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SDG GOAL 9 INFRASTRUCTURE - TRANSPORTATION- MOVING AWAY FROM CAR DEPENDENCY PDF Print E-mail
Earth News
Posted by Joan Russow
Wednesday, 23 September 2015 16:16
SDG GOAL 9 INFRASTRUCTURE - TRANSPORTATION- MOVING AWAY FROM CAR DEPENDENCY
 
By Joan Russow
Global Compliance Research Project
 
Image result for image Alternative transportation
 
A review of previous references in international instruments advocating policies on transportation and communication should promote desired patterns of development to satisfy the needs of the majority of the population, b to assure the distribution of activities to favour mass transportation, and to reduce congestion and pollution by motor vehicles.....
 
 In the Annex will be references to infrastructure as proposed in Habitat II
 
 
 The active development of a system of public transportation with adequate incentives for its use in preference to individual use of motor vehicles;....(vi) Provide for the separation of pedestrian and motor circulation, as well as separate paths for bicycles, and other categories of vehicular traffic; 
 
The references to transportation are in green and the instruments introduced by ****
 
**** 1976 HABITAT 
 
Recommendation C.5 Energy
 
(a) Human settlements are consuming more and more energy just when mankind has become aware of the need to cease environmentally degrading and wasteful use of non-renewable energy resources.
 
(b) the efficient utilization of energy and its various mixes, should be given special consideration in the choice of designs and technologies for human settlements, especially the relative location of work places and dwellings.
 
(c) This may be achieved by:
 
(i) Reducing energy consumption by chances in land-use planning, building design, living patterns and appropriate transportation systems including emphasis on mass transportation;
 
 
Recommendation C.14 Transportation and communication
 
(a) Consideration should be given to the radical reversal of current trends, both in terms of facilities for and modes of transport in order to prevent further deterioration of the situation where large cities are congested with private vehicles which in most countries cater only to a minority while adequate public transport is unavailable to urban and rural residents.
 
() policies on transportation and communication should promote desired patterns of development to satisfy the needs of the majority of the population, b to assure the distribution of activities to favour mass transportation, and to reduce congestion and pollution by motor vehicles.
 
(c) This could be achieved through:
 
 
(i) A more deliberate use of land-use planning and policies for the location of traffic generating activities, in order to minimize the need for travel:
(ii) A comprehensive approach to the planning and development of transportation networks;
 
(iii) The active development of a system of public transportation with adequate incentives for its use in preference to individual use of motor vehicles;
 
(iv) The provision of public subsidies for modes of transport suitable for serving isolated settlements;
 
(v) The consideration of innovative modes of transport and communications suited to the needs of children, the elderly and the handicapped;
 
(vi) Provide for the separation of pedestrian and motor circulation, as well as separate paths for bicycles, and other categories of vehicular traffic;
 
(vii) Over the short-term, transportation improvements should be designed to make more efficient use of existing highways and transit systems;
 
(viii) Innovative transportation systems need to be encouraged for reducing energy consumption and conserving resources and avoiding pollution;
 
(ix) The integration of communications and transport networks to enable the former to assume many of the responsibilities carried by the latter;
 
(x) The study of new techniques to avoid the air and environmental pollution caused by the present automobile system. 
 
****UNFCCC NIL
 
****1992 AGENDA 21 UNITED NATIONS CONFERRNCE ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
Agenda 21 - Chapter 4
 
CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS
4.1. This chapter contains the following programme areas:
a. Focusing on unsustainable patterns of production and consumption;
b. Developing national policies and strategies to encourage changes in unsustainable
consumption patterns.
4.2. Since the issue of changing consumption patterns is very broad, it is addressed in several parts of Agenda 21, notably those dealing with energy, transportation and wastes,
 
Agenda 21 – Chapter 6
PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH
 
Objectives
6.33. The health and well-being of all urban dwellers must be improved so that they can contribute to
economic and social development. The global objective is to achieve a 10 to 40 per cent improvement in health indicators by the year 2000. The same rate of improvement should be achieved for environmental, housing and health service indicators. These include the development of quantitative objectives for infant mortality, maternal mortality, percentage of low birth weight newborns and specific indicators (e.g. tuberculosis as an indicator of crowded housing, diarrhoeal diseases as  indicators of inadequate water and sanitation, rates of industrial and transportation accidents that indicate possible opportunities for prevention of injury, and social problems such as drug abuse,violence and crime that indicate underlying social disorders)
E. Reducing health risks from environmental pollution and hazards
Basis for action
 
6.39. This is, inter alia, due to past and present developments in consumption and
production patterns and lifestyles, in energy production and use, in industry, in transportation etc., with little or no regard for environmental protection. 
 
