes and
budgets;
(j) Ensure equal access for women to effective job training, retraining,
counselling and placement services that are not limited to traditional
employment areas;
(k) Remove policy and regulatory obstacles faced by women in social and
development programmes that discourage private and individual
initiative;
(l) Safeguard and promote respect for basic workers’ rights, including the
prohibition of forced labour and child labour, freedom of association
and the right to organize and bargain collectively, equal remuneration
for men and women for work of equal value and non-discrimination in
employment, fully implementing the conventions of the International
Labour Organization in the case of States Parties to those conventions
and, taking into account the principles embodied in the case of those
countries that are not parties to those conventions in order to
achieve truly sustained economic growth and sustainable development.
 
167. By Governments, central banks and national development banks, and private
banking institutions, as appropriate:
(a) Increase the participation of women, including women entrepreneurs, in
advisory boards and other forums to enable women entrepreneurs from
all sectors and their organizations to contribute to the formulation
and review of policies and programmes being developed by economic
ministries and banking institutions;
(b) Mobilize the banking sector to increase lending and refinancing
through incentives and the development of intermediaries that serve
the needs of women entrepreneurs and producers in both rural and urban
areas, and include women in their leadership, planning and decisionmaking;
(c) Structure services to reach rural and urban women involved in micro,
small and medium-scale enterprises, with special attention to young
women, low-income women, those belonging to ethnic and racial
minorities, and indigenous women who lack access to capital and
assets; and expand women’s access to financial markets by identifying
and encouraging financial supervisory and regulatory reforms that
support financial institutions’ direct and indirect efforts to better
meet the credit and other financial needs of the micro, small and
medium-scale enterprises of women;
(d) Ensure that women’s priorities are included in public investment
programmes for economic infrastructure, such as water and sanitation,
electrification and energy conservation, transport and road
construction; promote greater involvement of women beneficiaries at
the project planning and implementation stages to ensure access to
jobs and contracts
 
168. By Governments and non-governmental organizations:
 
(a) Pay special attention to women’s needs when disseminating market,
trade and resource information and provide appropriate training in
these fields;
(b) Encourage community economic development strategies that build on
partnerships among Governments, and encourage members of civil society
to create jobs and address the social circumstances of individuals,
families and communities.
 
Strategic objective F.2. Facilitate women’s equal access to
resources, employment, markets and
trade
Actions to be taken
166. By Governments:
(a) Promote and support women’s self-employment and the development of
small enterprises, and strengthen women’s access to credit and capital
on appropriate terms equal to those of men through the scaling-up of
institutions dedicated to promoting women’s entrepreneurship,
including, as appropriate, non-traditional and mutual credit schemes,
as well as innovative linkages with financial institutions;
(b) Strengthen the incentive role of the State as employer to develop a
policy of equal opportunities for women and men;
(c) Enhance, at the national and local levels, rural women’s incomegenerating
potential by facilitating their equal access to and control
over productive resources, land, credit, capital, property rights,
development programmes and cooperative structures;
(d) Promote and strengthen micro-enterprises, new small businesses,
cooperative enterprises, expanded markets and other employment
opportunities and, where appropriate, facilitate the transition from
the informal to the formal sector, especially in rural areas;
(e) Create and modify programmes and policies that recognize and
strengthen women’s vital role in food security and provide paid and
unpaid women producers, especially those involved in food production,
such as farming, fishing and aquaculture, as well as urban
enterprises, with equal access to appropriate technologies,
transportation, extension services, marketing and credit facilities at
the local and community levels;
(f) Establish appropriate mechanisms and encourage intersectoral
institutions that enable women’s cooperatives to optimize access to
necessary services;
(g) Increase the proportion of women extension workers and other
government personnel who provide technical assistance or administer
economic programmes;
(h) Review, reformulate, if necessary, and implement policies, including
business, commercial and contract law and government regulations, to
ensure that they do not discriminate against micro, small and mediumscale
enterprises owned by women in rural and urban areas;
-70-
(i) Analyse, advise on, coordinate and implement policies that integrate
the needs and interests of employed, self-employed and entrepreneurial
women into sectoral and inter-ministerial policies, programmes and
budgets;
(j) Ensure equal access for women to effective job training, retraining,
counselling and placement services that are not limited to traditional
employment areas;
(k) Remove policy and regulatory obstacles faced by women in social and
development programmes that discourage private and individual
initiative;
(l) Safeguard and promote respect for basic workers’ rights, including the
prohibition of forced labour and child labour, freedom of association
and the right to organize and bargain collectively, equal remuneration
for men and women for work of equal value and non-discrimination in
employment, fully implementing the conventions of the International
Labour Organization in the case of States Parties to those conventions
and, taking into account the principles embodied in the case of those
countries that are not parties to those conventions in order to
achieve truly sustained economic growth and sustainable development.
 
