Who's Online

We have 739 guests online

Popular

2649 readings
SDG GOAL 1 END POVERTY IN ALL ITS FORMS EVERYWHERE: SIXTY SEVEN YEARS OF UNFULFILLED COMMITMENTS PDF Print E-mail
Justice News
Posted by Joan Russow
Friday, 04 September 2015 10:22

By Joan Russow Global Compliance Research Project

October 17 2015 the international Day for the Eradication of Poverty. Now when the UN is 70, finally this commitment must be fulfiled

 

 

Before the 2005 fire, children in the dump (from Giramondo's blog post)

 

Under the recent release ofTransforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is a section on

Our shared principles and commitments

11. We reaffirm the outcomes of all major UN conferences and summits which have laid a solid foundation for sustainable development and have helped to shape the new Agenda.

https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld

Transforming our world, however, would require acting on conference and summit commitments not just reaffirming them. And for over 67 years, there have been Commitments related to

eliminating the causes of poverty and t the ending of poverty;

 

COMMITMENTS IN PREVIOUS DECLARATIONS AND CONFERENCES

 

The GOAL I. End Poverty in all its Forms Everywhere must start by immediately undertaking to discharge all the obligations and commitments related to poverty in Covenants and act on commitments from Declarations, Agendas, Resolutions, reports;

I have documented key obligation and commitments related to poverty. In the following international instruments

from 1948 Universal Declaration of human Rights  from 1966 Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,the 1974 Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition social rights, the 1976 Habitat 1 Agenda, the 1984 Declaration on the Right to Development, 1984 Declaration on the Right of All Peoples to Peace, 1986 Declaration on the Right to Development, 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Childreport from United Nations World Summit for Social Development, 1992Chapter 3 on Poverty  Chapter 4  Consumption and other Chapters from Agenda 21 UNCED, 1993 Reports from  World human rights and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, , 1995, platform of Actions from the conference on Women; Equality development and peace, The 1996 Habitat Agenda,  and finally the 2002 Report  world Summit on Sustainable Development

LEGEND to find the references

****1948 UNIVERSAL DECLARATION ON HUMAN RIGHTS

****1966 INTERNATIONAL COVENANT OF ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS

****1976 HABITAT I: VANCOUVER DECLATION ON HUMAN SETTLEMENT

****1984 DECLARATION ON THE RIGHT OF PEOPLES TO PEACE

****1986 DECLARATION ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT

**** 1989 CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD

**** 1992 UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT; AGENDA 21 UNCED

****1993 WORLD CONGRESS ON HUMAN RIGHTS

****1994 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 1994)

****1995 WORLD SUMMIT FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

****1995 BEIJING PLATFORM OF ACTION

****1996 HABITAT II AGENDA

****2000 MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT

****THE WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (WSSD)

 

****1948 UNIVERSAL DECLARATION ON HUMAN RIGHTS

While the Universal Declaration of Human Rights did not specifically mention the eradication of poverty, sixty seven years ago the UDHR did include article which if acted upon would have led to the eradication of poverty;

Article 25. The right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing

(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, and housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.

·         (.( Article 25, UDHR)

 

**** 1966 INTERNATIONAL COVENANT OF ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS

3. Introduction: Article11.1 the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing,

1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. The States Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure the realization of this right, recognizing to this effect the essential importance of international co-operation based on free consent.(Article11.1)

2. The States Parties to the present Covenant, recognizing the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger, shall take, individually and through international co-operation, the measures, including specific programmes, which are needed:

(a) To improve methods of production, conservation and distribution of food by making full use of technical and scientific knowledge, by disseminating knowledge of the principles of nutrition and by developing or reforming agrarian systems in such a way as to achieve the most efficient development and utilization of natural resources;

(b) Taking into account the problems of both food-importing and food-exporting countries, to ensure an equitable distribution of world food supplies in relation to need.

THE 1974 UNIVERSAL DECLARATION ON THE ERADICATION OF HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION

Preamble

(a) The grave food crisis that is afflicting the peoples of the developing countries where most of the world's hungry and ill-nourished live and where more than two thirds of the world's population produce about one third of the world's food-an imbalance which threatens to increase in the next 10 years-is not only fraught with grave economic and social implications, but also acutely jeopardizes the most fundamental principles and values associated with the right to life and human dignity as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;

(b) The elimination of hunger and malnutrition, included as one of the objectives in the United Nations Declaration on Social Progress and Development, and the elimination of the causes that determine this situation are the common objectives of all nations;

The Conference consequently solemnly proclaims :

1. Every man, woman and child has the inalienable right to be free from hunger and malnutrition in order to develop fully and maintain their physical and mental faculties. Society today already possesses sufficient resources, organizational ability and technology and hence the competence to achieve this objective. Accordingly, the eradication of hunger is a common objective of all the countries of the international community, especially of the developed countries and others in a position to help.

2. It is a fundamental responsibility of Governments to work together for higher food production and a more equitable and efficient distribution of food between countries and within countries. Governments should initiate immediately a greater concerted attack on chronic malnutrition and deficiency diseases among the vulnerable and lower income groups. In order to ensure adequate nutrition for all, Governments should formulate appropriate food and nutrition policies integrated in overall socio-economic and agricultural development plans based on adequate knowledge of available as well as potential food resources. The importance of human milk in this connection should be stressed on nutritional grounds.

**** 1976 HABITAT I: VANCOUVER DECLATION ON HUMAN SETTLEMENT

Chapter II - Goals and Principle

***HOUSING AND POVERTY

Noting that the condition of human settlements largely determines the quality of life, the improvement of which is a prerequisite for the full satisfaction of basic needs, such as employment, housing, health services, education and recreation,

Recognizing that the problems of human settlements are not isolated from the social and economic development of countries and that they cannot be set apart from existing unjust international economic relations,

Being deeply concerned with the increasing difficulties facing the world in satisfying the basic needs and aspirations of peoples consistent with principles of human dignity,

Recognizing that the circumstances of life for vast numbers of people in human settlements are unacceptable, particularly in developing countries, and that, unless positive and concrete action is taken at national and international levels to find and implement solutions, these conditions are likely to be further aggravated, as a result of:

Inequitable economic growth, reflected in the wide disparities in wealth which now exist between countries and between human beings and which condemn millions of people to a life of poverty, without satisfying the basic requirements for food, education, health services, shelter, environmental hygiene, water and energy;

Social, economic, ecological and environmental deterioration which are exemplified at the national and international levels by inequalities in living conditions, social segregation, racial discrimination, acute unemployment, illiteracy, disease and poverty, the breakdown of social relationships and traditional cultural values and the increasing degradation of life-supporting resources of air, water and land;

World population growth trends which indicate that numbers of mankind in the next 25 years would double, thereby more than doubling the need for food, shelter and all other requirements for life and human dignity which are at the present inadequately met;

Uncontrolled urbanization and consequent conditions of overcrowding, pollution, deterioration and psychological tensions in metropolitan regions;

 

III. Guidelines for Action

8. Adequate shelter and services are a basic human right which places an obligation on Governments to ensure their attainment by all people, beginning with direct assistance to the least advantaged through guided programmes of self-help and community action. Governments should endeavour to remove all impediments hindering attainments of these goals. Of special importance is the elimination of social and racial segregation, inter alia, through the creation of better balanced communities, which blend different social groups, occupation, housing and amenities. (Article 8, Habitat 1)

****1984 DECLARATION ON THE RIGHT OF PEOPLES TO PEACE

Convinced that life without war “peace with justice” and not just the absence of war serves as the primary international prerequisite for the material well-being, development and progress of countries, and for the full implementation of the rights and fundamental human freedoms. (United Nations Declaration on the Right of Peoples to Peace approved by General Assembly resolution 39/11 of 12, 1984)

 

****1986 DECLARATION ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT

 

The Right to Development (RTD) was proclaimed in a 1986 General Assembly Declaration (Res. 128/41) passed by a recorded vote of 146 in favour, 1 against (US), with 8 abstentions (mostly developed countries). Among those who favoured the Declaration include some developed countries: Australia, Canada, France, Netherlands and New Zealand. Since the adoption of the Declaration, efforts for the realisation of the RTD are underway.