In many locations around the world the general environment (air, water and land), workplaces and even individual dwellings are so badly polluted that the health of hundreds of millions of people is adversely affected. This is, inter alia, due to past and present developments in consumption and production patterns and lifestyles, in energy production and use, inindustry, in transportation etc., with little or no regard for environmental protection. There have been notable improvements in some countries, but deterioration of the environment continues. The ability of countries to tackle pollution and health problems is greatly restrained because of lack of resources. Pollution control and health protection measures have often not kept pace with economic development. Considerable development related
environmental health hazards exist in the newly industrializing countries. Furthermore, the
recent analysis of WHO has clearly established the interdependence among the factors of health,
environment and development and has revealed that most countries are lacking such integration as would lead to an effective pollution control mechanism.....
 
Agenda 21 – Chapter 7
PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT
 
7.24. Developing countries should also encourage technological training and research through joint efforts by donors, non-governmental organizations and private business in such areas as the reduction of waste, water quality, saving of energy, safe production of chemicals and less polluting transportation. 
 
7.52. Promoting efficient and environmentally sound urban transport systems in all countries should be a comprehensive approach to urban-transport planning and management. To this end, all countries should:
a. Integrate land-use and transportation planning to encourage development patterns
that reduce transport demand;
b. Adopt urban-transport programmes favouring high-occupancy public transport in
countries, as appropriate;
c. Encourage non-motorized modes of transport by providing safe cycleways and
footways in urban and suburban centres in countries, as appropriate;
d. Devote particular attention to effective traffic management, efficient operation of
public transport and maintenance of transport infrastructure;
e. Promote the exchange of information among countries and representatives of local
and metropolitan areas;
f. Re-evaluate the present consumption and production patterns in order to reduce the
use of energy and national resources. 
(b) Developing pre-disaster planning
 
 
7.61. Pre-disaster planning should form an integral part of human settlement planning in all countries.
The following should be included:
a. Undertaking complete multi-hazard research into risk and vulnerability of human
settlements and settlement infrastructure, including water and sewerage,
communication and transportation networks, as one type of risk reduction may
increase vulnerability to another (e.g., an earthquake-resistant house made of wood
will be more vulnerable to wind storms); 
 
Agenda 21 – Chapter 8
INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING
A. Integrating environment and development at the policy, planning and management levels
Basis for action
 
8.2. Prevailing systems for decision-making in many countries tend to separate economic, social and environmental factors at the policy, planning and management levels. This influences the actions of all groups in society, including Governments, industry and individuals, and has important implications for the efficiency and sustainability of development. An adjustment or even a fundamental reshaping of decision-making, in the light of country-specific conditions, may be necessary if environment and development is to be put at thecentre of economic and political decision-making, in effect achieving a full integration of these factors. In recent years, some Governments have also begun to make significant changes in the institutional structures of government in order to enable more systematic consideration of the environment when decisions are made on economic, social, fiscal, energy, agricultural, transportation, trade and other policies, as well as the implications of policies in these areas for the environment. New forms of dialogue are also being developed for achieving better integration among national and local government, industry, science, environmental groups and the public in the process of developing effective approaches to environment and development. The responsibility for bringing about changes lies with Governments in partnership with the private sector and local authorities, and in collaboration with national, regional and international organizations, including in particular UNEP, UNDP and the World Bank. Exchange of experience between countries
can also be significant. National plans, goals and objectives, national rules, regulations and law, and the specific situation in which different countries are placed are the overall framework in which such integration takes place. In this context, it must be borne in mind that environmental standards may pose severe economic and social costs if they are uniformly applied in developing countries. 
 
Agenda 21 – Chapter 9
PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE
 
2. Transportation
Basis for action
9.13. The transport sector has an essential and positive role to play in economic and social development, and transportation needs will undoubtedly increase. However, since the transport sector is also a source of atmospheric emissions, there is need for a review of existing transport systems and for more effective design and management of traffic and transport systems.
 
