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SDG GOAL 6: MUST INCLUDE THE HUMAN RIGHT TO SAFE WATER AND SANITATION PDF Print E-mail
Earth News
Posted by Joan Russow
Friday, 18 September 2015 15:50

By Joan Russow

Global Compliance Research Project

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2010 water March  in Cochbamba

http://ayya2cochabamba.wordpress.com/2010/04/16/april-15th-march-to-commemorate-10-years-since-the-water-wars/

 

SDG 6 Ensure availability and sustainable mananagement and sanitation for all

At the 2010 Conference On Wzter, in Cochabamba, there was not only discussion of the human right to water but the right of water itself. 

 

In 2010, the UN General Assembly overwhelmingly agreed to a resolution declaring the human right to “safe and clean drinking water and sanitation”

 

IMPLEMENTATION OF COMMITMENTS and OBLIGATIONS RELATED TO RIGHT TO WATER

 

PREAMBLE

 

MINDFUL THAT FOR YEARS STATES COMMITMENTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO DECLARE THE RIGHT TO WATER,(FOR HUMANS AND FOR THE ECOSYSTEM, TO PROVIDE SAFE DRINKING WATER, TO SATIFY THE BASIC NEED FOR WATER.

 

In 1974, member states of the United Nations acknowledged in the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order, the failure to satisfy basic requirements including “water”

inequitable economic growth, reflected in the wide disparities in wealth which now exist between countries and between human beings and which condemn millions of people to a life of poverty, without satisfying the basic requirements for food, education, health services, shelter, environmental hygiene, water and energy; (Principles, Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order, 1974).

 

 

 (II 17, I, Hábitat I, I976).

 IN 1976 All member states of the United Nations decried the increasing degradation of life-supporting resources of air water and land

social economic, ecological and environmental deterioration which are exemplified at the national and international levels by inequalities in living conditions, social segregation, racial discrimination, acute unemployment, illiteracy, disease and poverty, the breakdown of social relationships and traditional cultural values and the increasing degradation of life-supporting resources of air , water and land; (Principles Habitat I, I976)

 

The member states of the United Nations have for years made commitments to ensure the right and access to safe drinking water, and to sewage treatment:.

CONCERNED ABOUT THE FAILURE TO IMPLEMENT THE COMMITMENT mADE IN 1977 TO ENSURE THE RIGHT TO ACCESS TO DRINKING WATER

In 1977, in Mar del Plata, an international action plan was developed and member states of the United Nations agreed that

all peoples, whatever their stage of development and their social and economic conditions, have the right to have access to drinking water in quantities and of a quality equal to their basic needs.

 

 

CONCERNED AS WELL THAT THE COMMITMENT MADE TO PROVIDE SAVE DRINKING WATER  AND SANITATION BY 1990 HAS BEEN IGNORED

 

In 1981 the United Nations launched the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade whose

“target of the decade was to provide safe drinking-water and sanitation to underserved urban and rural areas by 1990.

NOTING AGAIN THAT whilethe goal in 1981 had not been achieved, this goal was reaffirmed In 1992, at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), , when every members state of the United Nations adopted Chapter 18, Freshwater,  in Agenda 21,

... The most outstanding of these efforts was the launching in 1981 of the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, which resulted from the Mar del Plata Action Plan adopted peoples, whatever their stage of development and their social and economic conditions, have the right to have access to drinking water in quantities and of a quality equal to their basic needs". 2/ The target of the Decade was to provide safe drinking-water and sanitation to underserved urban and rural areas by 1990, but even the unprecedented progress achieved during the Decade was not enough. One in three people in the developing world still lacks these two most basic requirements for health and dignity. (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.4, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992).

 

NOTING FURTHER THAT IN 1992 THROUGHOUT AGENDA 21 THERE WERE OVER 150 COMMITMENTS MADE TO ADDRESS THE ACCESS TO WATER AND THE IMPORTANCE OF WATER FOR THE ECOSYSTEM

• To make certain that adequate supplies of water of good quality are maintained for the entire population of this planet, while preserving the hydrological, biological and chemical functions of ecosystems, adapting human activities within the capacity limits of nature and combating vectors of water-related diseases.  Innovative technologies, including the improvement of indigenous technologies, are needed to fully utilize limited water resources and to safeguard those resources against pollution. (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.2)

• To have ensured, by the year 2000,  that all urban residents have access to at least 40 litres per capita per day of safe water and that 75 per cent of the urban population are provided with on-site or community facilities for sanitation; (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.58.a)