    

The General Assembly,

 

Proclaims the following Declaration on the Right to Development:

 

 1. The right to development is an inalienable human right  

The right to development is an inalienable human right by virtue of

which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized. (Article 1 Declaration on the Right to Development)

 

2.   urgent consideration should be given to the implementation, promotion and protection of civil, political, economic,

social and cultural rights

 

States have the right and the duty to formulate appropriate national

development policies that aim at the constant improvement of the well-being of the entire population and of all individuals, on the basis of their active, free and meaningful participation in development and in the fair distribution of the benefits resulting therefrom .All human rights and fundamental freedoms are indivisible and interdependent; equal attention and urgent consideration should be given to the implementation, promotion and protection of civil, political, economic,

social and cultural rights. (Article  2 Declaration on the Right to Development)

 

 3. States should take steps to eliminate obstacles to development resulting from failure to observe civil and political rights, as well as economic, social and cultural rights. (Article 3 Declaration on the Right to Development)

 

 

  Article 7 of the 1986 Declaration on the Right to Development) to do their utmost to achieve general and complete disarmament under effective international control                           

    

All States should promote the establishment, maintenance and

strengthening of international peace and security and, to that end, should do their utmost to achieve general and complete disarmament under effective international control, as well as to ensure that the resources released by effective disarmament measures are used for comprehensive development, in particular that of the developing countries.(Article 7   Declaration on the Right to Development)

 

Article 8.1 equality of opportunity for all in their access to basic

resources, education, health services, food, housing,

  

 States should undertake, at the national level, all necessary

measures for the realization of the right to development and shall ensure, inter alia, equality of opportunity for all in their access to basic

resources, education, health services, food, housing, employment and the fair distribution of income.  Effective measures should be undertaken to ensure that women have an active role in the development process.  Appropriate economic and social reforms should be carried out with a view to eradicating all social injustices.

(Article 8.1   Declaration on the Right to Development)

 

     

****1989 CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD

2. States Parties shall pursue full implementation of this right and, in particular, shall take appropriate measures:

States Parties shall pursue full implementation of this right and, in particular, shall take appropriate measures:

(a) To diminish infant and child mortality;

(b) To ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance and health care to all children with emphasis on the development of primary health care;

(c) To combat disease and malnutrition, including within the framework of primary health care, through, inter alia, the application of readily available technology and through the provision of adequate nutritious foods and clean drinking-water, taking into consideration the dangers and risks of environmental pollution; (2, CRC)

Article 27 3. provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing.

States Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate measures to assist parents and others responsible for the child to implement this right and shall in case of need provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing.

1. States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child's physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development.

2. The parent(s) or others responsible for the child have the primary responsibility to secure, within their abilities and financial capacities, the conditions of living necessary for the child's development.

3. States Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate measures to assist parents and others responsible for the child to implement this right and shall in case of need provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing.(27.3, CRC)

NGO Treaty on "Overconsumption", 1992

Since the first United Nations Conference on the Environment in Stockholm in 1972, we have come to realize that the traditional patterns of development have contributed to poverty - denying more than a quarter of the world’s population adequate living conditions — to the inequitable distribution of resources to overconsumption, to the violation of human rights, and to the potentially irreversible degradation of the ecosystem.

 

**** 1992 UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT; AGENDA 21 UNCED

We are confronted with perpetuation of disparities between nations, and a worsening of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy and the continuing deterioration of the ecosystem on which we depend for our wellbeing (Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992).

3.1 Eradicating poverty, inequality and inequity

 The eradication of poverty and hunger, greater equality and equity in income distribution and human resources development remain major challenges everywhere. The struggle against poverty is the shared responsibility of all countries (3.1., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, 1992)

3.5 Eliminating poverty through establishing best long- term conditions

Contain a long-term strategy aimed at establishing the best possible conditions for sustainable local, regional and national development that would eliminate poverty and reduce the inequalities between various population groups. It should assist the most disadvantaged groups - in particular, women, children and youth within those groups - and refugees. The groups will include poor small holders, pastoralists, artisans, fishing communities, landless people, indigenous communities, migrants and the urban informal sector (3.5. c., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

3.7. l Undertaking activities aimed at the promotion of food security

Undertake activities aimed at the promotion of food security and, where appropriate, food self-sufficiency within the context of sustainable agriculture (3.7.l., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)  

Undertake activities aimed at the promotion of food security and, where appropriate, food self-sufficiency within the context of sustainable agriculture (3.7.l., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

3.7p  Providing the poor with access to fresh water

Provide the poor with access to fresh water and sanitation (3.7. p., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

3.7. p         Providing the poor with access to sanitation

Provide the poor with access to fresh water and sanitation (3.7. p., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

3.7q. Providing the poor with access to primary education

provide the poor with access to primary education. (3.7.q Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

3.8. e.         Ensuring the right to satisfaction of basic needs.

Governments should establish measures that will directly or indirectly set up an effective primary health care and maternal health care system accessible to all (3.8.e., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

3.7.1 Undertaking activities aimed at the promotion of food security

Undertake activities aimed at the promotion of food security and, where appropriate, food self-sufficiency within the context of sustainable agriculture (3.7.l., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

3.8. b.        Providing the poor with access to primary education

With international support, where necessary, develop adequate infrastructure, marketing systems, technology systems, credit systems and the like and the human resources needed to support the above actions and to achieve a widening of options for resource-poor people. High priority should be given to basic education and professional training (3.8.b, Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

(3.8.e.Ensuring the right to satisfaction of basic needs.

Governments should establish measures that will directly or indirectly set up an effective primary health care and maternal health care system accessible to all (3.8.e., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

3.8. h          Strengthening legal frameworks for access to land and ownership...in particular for women

Considerstrengthening/developing legal frameworks for land management, access to land resources and land ownership - in particular, for women - and for the protection of tenants (3.8.h Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

3.8. l., Undertaking actions to promote food security

Undertake activities aimed at the promotion of food security and, where appropriate, food self-sufficiency within the context of sustainable agriculture (3.8. l., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED 1992)

3.8. m., Integrating traditional methods that have been shown to be environmentally sustainable

Support research on and integration of traditional methods of production that have been shown to be environmentally sustainable (3.8. m., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

3.8. o., Improving access to land for the landless poor

Consider making available lines of credit and other facilities for the informal sector and improved access to land for the landless poor so that they can acquire the means of production and reliable access to natural resources. In many instances special considerations for women are required. Strict feasibility appraisals are needed for borrowers to avoid debt crises (3.8. o., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

3.10.,.Addressing the root causes of poverty

Promote international cooperation to address the root causes of poverty. The development process will not gather momentum if developing countries are weighted down by external indebtedness, if development finance is inadequate, if barriers restrict access to markets and if commodity prices and the terms of trade in developing countries remain depressed (3.10., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992).