Objectives
9.14. The basic objective of this programme area is to develop and promote cost-effective policies or programmes, as appropriate, to limit, reduce or control, as appropriate, harmful emissions into the atmosphere and other adverse environmental effects of the transport sector, taking into account development priorities as well as the specific local and national circumstances and safety aspects.
 
Activities
9.15. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector,
should:
a. Develop and promote, as appropriate, cost-effective, more efficient, less polluting and safer
transport systems, particularly integrated rural and urban mass transit, as well as
environmentally sound road networks, taking into account the needs for sustainable social,
economic and development priorities, particularly in developing countries;
 
b. Facilitate at the international, regional, subregional and national levels access to and the
transfer of safe, efficient, including resource-efficient, and less polluting transport
technologies, particularly to the developing countries, including the implementation of
appropriate training programmes;
 
c. Strengthen, as appropriate, their efforts at collecting, analysing and exchanging relevant
information on the relation between environment and transport, with particular emphasis on
the systematic observation of emissions and the development of a transport database;
 
d. In accordance with national socio-economic development and environment priorities, evaluate
and, as appropriate, promote cost-effective policies or programmes, including administrative,
social and economic measures, in order to encourage use of transportation modes that
minimize adverse impacts on the atmosphere; 
 
e. Develop or enhance, as appropriate, mechanisms to integrate transport planning strategies and
urban and regional settlement planning strategies, with a view to reducing the environmental
impacts of transport;
 
f. Study, within the framework of the United Nations and its regional commissions, the
feasibility of convening regional conferences on transport and the environment. 
 
Agenda 21 – Chapter 11
COMBATING DEFORESTATION
 
j. Adopting new initiatives at national, subregional and regional levels for controlling the
input of non-point source pollutants, which require broad changes in sewage and waste
management, agricultural practices, mining, construction and transportation. 
 
 
****1993 WORLD SUMMIT ON HUMAN RIGHTS 
NIL
 
****1994 INTERATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPENT
NIL
 
****1995 WORLD SUMMIT ON SOC IAL DEVELOPMENT
B. Improved access to productive resources and infrastructure
31. The opportunities for income generation, diversification of activities and
increase of productivity in low-income and poor communities should be enhanced
by:
(a) Improving the availability and accessibility of transportation,
communication, power and energy services at the local or community level, in
particular for isolated, remote and marginalized communities;
 
34. Urban poverty should further be addressed by:
(a) Promoting and strengthening micro-enterprises, new small businesses,
cooperative enterprises, and expanded market and other employment opportunities
and, where appropriate, facilitating the transition from the informal to the
formal sector;
(b) Promoting sustainable livelihoods for people living in urban poverty
through the provision or expansion of access to training, education and other
employment assistance services, in particular for women, youth, the unemployed
and the underemployed;
(c) Promoting public and private investments to improve for the deprived
the overall human environment and infrastructure, in particular housing, water
and sanitation, and public transportation;
 
**** 1995 BEIJING PLATFORM OF ACTION
 
Actions to be taken
166. By Governments:
 
(e) Create and modify programmes and policies that recognize and
strengthen women’s vital role in food security and provide paid and
unpaid women producers, especially those involved in food production,
such as farming, fishing and aquaculture, as well as urban enterprises, with equal access to appropriate technologies, transportation, extension services, marketing and credit facilities at
the local and community levels;
 
****1996 HABITAT II
9. In the process of globalization and growing interdependence, rural
settlements represent a great challenge and opportunity for renewed
developmental initiatives at all levels and in all fields. Many rural
settlements, however, are facing a lack or an inadequacy of economic
opportunities, especially employment, and of infrastructure and services,
particularly those related to water, sanitation, health, education,
communication, transportation and energy. Appropriate efforts and
technologies for rural development can help to reduce, inter alia, imbalances,
unsustainable practices, poverty, isolation, environmental pollution and
insecure land tenure. Such efforts can contribute to improving the linkage of
rural settlements with the mainstream of economic, social and cultural life,
to assuring sustainable communities and safe environments, and to reducing
pressures on urban growth.
 