 

)
• To have, by the year 2000,  established and applied quantitative and qualitative discharge standards for municipal and industrial effluents; (Chapter18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.58. b Agenda 21, UNCED)  

 

• To have, by the year 2000, ensured that 75 per cent of solid waste generated in urban areas are collected and recycled or disposed of in an environmentally safe way. (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.58. c Agenda 21, UNCED)

 

• [To acknowledge that] Freshwater resources are an essential component of the earth's hydrosphere and an indispensable part of all terrestrial ecosystems.  The freshwater environment is characterized by the hydrological cycle, including floods and droughts, which in some regions have become more extreme and dramatic in their consequences.  Global climate change and atmospheric pollution could also have an impact on freshwater resources and their availability and, through sea-level rise, threaten low-lying coastal areas and small island ecosystems. (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.1)

•   There is uncertainty with respect to the prediction of climate change at the global level.  Although the uncertainties increase greatly at the regional, national and local levels, it is at the national level that the most important decisions would need to be made.  Higher temperatures and decreased precipitation would lead to decreased water-supplies and increased water demands; they might cause deterioration in the quality of freshwater bodies, putting strains on the already fragile balance between supply and demand in many countries.  Even where precipitation might increase, there is no guarantee that it would occur at the time of year when it could be used; in addition, there might be a likelihood of increased flooding.  Any rise in sealevel will often cause the intrusion of salt water into estuaries, small islands and coastal aquifers and the flooding of low-lying coastal areas; this puts low-lying countries at great risk.(Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.82.)

 

  • To protect Groundwater (Chapter 18: protection of the quality     and supply of freshwater resources)

 

•  To prevent.aquifer pollution through the regulation of toxic substances that permeate the ground and the establishment of protection zones in groundwater recharge and abstraction areas; (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:d iii)

 

• To promote.. the construction of treatment facilities for domestic sewage and industrial effluents and the development of appropriate technologies, taking into account sound traditional and indigenous practices; (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.40. b ii)

• To initiate effective water pollution prevention and control programmes, based on an appropriate mixture of pollution reduction-at-source strategies, environmental impact assessments and enforceable standards for major point-source discharges and high-risk non-point sources, commensurate with their socio-economic development; (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.29.c)

 

• {To recgnize that ] The complex interconnectedness of freshwater systems demands that freshwater management be holistic (taking a catchment management approach) and based on a balanced consideration of the needs of people and the environment.  The Mar del Plata Action Plan has already recognized the intrinsic linkage between water resource development projects and their significant physical, chemical, biological, health and socio-economic repercussions.  The overall environmental health objective was set as follows:  "to evaluate the consequences which the various users of water have on the environment, to support measures aimed at controlling water-related diseases, and to protect ecosystems". (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.36).

 

• To introduce ...the precautionary approach in water-quality management, where appropriate, with a focus on pollution minimization and prevention through use of new technologies, product and process change, pollution reduction at source and effluent reuse, recycling and recovery, treatment and environmentally safe disposal; (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.40.b iv)
water is needed in all aspects of life. (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.2)

 

• In many locations around the world the general environment (air, water and land), workplaces and even individual dwellings are so badly polluted that the health of hundreds of millions of people is adversely affected. This is, inter alia, due to past and present developments in consumption and production patterns and lifestyles, in energy production and use, in industry, in transportation etc., with little or no regard for environmental protection. (Chapter 6 Protection and promotion of human health 6.39.)`

 



 

 

 

• To protect water resources from depletion, pollution and degradation:(Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.59 a Agenda 21, UNCED).:

 

• To introduce sanitary waste disposal facilities based on environmentally sound low-cost and upgradable technologies; (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.59. a i Agenda 21, UNCED)

 

• To recognize Atmospheric changes can have important impacts on forests, biodiversity and freshwater and marine ecosystems. (Chapter 9: protection of the atmosphere 9.19).