3.10 e. Ensuring continued provision of basic services to the poor and needy

Examine the international economic framework, including resource flows and structural adjustment programmes, to ensure that social and environmental concerns are addressed, and in this connection, conduct a review of the policies of international organizations, bodies and agencies, including financial institutions, to ensure the continued provision of basic services to the poor and needy (3.10. e., Combating Poverty, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

4.3.   Continued impact of unsustainable patterns of consumption

...the major cause of the continued deterioration of the global environment is the unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in industrialized countries, which is a matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty and imbalances. (4.3. Changing Consumption Patterns, Agenda 21. 1992)

4.3.   Developing adequate infrastructure for widening of options for resource-poor people

Continued impact of unsustainable patterns of consumption

One of the most serious problems now facing the planet is that associated with historical patterns of unsustainable consumption and production,

...the major cause of the continued deterioration of the global environment is the unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in industrialized countries, which is a matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty and imbalances. One of the most serious problems now facing the planet is that associated with historical patterns of unsustainable consumption and production, leading to environmental degradation, aggravation of poverty and imbalances in the development of countries (4.3. Changing Consumption Patterns, Agenda 21. 1992)

6.1 . Both insufficient development leading to poverty and inappropriate development resulting in overconsumption

Health and development are intimately interconnected. Both insufficient development leading to poverty and inappropriate development resulting in overconsumption, coupled with an expanding world population, can result in severe environmental health problems in both developing and developed nations (6.1., Agenda 21 UNCED, 1992)

5.33 The global objective is to achieve a 10 to 40 per cent improvement in health indicators in the year 2000. 

 

The global objective is to achieve a 10 to 40 per cent improvement in health indicators in the year 2000.  The same rate of improvement should be achieved for environmental, housing and health service indicators.  These include the development of quantitative objectives for infant mortality, maternal mortality, percentage of low birth weight newborns and specific indicators (e.g. tuberculosis as an indicator of crowded housing, diarrhoeal diseases as indicators of inadequate water and sanitation, rates of industrial and transportation accidents that indicate possible opportunities for prevention of injury, and social problems such as drug abuse, violence and crime that indicate underlying social disorders).6.33.Agenda 21 UNCED

 

12.2 The most obvious impact of desertification, in addition to widespread poverty, is the degradation of 3.3 billion hectares of the total area of rangeland

Desertification affects about one sixth of the world's population, 70% of all drylands, amounting to 3.6 billion hectares, and one quarter of the total land areas of the world. The most obvious impact of desertification, in addition to widespread poverty, is the degradation of 3.3 billion hectares of the total area of rangeland, constituting 73 per cent of the rangeland with a low potential for human and animal carrying capacity, decline in soil fertility and soil structure on about 47 per cent of the dryland areas constituting marginal rain-fed cropland and the degradation of irrigated cropland, amounting to 30 % of the dryland areas with a high population density and agricultural potential. (12.2. Desertification Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992

Increased loss and degradation of mountain ecosystems

there is widespread poverty among mountain inhabitants and loss of indigenous knowledge

Mountain ecosystems are...  rapidly changing. They are susceptible to accelerated soil erosion, landslides and rapid loss of habitat and genetic diversity. On the human side, there is widespread poverty among mountain inhabitants and loss of indigenous knowledge. As a result, most global mountain areas are experiencing environmental degradation (13.1., Fragile ecosystems, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

16.12.Increased deterioration of the environment and health through anthropogenic actions along with poverty… contribute to diseases

... The deterioration of environmental quality, notably air, water and soil pollution owing to toxic chemicals, hazardous wastes, radiation and other sources, is a matter of growing concern...Malnutrition, poverty, poor human settlements, lack of good-quality potable water and inadequate sanitation facilities add to the problems of communicable and non-communicable diseases. As a consequence, the health and well-being of people are exposed to increasing pressures. (16.12., Biotechnology, Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

16.12. Continued impact on health due to environmental degradation

Improving human health is one of the most important objectives of development.

Malnutrition, poverty, poor human settlements, lack of good-quality potable water and inadequate sanitation facilities add to the problems of communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Improving human health is one of the most important objectives of development. The deterioration of environmental quality, notably air, water and soil pollution owing to toxic chemicals, hazardous wastes, radiation and other sources, is a matter of growing concern...Malnutrition, poverty, poor human settlements, lack of good-quality potable water and inadequate sanitation facilities add to the problems of communicable and non-communicable diseases. As a consequence, the health and well-being of a people are exposed to increasing pressures. (16.12., Protecting and Promoting of Human Health Conditions Agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)

18.56 Rapid urban population growth and industrialization are putting severe strains on the water resources and environmental protection capabilities of many cities.

Special attention needs to be given to the growing effects of urbanization on water demands

Better management of urban water resources, including the elimination of unsustainable consumption patterns, can make a substantial contribution to the alleviation of poverty and improvement of the health and quality of life of the urban and rural poor.

Early in the next century, more than half of the world's population will be living in urban areas.  In the year 2025, that proportion will have risen to 60 per cent, comprising some 5 billion people.  Rapid urban population growth and industrialization are putting severe strains on the water resources and environmental protection capabilities of many cities.  Special attention needs to be given to the growing effects of urbanization on water demands and usage and to the critical role played by local and municipal authorities in managing the supply, use and overall treatment of water, particularly in developing countries for which special support is needed.  Scarcity of freshwater resources and the escalating costs of developing new resources have a considerable impact on national industrial, agricultural and human settlement development and economic growth.  Better management of urban water resources, including the elimination of unsustainable consumption patterns, can make a substantial contribution to the alleviation of poverty and improvement of the health and quality of life of the urban and rural poor.  A high proportion of large urban agglomerations are located around estuaries and in coastal zones.  such an arrangement leads to pollution from municipal and industrial discharges combined with overexploitation of available water resources and threatens the marine environment and the supply of freshwater resources (art. 18.56, agenda 21, UNCED, 1992)..

****1993 WORLD CONGRESS ON HUMAN RIGHTS

In addition, at the World Congress on Human Rights, global concern was expressed that:

C. 30 The gross and systematic violations and situations constitute serious obstacles to the full enjoyment of all human rights…..poverty

The gross and systematic violations and situations constitute serious obstacles to the full enjoyment of all human rights continue to occur in different parts of the world, such violations and obstacles included, as well as torture and cruelty, inhuman and degrading treatment and punishment, summary and arbitrary executions, disappearances, arbitrary detentions, all forms of racism racial discrimination and apartheid, foreign occupation and alien domination, xenophobia, poverty, hunger and other denials of economic, social and cultural rights,, religious intolerance, terrorism, discrimination against women and lack of the rule of law (1993 C. 30 World Conference on human rights).