10. In order to sustain our global environment and improve the quality of
living in our human settlements, we commit ourselves to sustainable patterns
of production, consumption, transportation and settlements development;
 
pollution prevention; respect for the carrying capacity of ecosystems; and the
preservation of opportunities for future generations. In this connection, we
shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and
restore the health and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem. In view of
different contributions to global environmental degradation, we reaffirm the
principle that countries have common but differentiated responsibilities. We
also recognize that we must take these actions in a manner consistent with the
precautionary principle approach, which shall be widely applied according to
the capabilities of countries. We shall also promote healthy living
environments, especially through the provision of adequate quantities of safe
water and effective management of waste.
IV
30. The quality of life of all people depends, among other economic, social,
environmental and cultural factors, on the physical conditions and spatial
characteristics of our villages, towns and cities. City lay-out and
aesthetics, land-use patterns, population and building densities,
transportation and ease of access for all to basic goods, services and public
amenities have a crucial bearing on the liveability of settlements. This is
particularly important to vulnerable and disadvantaged persons, many of whom
face barriers in access to shelter and in participating in shaping the future
of their settlements. People's need for community and their aspirations for
more liveable neighbourhoods and settlements should guide the process of
design, management and maintenance of human settlements. Objectives of this
endeavour include protecting public health, providing for safety and security,
education and social integration, promoting equality and respect for diversity
and cultural identities, increased accessibility for persons with
disabilities, and preservation of historic, spiritual, religious and
culturally significant buildings and districts, respecting local landscapes
and treating the local environment with respect and care. The preservation of
the natural heritage and historical human settlements, including sites,
monuments and buildings, particularly those protected under the UNESCO
Convention on World Heritage Sites, should be assisted, including through
international cooperation. It is also of crucial importance that spatial
diversification and mixed use of housing and services be promoted at the local
level in order to meet the diversity of needs and expectations.
 
43. We further commit ourselves to the objectives of:
(n) Improving access to work, goods, services and amenities, inter alia,
by promoting effective and environmentally sound, accessible, quieter and more
energy-efficient transportation systems and by promoting spatial development
 
patterns and communications policies that reduce transport demand, promoting
measures, as appropriate, so that the polluter bears the cost of pollution,
taking into account special needs and requirements of developing countries
 
 
61 c (vii) Promoting sustainable spatial development patterns and
transportation systems that improve accessibility of goods,
services, amenities and work;
 
119. In order to promote gender-sensitive planning and management of human
settlements, Governments at the appropriate levels, including local
authorities, in collaboration with women's groups and other interested
parties, should:
 
(a) Adopt, where appropriate, by-laws, standards and norms and develop
planning guidelines that take into consideration the needs and situations of
women and men and girls and boys in relation to human settlements planning,
development and decision-making, and in the provision of and access to basic
services, including public transportation, health and educational facilities;
 
6. Sustainable energy use
145. The use of energy is essential in urban centres for transportation,
industrial production, and household and office activities. Current
dependence in most urban centres on non-renewable energy sources can lead to
climate change, air pollution and consequent environmental and human health
problems, and may represent a serious threat to sustainable development.
Sustainable energy production and use can be enhanced by encouraging energy
efficiency, by such means as pricing policies, fuel switching, alternative
energy, mass transit and public awareness. Human settlements and energy
policies should be actively coordinated.
 
146. In order to promote efficient and sustainable energy use, Governments at
the appropriate levels, in partnership with the private sector,
non-governmental organizations, community-based organizations and consumer
groups, should, as appropriate:
 
(h) Support programmes for the reduction and neutralization of
emissions of polluting gases originating in the generation, transportation and
use of energy;
 
(l) Encourage and promote the development and dissemination of new and
environmentally sound technologies, including the reduction of metal compounds
as part of transportation fuels, and good practices in the use of energy.
 
7. Sustainable transport and communication systems
 
147. Transport and communication systems are the key to the movement of goods,
people, information and ideas, and to access to markets, employment, schools
and other facilities and land use, both within cities and between cities, and
in rural and other remote areas. The transportation sector is a major
consumer of non-renewable energy and of land and is a major contributor to
pollution, congestion and accidents. Integrated transport and land-use policy
and planning can reduce the ill effects of current transport systems. People
living in poverty, women, children, youth, older persons and people with
disabilities are particularly disadvantaged by the lack of accessible,
affordable, safe and efficient public transport systems.
 