167. By Governments, central banks and national development banks, and private
banking institutions, as appropriate:
(a) Increase the participation of women, including women entrepreneurs, in
advisory boards and other forums to enable women entrepreneurs from
all sectors and their organizations to contribute to the formulation
and review of policies and programmes being developed by economic
ministries and banking institutions;
(b) Mobilize the banking sector to increase lending and refinancing
through incentives and the development of intermediaries that serve
the needs of women entrepreneurs and producers in both rural and urban
areas, and include women in their leadership, planning and decision making;
(c) Structure services to reach rural and urban women involved in micro,
small and medium-scale enterprises, with special attention to young
women, low-income women, those belonging to ethnic and racial
minorities, and indigenous women who lack access to capital and
assets; and expand women’s access to financial markets by identifying
and encouraging financial supervisory and regulatory reforms that
support financial institutions’ direct and indirect efforts to better
meet the credit and other financial needs of the micro, small and
medium-scale enterprises of women;
(d) Ensure that women’s priorities are included in public investment
programmes for economic infrastructure, such as water and sanitation,
electrification and energy conservation, transport and road
construction; promote greater involvement of women beneficiaries at
the project planning and implementation stages to ensure access to
jobs and contracts.
 
168. By Governments and non-governmental organizations:
-71-
(a) Pay special attention to women’s needs when disseminating market,
trade and resource information and provide appropriate training in
these fields;
(b) Encourage community economic development strategies that build on
partnerships among Governments, and encourage members of civil society
to create jobs and address the social circumstances of individuals,
families and communities.
 
**** 1996 HABITAT II AGENDA TO DO 
 
****2002 WSSD TO DO 
 
SECTION B IMPLICATIONS OF THE FAIR AND JUST TRANSITION PRINCIPLE 
 
IN THE FOLLOWING EXCERPT FROM AN ILO DOCUMENT IS AN OUTLINE OF THE
APPLICATION  OF THE JUST PRINCIPLE TO CLIMATE CHANGE
 
Worldwide, trade unions have developed a point of view on the issue that
is encapsulated by the concept of “Just Transition”, the notion that the transi
-
tion process to a greener economy has to be inclusive of all stakeholders, and
that the unavoidable employment and social costs of the transition have to be
shared by all. Because one thing is sure: if the transition to a greener economy
generates employment, it will also entail job losses for some. Who will lose
out? What support will be provided to workers and communities that are
on the losing end? What skills will be needed in the new sectors? How do
we ensure that the new jobs are decent jobs? These very questions lead to a
couple of inescapable conclusions: social dialogue will have to be at the heart
of the process and governments, beyond regulating the emission of green
-
house gases, will have a key role in promoting the sort of industrial and social
policies that will lead to the creation of productive and decent employment.
 
(http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_dialogue/@actrav/documents/publication/wcms_153352.pdf)
 
 This principle could be applied to many of the SDGs. 
 
and to many of the chapters in agenda 21. 
 
 Often it is applied where there is a conflict between Environmentat groups and Labour.  In esssence, when labour is involve with activities or practices that are harmful tohuman health or the environment, labour will back away from the activity if society provides a fair and just transition to other employment. 
 
 
Preface
123
It can be said that the notion of Just Transition is in line with the long
-
standing philosophy that has inspired the creation and the history of the
International Labour Organization: the idea that social concerns have to
be part and parcel of economic decision-making, that the costs of economic
transition should be socialized as much as possible, and that the economic
management of the economy is best achieved when there is genuine social
dialogue between social partners. The last contribution to this issue docu
-
ments how ILO standards can support the development of a Just Transition
approach; it also opens an interesting window for a greater role for the ILO
in defining the policies needed to deal with climate change
Last Updated on Friday, 02 October 2015 13:18
 

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