 

• To [carry out] mandatory environmental impact assessment of all major water resource development projects potentially impairing water quality and aquatic ecosystems, combined with the delineation of appropriate remedial measures and a strengthened control of new industrial installations, solid waste landfills and infrastructure development projects; (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.40.b v)

 

 

 

• To use of risk assessment and risk management in reaching decisions in this area and ensuring compliance with those decisions; (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.40.b vi)

 

• To apply preventive and precautionary approaches in project planning and implementation, including prior assessment and systematic observation of the impacts of major projects; (Chapter17 protection of the oceans,17.5. d)

 

 

•To provide health and hygiene education and to ensure universal access to safe drinking water and universal access to sanitary measures of excreta disposal, thereby markedly reducing waterborne diseases such as cholera and schistosomiasis and reducing: (Chapter 6: Protection and promotion of human health6.12 e)

 

 

Combating Poverty

• To Provide the poor with access to fresh water and sanitation

Government with the assistance of and in cooperation with appropriate international, non-governmental and local community organizations should establish measures that will directly or indirectly Provide the poor with access to fresh water and sanitation (Chapter 3: Combating Poverty 3.8)

 

• Safe water-supplies and environmental sanitation are vital for protecting the environment, improving health and alleviating poverty.  Safe water is also crucial to many traditional and cultural activities.  An estimated 80 per cent of all diseases and over one third of deaths in developing countries are caused by the consumption of contaminated water, and on average as much as one tenth of each person's productive time is sacrificed to water-related diseases.  Concerted efforts during the 1980s brought water and sanitation services to hundreds of millions of the world's poorest people. (Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.47).

 

 

• Access to land resources is an essential component of sustainable low-impact lifestyles. Land resources are the basis for (human) living systems and provide soil, energy, water and the opportunity for all human activity. In rapidly growing urban areas, access to land is rendered increasingly difficult by the conflicting demands of industry, housing, commerce, agriculture, land tenure structures and the need for open spaces. Furthermore, the rising costs of urban land prevent the poor from gaining access of Governments to respond adequately. (Chapter 7: Promoting sustainable human settlement development 7.27.

 

 

• To apply..  the "polluter pays" principle, where appropriate, to all kinds of sources, including on-site and off-site sanitation;

(Chapter 18: protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources:18.40.(b) (i)

AWARE OF FORTHCOMING RELEVANT CELEBRATIONS


 THAT 2010 IS THE YEAR CELEBRATING BIODIVERSITY AND THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND THAT WATER IS ESSENTIAL TO BIODIVERSITY

THAT IN APRIL 2010 THERE IS THE PEOPLES CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND RIGHTS OF MOTHER EARTH


THAT IN MEXICO 2010 THERE WILL BE  COP 16


 THAT IN 2012 WILL BE THE TWENTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE NEGOTIATION  OF THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK ON CLIMATE CHANGE

THAT IN 2012 THERE WILL BE THE 20TH ANNIVERSARY OF AGENDA 21, AND THE RIO DECLARATION

CONCERNED THAT AT THE COP 15, THE ISSUE OF THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATER ECOSYTESM AND SUPPLY OF WATER OF AS WELL AS THE CONTRIBUTION OF DESTRUCTIVE WATER PRACTICES TO CLIMATE CHANGE ITSELF


WE COMMIT

 

TO FINALLY ABIDE BY THE YEARS OF COMMITMENTS MADE AND OBLIGATIONS INCURRED RELATED TO WATER AND DO THE FOLLOWING:

 

1.   TO INCLUDE THE HUMAN RIGHT TO WATER IN THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

 

2.   TO INCLUDE HUMAN RIGHT TO WATER IN  OPTIONAL PROTOCOLS TO THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, AND THE COVENANT OF CIVL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS

to protect watershed and the water commons

 

3 AT THE CONFERENCE IN BOLIVIA TO RECOGNIZE THE IMPACT ON WATER SYSTEMS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AS WELL AS THE CONTRIBUTION OF DESTRUCTIVE WATER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Is widely acknowledged that that climate change is having a profoundly negative impact on fresh water systems around the world, - desertification, melting glaciers and more, and these impacts are disproportionately burdening the poor and marginalized in the South. In addition, the collective abuse and mismangement of fresh water is also a contributing cause of clmate change .

 

 

4.   TO COMMIT AT THE CONFERENCES IN BOLIVIA IN MEXICO AND COP 16 TO A TEMPERATURE RISE OF NOT MORE THAN 1 DEGREE FROM PRE-INDUSTRIAL LEVELS, AND TO A RETURN TO 300PPM, AND ACKNOWLEDGE THE SERIOUS IMPACT OF WATER AND WATER SYSTEMS OF FAILING TO ADHERE TO THIS COMMITMENT

 

 

5 TO FULFILL ALL THE COMMITMENTS, RELATED TO WATER, MADE AT UNCED BY  THE ANNIVERSARY 2012

Last Updated on Friday, 18 September 2015 16:08
 

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