Actions
151. In order to achieve sustainable transport in human settlements,
Governments at the appropriate levels, in partnership with the private sector,
the community sector and other relevant interested parties, should: 
 
(c) Encourage the use of an optimal combination of modes of transport,
including walking, cycling and private and public means of transportation,
through appropriate pricing, spatial settlement policies and regulatory
measures;
 
actions
186. To address the special needs of metropolitan areas and the needs of all
people living in those areas, Governments at the appropriate level, including
local authorities, should:
 
(g) Develop or, where necessary, create a core of professional staff
that includes women, trained in the areas of urban planning, environmental
management, engineering, transportation, communications, social services,
development of primary infrastructure, and emergency planning, and with the
skills to work together to address major planning issues in an integrated way;
 
204. The full and effective implementation of the Habitat Agenda, in
particular in all developing countries, especially those in Africa and the
least developed countries, will require the mobilization of additional
financial resources from various sources at the national and international
levels and more effective development cooperation in order to promote
assistance for shelter and human settlements activities. This will require,
inter alia: 
 
REPORT FROM DIALOGUE ON TRANSPORT
The participants in the "Dialogue on transport in the city of
tomorrow" recognized that cities had substantially different transport
systems and transport-related problems. What they have in common is that
as they grow richer and bigger their transport problems get worse because
the number of motorized vehicles and their level of use grows faster than
the population and income, while the amount of road space to accommodate
this demand grows little if at all. This imbalance leads to increasing
congestion and air pollution, more accidents and negative social income,
as the poor and women suffer disproportionately from deteriorating public
transport.
 
Several strategic instruments can be used to address the problems
concerning transport. Land-use densification, less rigorous separation
of local land uses and multinuclear urban forms can all reduce the demand
for private transport. In addition, a number of cleaner technologies and
fuels are available or are in prospect. These are capable of
substantially reducing both local and global air pollution impacts.
Public transport, a more space efficient and potentially less
environmentally polluting mode of transportation, should be encouraged.
Fuel taxation policies should reflect the full costs of use of road
space, including the environmental and infrastructure costs associated
with road use.
 
*** 2002 WSSD WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABILE DEVELOPMENT
 
21. Promote an integrated approach to policy -making at the national, regional and
local levels for transport services and systems to promote sustainable development,
including policies and planning for land use, infrastructure, public transport systems
and goods delivery networks, with a view to providing safe, affordable and efficient
transportation, increasing energy efficiency, reducing pollution, congestion and
adverse health effects and limiting urban sprawl, taking into account national
priorities and circumstances. This would include actions at all levels to:
 
(a) Implement transport strategies for sustainable development, reflecting
specific regional, national and local conditions, to improve the affordability,
efficiency and convenience of transportation as well as urban air quality and health
and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including through the development of better
vehicle technologies that are more environmentally sound, affordable and socially
acceptable;
 
 
(b) Promote investment and partnerships for the development of sustainable,
energy efficient multi-modal transportation systems, including public mass
transportation systems and better transportation systems in rural areas, with
 
technical and financial assistance for developing countries and countries with
economies in transition.
 
ANNEX
 In the Annex will be references to infrastructure as proposed in Habitat II
 
4. To improve the quality of life within human settlements, we must combat the deterioration of conditions that in most cases, particularly in developing countries, have reached crisis proportions. To this end, we must address comprehensively, inter alia, unsustainable consumption and production patterns, particularly in industrialized countries; unsustainable population changes, including changes in structure and distribution, giving priority consideration to the tendency towards excessive population concentration; homelessness; increasing poverty; unemployment; social exclusion; family instability; inadequate resources; lack of basic infrastructure and services; lack of adequate planning; growing insecurity and violence; environmental degradation; and increased vulnerability to disasters. 
 
6. Rural and urban development are interdependent. In addition to improving the urban habitat, we must also work to extend adequate infrastructure, public services and employment opportunities to rural areas in order to enhance their attractiveness, develop an integrated network of settlements and minimize rural-to-urban migration. Small- and medium-sized towns need special focus. 
 