SECT. 12. the debt burden impedes the full realization of the economic, social and cultural rights of their people

The world Conference on Human Rights calls upon the international community to make all efforts to help alleviate the external debt burden of developing countries, in order to supplement the efforts of the Governments of such countries to attain the full realization of the economic, social and cultural rights of their people. (Sect.12., World Conference on Human Rights, 1993)

Art. 14.Continued impact of poverty on enjoyment of human rights

The existence of widespread extreme poverty inhibits the full and effective enjoyment of human rights... (Art. 14, World Conference on Human Rights, 1993)

****1994 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 1994)

Preamble 1.2 Resources depleted by unsustainable patterns on development

Around the world many of the basic resources on which future generations will depend for their survival and well-being are being depleted and environmental degradation is intensifying, driven by unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, unprecedented growth in population, widespread and persistent poverty, and social and economic inequality (Preamble, 1.2. International Conference on Population and Development, 1994)

1.5. preamble    the growing awareness that population, poverty, patterns of production and consumption and other threats to the environment are so closely interconnected that none of them can be considered in isolation.

This Interdependence principle reflects[ing] the growing awareness that population, poverty, patterns of production and consumption and other threats to the environment are so closely interconnected that none of them can be considered in isolation. (Preamble, 1.5., International Conference on Population and Development, 1994)

3.11. Continued inequality/inequity between "developed" and "underdeveloped" states   

Despite decades of development efforts, both the gap between rich and poor nations and the inequalities within nations have widened. Serious economic, social, gender and other inequities persist and hamper efforts to improve the quality of life for hundreds of millions of people. The number of people living in poverty stands at approximately 1 billion and continues to mount. (3.11.International Conference on Population and Development, 1994)

3.13. Continued associated problems of poverty

Poverty is often accompanied by unemployment, malnutrition, illiteracy, low status of women, exposure to environmental risks and limited access to social and health services, including reproductive health services which in turn include family planning. All these factors contribute to high levels of fertility, morbidity, and mortality, as well as to low economic productivity (3.13., International Conference on Population and Development, 1994).

 

****1995 WORLD SUMMIT FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

PREP COM .      Recognizing access to food as a basic human right

Reduce vulnerability calls for enhancing food security by recognizing access to food as a basic human right (Prep Com II Reduction and Elimination of Widespread Poverty, UN Secretariat Plan of Action World Summit for Social Development, March 1995)

1995 World Summit on social development

Chapter 2: Eradication of Poverty

Basis for action and objectives

Chapter 2: Eradication of Poverty

Commitment 9 We commit ourselves to increasing significantly and/or utilizing more efficiently the resources allocated to social development

Commitment  (g) Undertake to explore new ways of generating new public and private financial resources, inter alia, through the appropriate reduction of excessive military expenditures, including global military expenditures and the arms trade, and investments for arms production and acquisition, taking into consideration national security requirements, so as to allow possible allocation of additional funds for social and

(Article 9 World Summit on social development)

Basis for action and objectives

18 Over 1 billion people in the world today live under unacceptable conditions of poverty, mostly in developing countries, and particularly in rural areas of low-income Asia and the Pacific, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the least developed countries

(Article 18 World Summit on social development)

 

Article 19 Various manifestations …limited or lack of access to education and other basic services; increased morbidity and mortality from illness; homelessness

Poverty has various manifestations, including lack of income and productive resources sufficient to ensure sustainable livelihoods; hunger and malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of access to education and other basic services; increased morbidity and mortality from illness; homelessness and inadequate housing; unsafe environments; and social discrimination and exclusion (Article 19 World Summit on social development)

 

21. In this context, the negative impact on development of excessive military expenditures, the arms trade, and investment for arms production and acquisition must be addressed. UNITED NATIONS WORLD SUMMIT FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Copenhagen

There is therefore an urgent need for:

Article 25 National strategies to reduce overall poverty substantially

National strategies to reduce overall poverty substantially, including measures to remove the structural barriers that prevent people from escaping poverty, with specific time-bound commitments to eradicate absolute poverty by a target date to be specified by each country in its national context;

Assist countries in their efforts to eradicate poverty

·         Stronger international cooperation and the support of international institutions to assist countries in their efforts to eradicate poverty and to provide basic social protection and services;

Development of methods to measure all forms of poverty, especially     absolute  poverty, and to assess and monitor the circumstances of those at risk, within the national context;

·         Regular national reviews of economic policies and national budgets to orient them towards eradicating poverty and reducing inequalities;

·         Expanded opportunities to enable people living in poverty to enhance their overall capacities and improve their economic and social conditions, while managing resources sustainably;

·         Human resource development and improved infrastructural facilities;

·         Comprehensive provision for the basic needs of all;

·         Policies ensuring that all people have adequate economic and social protection during unemployment, ill health, maternity, disability and old age;

·         Policies that strengthen the family and contribute to its stability in accordance with the principles, goals and commitments contained in the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development and in the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development; 11/

·         Mobilization of the public and the private sectors, more developed areas, educational and academic institutions and non-governmental organizations to assist poverty-stricken areas.

·         (Article 25 World Summit on social development)

 

 

26. Governments should give greater focus to public efforts to eradicate absolute poverty and to reduce overall poverty substantially by:

(c) Identifying the livelihood systems, survival strategies and self-help organizations of people living in poverty and working with such organizations to develop programmes for combating poverty that build on their efforts, ensuring the full participation of the people concerned and responding to their actual needs;

(d) Elaborating, at the national level, the measurements, criteria and indicators for determining the extent and distribution of absolute poverty. Each country should develop a precise definition and assessment of absolute poverty, preferably by 1996, the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty; 12/

(e) Establishing policies, objectives and measurable targets to enhance and broaden women's economic opportunities and their access to productive resources, particularly women who have no source of income;

(f) Promoting effective enjoyment by all people of civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights, and access to existing social protection and public services, in particular through encouraging the ratification and ensuring the full implementation of relevant human rights instruments, such as the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 13/ and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; 13/

(g) Eliminating the injustice and obstacles that women are faced with, and encouraging and strengthening the participation of women in taking decisions and in implementing them, as well as their access to productive resources and land ownership and their right to inherit goods;

(h) Encouraging and supporting local community development projects that foster the skill, self-reliance and self-confidence of people living in poverty and that facilitate their active participation in efforts to eradicate poverty.(Article 26 World Summit on social development)

 

27. Governments are urged to integrate goals and targets for combating poverty into overall economic and social policies and planning at the local, national and, where appropriate, regional levels by:

(a) Analysing policies and programmes, including those relating to macroeconomic stability, structural adjustment programmes, taxation, investments, employment, markets and all relevant sectors of the economy, with respect to their impact on poverty and inequality, assessing their impact on family well-being and conditions, as well as their gender implications, and adjusting them, as appropriate, to promote a more equitable distribution of productive assets, wealth, opportunities, income and services;

(b) Redesigning public investment policies that relate to infrastructure development, the management of natural resources and human resource development to benefit people living in poverty and to promote their compatibility with the long-term improvement of livelihoods;

(c) Ensuring that development policies benefit low-income communities and rural and agricultural development;

(d) Selecting, wherever possible, development schemes that do not displace local populations, and designing an appropriate policy and legal framework to compensate the displaced for their losses, to help them to re-establish their livelihoods and to promote their recovery from social and cultural disruption;

(e) Designing and implementing environmental protection and resource management measures that take into account the needs of people living in poverty and vulnerable groups in accordance with Agenda 21 and the various consensus agreements, conventions and programmes of action adopted in the framework of the follow-up to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development;

(f) Establishing and strengthening, as appropriate, mechanisms for the coordination of efforts to combat poverty, in collaboration with civil society, including the private sector, and developing integrated intersectoral and intra-governmental responses for such purposes.