8. To overcome current problems and to ensure future progress in the improvement of economic, social and environmental conditions in human settlements, we must begin with a recognition of the challenges facing cities A/CONF.165/14 page 14 and towns. According to current projections, by the turn of the century, more than three billion people - one half of the world's population - will live and work in urban areas. The most serious problems confronting cities and towns and their inhabitants include inadequate financial resources, lack of employment opportunities, spreading homelessness and expansion of squatter settlements, increased poverty and a widening gap between rich and poor, growing insecurity and rising crime rates, inadequate and deteriorating building stock, services and infrastructure, lack of health and educational facilities, improper land use, insecure land tenure, rising traffic congestion, increasing pollution, lack of green spaces, inadequate water supply and sanitation, uncoordinated urban development and an increasing vulnerability to disaster. All of these have seriously challenged the capacities of Governments, particularly those of developing countries, at all levels to realize economic development, social development and environmental protection, which are interdependent and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable development - the framework for our efforts to achieve a higher quality of life for all people.
 
9. In the process of globalization and growing interdependence, rural settlements represent a great challenge and opportunity for renewed developmental initiatives at all levels and in all fields. Many rural settlements, however, are facing a lack or an inadequacy of economic opportunities, especially employment, and of infrastructure and services, particularly those related to water, sanitation, health, education, communication, transportation and energy. Appropriate efforts and technologies for rural development can help to reduce, inter alia, imbalances, unsustainable practices, poverty, isolation, environmental pollution and insecure land tenure. 
 
10. Cities, towns and rural settlements are linked through the movements of goods, resources and people. Urban-rural linkages are of crucial importance for the sustainability of human settlements. As rural population growth has outpaced the generation of employment and economic opportunities, rural-to-urban migration has steadily increased, particularly in developing countries, which has put enormous pressure on urban infrastructure and services already under serious stress. It is urgent to eradicate rural poverty and to improve the quality of living conditions, as well as to create employment and educational opportunities in rural settlements, regional A/CONF.165/14 page 15 centres and secondary cities. Full advantage must be taken of the complementary contributions and linkages of rural and urban areas by balancing their different economic, social and environmental requirements. 
 
Equitable human settlements are those in which all people, without discrimination of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status, have equal access to housing, infrastructure, health services, adequate food and water, education and open spaces. In addition, such human settlements provide equal opportunity for a productive and freely chosen livelihood; equal access to economic resources, including the right to inheritance, the ownership of land and other property, credit, natural resources and appropriate technologies; equal opportunity for personal, spiritual, religious, cultural and social development; equal opportunity for participation in public decision-making; equal rights and obligations with regard to the conservation and use of natural and cultural resources; and equal access to mechanisms to ensure that rights are not violated. The empowerment of women and their full participation on the basis of equality in all spheres of society, whether rural or urban, are fundamental to sustainable human settlements development. 
 
 
43 (d) Providing adequate and integrated environmental infrastructure facilities in all settlements as soon as possible with a view to improving A/CONF.165/14 page 25 health by ensuring access for all people to sufficient, continuous and safe freshwater supplies, sanitation, drainage and waste disposal services, with a special emphasis on providing facilities to segments of the population living in poverty;
 
(i) Promoting the development of more balanced and sustainable human settlements by encouraging productive investments, job creation and social infrastructure development in small and medium-sized cities, towns and villages; 
 
(46 d) Integrating a gender perspective in the design and implementation of environmentally sound and sustainable resource management mechanisms, production techniques and infrastructure development in rural and urban areas;
 
60. Adequate shelter means more than a roof over one's head. It also means adequate privacy; adequate space; physical accessibility; adequate security; security of tenure; structural stability and durability; adequate lighting, heating and ventilation; adequate basic infrastructure, such as water-supply, sanitation and waste-management facilities; suitable environmental quality and health-related factors; and adequate and accessible location with regard to work and basic facilities: all of which should be available at an affordable cost. Adequacy should be determined together with the people concerned, bearing in mind the prospect for gradual development. Adequacy often varies from country to country, since it depends on specific cultural, social, environmental and economic factors. Gender-specific and age-specific factors, such as the exposure of children and women to toxic substances, should be considered in this context.
 
(g) Make full use of existing infrastructure in urban areas, encouraging optimal density of the occupation of available serviced land in A/CONF.165/14 page 42 accordance with its carrying capacity, at the same time ensuring the adequate provision of parks, play areas, common spaces and facilities, and plots of land for home gardening, as appropriate; 
 
76(g) Make full use of existing infrastructure in urban areas, encouraging optimal density of the occupation of available serviced land in A/CONF.165/14 page 42 accordance with its carrying capacity, at the same time ensuring the adequate provision of parks, play areas, common spaces and facilities, and plots of land for home gardening, as appropriate;
 
82 (d) Support partnerships between such cooperative institutions and public and other financing institutions as an effective means of mobilizing local capital and applying it to local entrepreneurial and community activity for housing and infrastructure development;
 
 
83. To facilitate access to housing for those not served by existing finance mechanisms, Governments should review and rationalize, where appropriate, systems of subsidies through policies that will ensure their viability, equity and transparency, thus allowing many people without access to credit and land to enter the market. 
 
 
(e) Ensuring access to basic infrastructure and services 84. Basic infrastructure and services at the community level include the delivery of safe water, sanitation, waste management, social welfare, transport and communications facilities, energy, health and emergency services, schools, public safety, and the management of open spaces. The lack of adequate basic services, a key component of shelter, exacts a heavy toll on human health, productivity and the quality of life, particularly for people living in poverty in urban and rural areas. Local and state/provincial authorities, as the case may be, have the primary responsibility to provide or enable delivery of services, regulated by appropriate legislation and standards. Their capacity to manage, operate and maintain infrastructure and basic services must be supported by central Governments. There are, however, a host of other actors, including the private sector, communities and A/CONF.165/14 page 47 non-governmental organizations, that can participate in service provision and management under the coordination of Governments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities. 
 
85. To safeguard the health, safety, welfare and improved living environment of all people and to provide adequate and affordable basic infrastructure and services, Governments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities, should promote: (a) The supply of and access to adequate quantities of safe drinking water;
(b) Adequate sanitation and environmentally sound waste management;
(c) Adequate mobility through access to affordable and physically accessible public transport and other communications facilities;
(d) Access to markets and retail outlets for selling and purchasing basic necessities;
(e) The provision of social services, especially for underserved groups and communities;
(f) Access to community facilities, including places of worship;
(g) Access to sustainable sources of energy;
(h) Environmentally sound technologies and the planning, provision and maintenance of infrastructure, including roads, streets, parks and open spaces;
(i) A high level of safety and public security;
(j) The use of a variety of planning mechanisms that provide for meaningful participation to reduce the negative impacts on biological resources, such as prime agricultural land and forests, that may arise from human settlements activities;
(k) Planning and implementation systems that integrate all of the above factors into the design and operation of sustainable human settlements.
 
86. To ensure more equitable provision of basic infrastructure and service delivery systems, Governments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities, should:
(a) Work with all interested parties in providing serviced land and in allocating adequate space for basic services as well as for recreational and open spaces in the development of new schemes and the upgrading of existing ones; A/CONF.165/14 page 48
(b) Involve local communities, particularly women, children and persons with disabilities, in decision-making and in setting priorities for the provision of services;
(c) Involve, encourage and assist, as appropriate, local communities, particularly women, children and persons with disabilities, in setting standards for community facilities and in the operation and maintenance of those facilities;
(d) Support the efforts of academic and professional groups in analysing the need for infrastructure and services at the community level;
(e) Facilitate the mobilization of funds from all interested parties, especially the private sector, for increased investment;
(f) Establish support mechanisms to enable people living in poverty and the disadvantaged to have access to basic infrastructure and services;
(g) Remove legal obstacles, including those related to security of tenure and credit, that deny women equal access to basic services;
(h) Promote dialogue among all interested parties to help provide basic services and infrastructure.
 
87. To ensure the efficiency of infrastructure and the provision of services and their operation and maintenance practices, Governments at the appropriate levels, including local authorities, should: (a) Create mechanisms to promote autonomous, transparent and accountable management of services at the local level; (b) Create an enabling environment to encourage the private sector to participate in the efficient and competitive management and delivery of basic services; (c) Promote the application of appropriate and environmentally sound technologies for infrastructure and delivery of services on a cost-effective basis; 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Last Updated on Thursday, 15 October 2015 05:14
 

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