(Article 27 World Summit on social development)

 

28. People living in poverty and their organizations should be empowered by:

(a) Involving them fully in the setting of targets and in the design, implementation, monitoring and assessment of national strategies and programmes for poverty eradication and community-based development, and ensuring that such programmes reflect their priorities;

(b) Integrating gender concerns in the planning and implementation of policies and programmes for the empowerment of women;

(c) Ensuring that policies and programmes affecting people living in poverty respect their dignity and culture and make full use of their knowledge, skills and resourcefulness;

(d) Strengthening education at all levels and ensuring the access to education of people living in poverty, in particular their access to primary education and other basic education opportunities;

(e) Encouraging and assisting people living in poverty to organize so that their representatives can participate in economic and social policy-making and work more effectively with governmental, non-governmental and other relevant institutions to obtain the services and opportunities they need;

(f) Placing special emphasis on capacity-building and community-based management;

 (Article 28 World Summit on social development)

 

 

29. There is a need to periodically monitor, assess and share information on the performance of poverty eradication plans, evaluate policies to combat poverty, and promote an understanding and awareness of poverty and its causes and consequences. This could be done, by Governments, inter alia, through:

(a) Developing, updating and disseminating specific and agreed gender- disaggregated indicators of poverty and vulnerability, including income, wealth, nutrition, physical and mental health, education, literacy, family conditions, unemployment, social exclusion and isolation, homelessness, landlessness and other factors, as well as indicators of the national and international causes underlying poverty; for this purpose, gathering comprehensive and comparable data, disaggregated by ethnicity, gender, disability, family status, language groupings, regions and economic and social sectors;

(Article 29 World Summit on social development)

 

30. Members of the international community should, bilaterally or through multilateral organizations, foster an enabling environment for poverty eradication by:

 

 (a) Coordinating policies and programmes to support the measures being taken in the developing countries, particularly in Africa and the least developed countries, to eradicate poverty, provide remunerative work and strengthen social integration in order to meet basic social development goals and targets;

(b) Promoting international cooperation to assist developing countries, at their request, in their efforts, in particular at the community level, towards achieving gender equality and the empowerment of women;

(c) Strengthening the capacities of developing countries to monitor the progress of national poverty eradication plans and to assess the impact of national and international policies and programmes on people living in poverty and address their negative impacts;

(d) Strengthening the capacity of countries with economies in transition to develop their social protection systems and social policies for, inter alia, the reduction of poverty;

(e) Addressing the special needs of small island developing States with respect to eradicating poverty and meeting poverty eradication goals and targets, within the context of social development programmes that reflect their national priorities;

(f) Addressing the problems faced by the land-locked developing countries in eradicating poverty and supporting their efforts aimed at social development;

C. Mobilization of financial resources

87. The implementation of the Copenhagen Declaration and the Programme of Action of the Summit at the national level may require substantial new and additional resources,

(b) Reducing, as appropriate, excessive military expenditures and investments for arms production and acquisition, consistent with national security requirements, in order to increase resources for social and economic development; (c) Giving high priority to social development in the allocation of public spending and ensuring predictable funding for the relevant programmes; (d) Ensuring that the resources for social development are available at the level of administration that is responsible for formulating and implementing the relevant programmes; (e) Increasing the effective and transparent utilization of public resources, reducing waste and combating corruption, and concentrating on the areas of greatest social need; (Article 87 United Nations World Summit for Social Development )

 

 See   World Summit for Social Development
Programme of Action - Chapter 2

http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/ version/agreements/poach2.htm

1995 World Summit on social development

Chapter 2: Eradication of Poverty

 

****1995 BEIJING PLATFORM OF ACTION

 

Promote women’s economic independence, including employment, and eradicate the persistent and increasing burden of poverty on women by addressing the structural causes of poverty through changes in economic structures, ensuring equal access for all women, including those in rural areas, as vital development agents, to productive resources, opportunities and public services;

 

13. The number of people living in poverty has increased disproportionately in most developing countries

 

Excessive military expenditures, including global military expenditures and arms trade or trafficking, and investments for arms production and acquisition have reduced the resources available for social development. As a result of the debt burden and other economic difficultiesmany developing countries have undertaken structural adjustment policies. Moreover, there are structural adjustment programmes that have been poorly designed and implemented, with resulting detrimental effects on social development. The number of people living in poverty has increased disproportionately in most developing countries, particularly the heavily indebted countries, during the past decade..(Article 13 Beijing Platform of Action)

 

16 Widespread economic recession, as well as political instability in some … has led to the expansion of unspeakable poverty

Widespread economic recession, as well as political instability in some regions, has been responsible for setting back development goals in many countries. This has led to the expansion of unspeakable poverty. Of the more than 1 billion people living in abject poverty, women are an overwhelming majority. The rapid process of change and adjustment in all sectors has also led to increased unemployment and underemployment, with particular impact on women. In many cases, structural adjustment programmes have not been designed to minimize their negative effects on vulnerable and disadvantaged groups or on women, nor have they been designed to assure positive effects on those groups by preventing their marginalization in economic and social activities. The Final Act of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations 10/ underscored the increasing interdependence of national economies, as well as the importance of trade liberalization and access to open, dynamic markets. There has also been heavy military spending in some regions. Despite increases in official development assistance (ODA) by some countries, ODA has recently declined overall .(Article 16 Beijing Platform of Action)

 

37 unsustainable pattern of consumption is aggravating poverty

...the major cause of the continued deterioration of the global environment is the unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in industrialized countries, which is a matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty and imbalances. (4.3. Changing Consumption Patterns, Agenda 21. 1992), and reaffirmed in Art. 37 of the Platform of Action, UN Conference on Women: Equality, Development and Peace)

61 releasing resources allocated to eliminate poverty

By multilateral financial and development institutions, including the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and regional development institutions, and through bilateral development cooperation:

 [[Increase resources allocated] [Allocate resources as appropriate] to the elimination of [absolute] poverty, and target women [and families] in poverty] [Support the developing countries through the allocation of new and additional resources for the eradication of poverty and target women living in poverty]] (61a Advanced Draft Platform of Action, May 15)

Art. 94 Continued impacts of social realities on health

 The prevalence among women of poverty and economic dependence, their experience of violence, negative attitudes towards women and girls, discrimination due to race and other forms of discrimination and lack of influence in decision-making are social realities which have an adverse impact on their health. Lack of and inequitable distribution of food for girls and women in the household and inadequate access to safe water and sanitation facilities, and fuel supplies, particularly in rural and poor urban areas, and deficient housing conditions, overburden women and their families and all negatively affect their health. Good health is essential to leading a productive and fulfilling life (Art. 94, , Platform of Action, UN Conference on Women, May 15)

138. Those affected most negatively by conflict and excessive military spending are people living in poverty

Many women’s non-governmental organizations have called for reductions in military expenditures world-wide, as well as in international trade and trafficking in and the proliferation of weapons. Those affected most negatively by conflict and excessive military spending are people living in poverty, who are deprived because of the lack of investment in basic services. Women living in poverty, particularly rural women, also suffer because of the use of arms that are particularly injurious or have indiscriminate effects. There are more than 100 million anti-personnel land-mines scattered in 64 countries globally. The negative impact on development of excessive military expenditures, the arms trade, and investment for arms production and acquisition must be addressed. At the same time, maintenance of national security and peace is an important factor for economic growth and development and the empowerment of women.(Article 138 Beijing Platform of Action)

**** 1996 HABITAT II AGENDA

***right to adequate housing

A.  Adequate shelter for all

39. We reaffirm our commitment to the full and progressive realization of the right to adequate housing,

We reaffirm our commitment to the full and progressive realization of the right to adequate housing, as provided for in international instruments. In this context, we recognize an obligation by Governments to enable people to obtain shelter and to protect and improve dwellings and  neighbourhoods. We commit ourselves to the goal of improving living and working conditions on an equitable and sustainable basis, so that everyone will have adequate shelter that is healthy, safe, secure, accessible and affordable and that includes basic services, facilities and amenities, and will enjoy freedom from discrimination in housing and legal security of tenure. We shall implement and promote this objective in a manner fully consistent with human rights standards.

2. "Adequate shelter for all" and "Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world".

 The purpose of the second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) is to address two themes of equal global importance: "Adequate shelter for all" and "Sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world". Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development, including adequate shelter for all and sustainable human settlements, and they are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.

3 3. We recognize that access to safe and healthy shelter and basic services is essential to a person's physical, psychological, social and economic well-being and should be a fundamental part of our urgent actions

As to the first theme, a large segment of the world's population lacks shelter and sanitation, particularly in developing countries. We recognize that access to safe and healthy shelter and basic services is essential to a person's physical, psychological, social and economic well-being and should be a fundamental part of our urgent actions for the more than one billion people without decent living conditions. Our objective is to achieve adequate shelter for all, especially the deprived urban and rural poor, through an enabling approach to the development and improvement of shelter that is environmentally sound. 3 3 Habitat II)

.4. The lack of development and the existence of widespread absolute poverty can inhibit the full and effective enjoyment of human rights and undermine fragile democracy and popular participation

As to the second theme, sustainable development of human settlements combines economic development, social development and environmental protection, with full respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, and offers a means of achieving a world of greater stability and peace, built on ethical and spiritual vision. Democracy, respect for human rights, transparent, representative and accountable government and administration in all sectors of society, as well as effective participation by civil society, are indispensable foundations for the realization of sustainable development. The lack of development and the existence of widespread absolute poverty can inhibit the full and effective enjoyment of human rights and undermine fragile democracy and popular participation. Neither of them, however, can be invoked to justify violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms.(4 Habitat II)

1.   Recognizing the global nature of these issues, the international community, in convening Habitat II, has decided that a concerted global approach could greatly enhance progress towards achieving these goals. Unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, particularly in industrialized countries, environmental degradation, demographic changes, widespread and persistent poverty, and social and economic inequality can have local, cross-national and global impacts. The sooner communities, local governments and partnerships among the public, private and community sectors join efforts to create comprehensive, bold and innovative strategies for shelter and human settlements, the better the prospects will be for the safety, health and well-being of people and the brighter the outlook for solutions to global environment and social problems .( Habitat II)

 

6. useful guidelines for the realization of adequate shelter for all in the next century.

Having considered the experience since the first United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, held at Vancouver, Canada, in 1976, Habitat II reaffirms the results from relevant recent world conferences and has developed them into an agenda for human settlements: the Habitat Agenda. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development - the Earth Summit - held at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, produced Agenda 21. At that Conference, the international community agreed on a framework for the sustainable development of human settlements. Each of the other conferences, including the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995), World Summit for Social Development (Copenhagen, 1995), the International Conference on Population and Development(Cairo, 1994), the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (Barbados, 1994), the World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction (Yokohama, 1994) and theWorld Conference on Human Rights (Vienna, 1993), as well as the World Summit for Children (New York, 1990) and the World Conference on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand, 1990), also addressed important social, economic and environmental issues, including components of the sustainable development agenda, for which successful implementation requires action at the local, national and international levels. The Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000, adopted in 1988, which emphasizes the need for improved production and delivery of shelter, revised national housing policies and an enabling strategy, offers useful guidelines for the realization of adequate shelter for all in the next (article 6, Habitat II)

8.increased poverty and a widening gap between rich and poor, growing insecurity and rising crime rates, 

To overcome current problems and to ensure future progress in the improvement of economic, social and environmental conditions in human settlements, we must begin with recognition of the challenges facing cities and towns. According to current projections, by the turn of the century, more than three billion people - one half of the world's population - will live and work in urban areas. The most serious problems confronting cities and towns and their inhabitants include inadequate financial resources, lack of employment opportunities, spreading homelessness and expansion of squatter settlements, increased poverty and a widening gap between rich and poor, growing insecurity and rising crime rates, inadequate and deteriorating building stock, services and infrastructure, lack of health and educational facilities, improper land use, insecure land tenure, rising traffic congestion, increasing pollution, lack of green spaces, inadequate water supply and sanitation, uncoordinated urban development and an increasing vulnerability to disaster. All of these have seriously challenged the capacities of Governments, particularly those of developing countries, at all levels to realize economic development, social development and environmental protection, which are interdependent and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable development - the framework for our efforts to achieve a higher quality of life for all people. Rapid rates of international and internal migration, as well as population growth in cities and towns, and unsustainable patterns of production and consumption raise these problems in especially acute forms. In these cities and towns, large sections of the world's urban population live in inadequate conditions and are confronted with serious problems, including environmental problems, which are exacerbated by inadequate planning and managerial capacities, lack of investment and technology, and insufficient mobilization and inappropriate allocation of financial resources, as well as by a lack of social and economic opportunities. In the case of international migration, migrants have needs for housing and basic services, education, employment and social integration without a loss of cultural identity, and they are to be given adequate protection and attention within host  countries. (Article 8 Habitat II)

9.Appropriate efforts and technologies for rural development can help to reduce, inter alia, imbalances, unsustainable practices, poverty, isolation

 In the process of globalization and growing interdependence, rural settlements represent a great challenge and opportunity for renewed developmental initiatives at all levels and in all fields. Many rural settlements, however, are facing a lack or an inadequacy of economic opportunities, especially employment, and of infrastructure and services, particularly those related to water, sanitation, health, education, communication, transportation and energy. Appropriate efforts and technologies for rural development can help to reduce, inter alia, imbalances, unsustainable practices, poverty, isolation, environmental pollution and insecure land tenure. Such efforts can contribute to improving the linkage of rural settlements with the mainstream of economic, social and cultural life, to assuring sustainable communities and safe environments, and to reducing pressures on urban growth.( Habitat II)

10.it is urgent to eradicate rural poverty and to improve the quality of living conditions, as well as to create employment and educational opportunities

Cities, towns and rural settlements are linked through the movements of goods, resources and people. Urban-rural linkages are of crucial importance for the sustainability of human settlements. As rural population growth has outpaced the generation of employment and economic opportunities, rural-to-urban migration has steadily increased, particularly in developing countries, which has put enormous pressure on urban infrastructure and services already under serious stress. It is urgent to eradicate rural poverty and to improve the quality of living conditions, as well as to create employment and educational opportunities in rural settlements, regional centres and secondary cities. Full advantage must be taken of the complementary contributions and linkages of rural and urban areas by balancing their different economic, social and environmental requirements. (Article10 Habitat II)

11. More people than ever are living in absolute poverty and without adequate shelter.

More people than ever are living in absolute poverty and without adequate shelter. Inadequate shelter and homelessness are growing plights in many countries, threatening standards of health, security and even life itself. Everyone has the right to an adequate standard of living for themselves and their families, including adequate food, clothing, housing, water and sanitation, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. (11, Habitat II)

13.Special attention must be paid to the shelter needs of vulnerable children

The needs of children and youth, particularly with regard to their living environment, have to be taken fully into account. Special attention needs to be paid to the participatory processes dealing with the shaping of cities, towns and neighbourhoods; this is in order to secure the living conditions of children and of youth and to make use of their insight, creativity and thoughts on the environment. Special attention must be paid to the shelter needs of vulnerable children, such as street children, refugee children and children who are victims of sexual exploitation. Parents and other persons legally responsible for children have responsibilities, rights and duties, consistent with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, to address these needs.

14. In shelter and urban development and management policies, particular attention should be given to the needs and participation of indigenous people. These policies should fully respect their identity and culture and provide an appropriate environment that enables them to participate in political, social and economic life.

15. the improvement of health and the eradication of poverty are essentialto achieving sustainable human settlements.

Women have an important role to play in the attainment of sustainable human settlements. Nevertheless, as a result of a number of factors, including the persistent and increasing burden of poverty on women and discrimination against women, women face particular constraints in obtaining adequate shelter and in fully participating in decision-making related to sustainable human settlements. The empowerment of women and their full and equal participation in political, social and economic life, the improvement of health and the eradication of poverty are essential to achieving sustainable human settlements.

16barriers should be removed and the needs and concerns of persons with disabilities should be fully integrated into shelter

 Encountering disabilities is a part of normal life. Persons with disabilities have not always had the opportunity to participate fully and equally in human settlements development and management, including decision-making, often owing to social, economic, attitudinal and physical barriers, and discrimination. Such barriers should be removed and the needs and concerns of persons with disabilities should be fully integrated into shelter and sustainable human settlement plans and policies to create access for all.

18. empowering all people, especially those belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, in particular people living in poverty,

Although many countries, particularly developing countries, lack the legal, institutional, financial, technological and human resources to respond adequately to rapid urbanization, many local authorities are taking on these challenges with open, accountable and effective leadership and are eager to bring people into the sustainable development process. Enabling structures that facilitate independent initiative and creativity, and that encourage a wide range of partnerships, including partnership with the private sector, and within and between countries, should be promoted. Furthermore, empowering all people, especially those belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, in particular people living in poverty, to participate equally and effectively in all activities related to human settlements is the basis for civic engagement and should be facilitated by national authorities. Indeed, the Habitat Agenda provides a framework to enable people to take responsibility for the promotion and creation of sustainable human settlements.

19. frameworks for economic development, social development and environmental protection, which are indispensable and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable development.

Human settlements problems are of a multidimensional nature. It is recognized that adequate shelter for all and sustainable human settlements development are not isolated from the broader social and economic development of countries and that they cannot be set apart from the need for favourable national and international frameworks for economic development, social development and environmental protection, which are indispensable and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable development.

20. The differences, specific situations and varying capacities of each community and country need to be taken into account in the implementation of the Habitat Agenda.

There are critical differences regarding human settlements in different regions and countries and within countries. The differences, specific situations and varying capacities of each community and country need to be taken into account in the implementation of the Habitat Agenda. In this context, international, regional, subregional, national and local cooperation and partnerships, institutions such as the Commission on Human Settlements and the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements(Habitat), as well as resources, are central to the implementation of the Habitat Agenda.( Habitat II)

21. The Habitat Agenda … offers, within a framework of goals and principles and commitments

The Habitat Agenda is a global call to action at all levels. It offers, within a framework of goals and principles and commitments, a positive vision of sustainable human settlements - where all have adequate shelter, a healthy and safe environment, basic services, and productive and freely chosen employment. The Habitat Agenda will guide all efforts to turn this vision into reality.

 

There are themes that are persistent throughout these documents related to the eradication of poverty, along with the eradication of hunger,

25. We adopt the goals and principles of adequate shelter for all and sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world….

Civil, ethnic and religious strife, violations of human rights, alien and colonial domination, foreign occupation, economic imbalances, poverty

We, the States participating in the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), are committed to a political, economic, environmental, ethical and spiritual vision of human settlements based on the principles of equality, solidarity, partnership, human dignity, respect and cooperation. We adopt the goals and principles of adequate shelter for all and sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world. We believe that attaining these goals will promote a more stable and equitable world that is free from injustice and conflict and will contribute to a just, comprehensive and lasting peace. Civil, ethnic and religious strife, violations of human rights, alien and colonial domination, foreign occupation, economic imbalances, poverty, organized crime, terrorism in all its forms, and corruption are destructive to human settlements and should therefore be denounced and discouraged by all States, which should cooperate to achieve the elimination of such practices and all unilateral measures impeding social and economic development. At the national level we will reinforce peace by promoting tolerance, non-violence and respect for diversity and by settling disputes by peaceful means. At the local level, the prevention of crime and the promotion of sustainable communities are essential to the attainment of safe and secure societies. Crime prevention through social development is one crucial key to these goals. At the international level, we will promote international peace and security and make and support all efforts to settle international disputes by peaceful means, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. (Article  25 Habitat II Agenda)

. 28.The principle of poverty eradication is based on the framework adopted by the World Summit for Social Development

The eradication of poverty is essential for sustainable human settlements. The principle of poverty eradication is based on the framework adopted by the World Summit for Social Development and on the relevant outcomes of other major United Nations conferences, including the objective of meeting the basic needs of all people, especially those living in poverty and disadvantaged and vulnerable groups, particularly in the developing countries where poverty is acute, as well as the objective of enabling all women and men to attain secure and sustainable livelihoods through freely chosen and productive employment and work.( 28, Habitat II)

34. Solidarity with those belonging to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups, including people living in poverty

Solidarity with those belonging to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups, including people living in poverty, as well as tolerance, non-discrimination and cooperation among all people, families and communities are foundations for social cohesion. Solidarity, cooperation and assistance should be enhanced by the international community as well as by States and all other relevant actors in response to the challenges of human settlements development. The international community and Governments at all appropriate levels are called upon to promote sound and effective policies and instruments, thereby strengthening cooperation among Governments and non-governmental organizations, as well as to mobilize complementary resources to meet these challenges.( VIII34 Habitat II)

36. goals of universal and equal access to quality education, the highest attainable standard of physical, mental and environmental health, and the equal access of all to primary health care, making particular efforts to rectify inequalities relating to social and economic conditions, including housing.

. Human health and quality of life are at the centre of the effort to develop sustainable human settlements. We therefore commit ourselves to promoting and attaining the goals of universal and equal access to quality education, the highest attainable standard of physical, mental and environmental health, and the equal access of all to primary health care, making particular efforts to rectify inequalities relating to social and economic conditions, including housing, without distinction as to race, national origin, gender, age, or disability, respecting and promoting our common and particular cultures. Good health throughout the life-span of every man and woman, good health for every child, and quality education for all are fundamental to ensuring that people of all ages are able to develop their full capacities in health and dignity and to participate fully in the social, economic and political processes of human settlements, thus contributing, inter alia, to the eradication of poverty. Sustainable human settlements depend on the interactive development of policies and concrete actions to provide access to food and nutrition, safe drinking water, sanitation, and universal access to the widest range of primary health-care services, consistent with the report of the International Conference on Population and Development; to eradicate major diseases that take a heavy toll of human lives, particularly childhood diseases; to create safe places to work and live; and to protect the environment.(36 Habitat II Agenda)

A.  Adequate shelter for all

39. We reaffirm our commitment to the full and progressive realization of the right to adequate housing,

39. We reaffirm our commitment to the full and progressive realization of the right to adequate housing, as provided for in international instruments. In this context, we recognize an obligation by Governments to enable people to obtain shelter and to protect and improve dwellings and  neighbourhoods. We commit ourselves to the goal of improving living and working conditions on an equitable and sustainable basis, so that everyone will have adequate shelter that is healthy, safe, secure, accessible and affordable and that includes basic services, facilities and amenities, and will enjoy freedom from discrimination in housing and legal security of tenure. We shall implement and promote this objective in a manner fully consistent with human rights standards. .(39 Habitat II Agenda)

40. We further commit ourselves to the objectives of:

Ensuring consistency… poverty eradication and social integration;

a.   Ensuring consistencyand coordination of macroeconomic and shelter policies and strategies as a social priority within the framework of national development programmes and urban policies in order to support resource mobilization, employment generation, poverty eradication and social integration;

b.   Providing legal security of tenure and equal access to land to all people, including women and those living in poverty; and undertaking legislative and administrative reforms to give women full and equal access to economic resources, including the right to inheritance and to ownership of land and other property, credit, natural resources and appropriate technologies;

c.   Promoting access for all people to safe drinking water, sanitation and other basic services, facilities and amenities, especially for people living in poverty, women and those belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups;Article 40 Habitat II)

43. We further commit ourselves to the objectives of:

a.   Promoting, as appropriate, socially integrated and accessible human settlements, including appropriate facilities for health and education, combating segregation and discriminatory and other exclusionary policies and practices, and recognizing and respecting the rights of all, especially of women, children, persons with disabilities, people living in poverty and those belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups;

b.   Creating an enabling international and domestic environment for economic development, social development and environmental protection, as interdependent and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable development, that will attract investments, generate employment, contribute to the eradication of poverty and provide revenues for sustainable human settlements development;

c.   Integrating urban planning and management in relation to housing, transport, employment opportunities, environmental conditions and community facilities;

d.   Providing adequate and integrated environmental infrastructure facilities in all settlements as soon as possible with a view to improving health by ensuring access for all people to sufficient, continuous and safe freshwater supplies, sanitation, drainage and waste disposal services, with a special emphasis on providing facilities to segments of the population living in poverty;Article 43 Habitat II)

We further commit ourselves to the objectives of:

b.   Promoting, as appropriate, socially integrated and accessible human settlements, including appropriate facilities for health and education, combating segregation and discriminatory and other exclusionary policies and practices, and recognizing and respecting the rights of all, especially of women, children, persons with disabilities, people living in poverty and those belonging to vulnerable and disadvantaged groups;

c.   Creating an enabling international and domestic environment for economic development, social development and environmental protection, as interdependent and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable development, that will attract investments, generate employment, contribute to the eradication of poverty and provide revenues for sustainable human settlements development;

d.   Integrating urban planning and management in relation to housing, transport, employment opportunities, environmental conditions and community facilities;

e.   Providing adequate and integrated environmental infrastructure facilities in all settlements as soon as possible with a view to improving health by ensuring access for all people to sufficient, continuous and safe freshwater supplies, sanitation, drainage and waste disposal services, with a special emphasis on providing facilities to segments of the population living in poverty;

f.     Promoting integrated water use planning with a view to identifying effective and cost-efficient alternatives for mobilizing a sustainable supply of water for communities and other uses;

g.   Implementing the social and development goals already agreed to by the international community in the areas of basic education, primary health care and gender equality;

h.   Acknowledging, harnessing and enhancing the efforts and potential of productive jobs and increasing incomes,while providing housing and services for people living in poverty;.(44 Habitat II Agenda)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

****2000 MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Target 1.A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day

1.1 Proportion of population below $1.25 (PPP) per day
1.2 Poverty gap ratio
1.3 Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

Target 1.B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people

1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed
1.5 Employment-to-population ratio
1.6 Proportion of employed people living below $1.25 (PPP) per day
1.7 Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment

Target 1.C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

1.8 Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age
1.9 Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption

**** 2002 WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (WSSD)

2. as interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars. Poverty eradication, changing unsustainable patterns of production and consumption

 The present plan of implementation will further build on the achievements made since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and expedite the realization of the remaining goals. To this end, we commit ourselves to undertaking concrete actions and measures at all levels and to enhancing international cooperation, taking into account the Rio principles, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities as set out in principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.5 These efforts will also promote the integration of the three components of sustainable development — economic development, social development and environmental protection — as interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars. Poverty eradication, changing unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development are overarching objectives of, and essential requirements for, sustainable development.­(Article 2 WSSD)

Poverty eradication 7. Eradicating poverty is the greatest global challenge facing the world today and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development

Eradicating poverty is the greatest global challenge facing the world today and an indispensable requirement for sustainable

development, particularly for developing countries. Although each country has the primary responsibility for its own sustainable development and poverty eradication and the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be overemphasized, concerted and concrete measures are required at all levels to enable developing countries to achieve their sustainable development goals as related to the internationally agreed poverty -related targets and goals, including those contained in Agenda 21, the relevant outcomes of other United Nations conferences and the United Nations Millennium Declaration. This would include actions at all levels to:

7 b Establish a world solidarity fund to eradicate poverty and to promote social and human development in the developing countries

(b) Establish a world solidarity fund to eradicate poverty and to promote social and human development in the developing countries pursuant to modalities to be determined by the General Assembly, while stressing the voluntary nature of the contributions and the need to avoid duplication of existing United Nations funds, and encouraging the role of the private sector an d individual citizens relative to Governments in funding the endeavours; (Article7.b WSSD)

7 c Develop  owned poverty reduction strategies, to promote the empowerment of people living in poverty and their organizations.

(c) Develop national programmes for sustainable development and local and community development, where appropriate within country -owned poverty reduction strategies, to promote the empowerment of people living in poverty and their organizations. These programmes should reflect their priorities and enable them to increase access to productive resources, public services and institutions, in particular land, water, employment opportunities, credit, education and health; (Article7.c WSSD)

7 f Deliver basic health services for all…taking into account … the linkages between poverty, health and environment

(f) Deliver basic health services for all and reduce environmental health threats, taking into account the special needs of children and the linkages between poverty, health and environment, with provision of financial resources, technical assistance and knowledge transfer to developing countries and countries with economies in transition; (Article7.f  WSSD)

7. (h) Provide access to agricultural resources for people living in poverty….women and indigenous

(h) Provide access to agricultural resources for people living in poverty, especially women and indigenous communities, and promote, as appropriate, land tenure arrangements that recognize and protect indigenous and common property resource management systems;

(Article7.h WSSD)

7.l Combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought and floods…tool for poverty eradication

(l Combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought and floods through measures such as improved use of climate and weather information and forecasts, early warning systems, land and natural resource management, agricultural practices and ecosystem conservation in order to reverse current trends and minimize degradation of land and water resources, including through the provision of adequate and predictable financial resources to implement the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa,7 as one of the tools for poverty eradication; ­(Article 7.l WSSD)

7m improve access to sanitation to improve human health… prioritize water and sanitation

Increase access to sanitation to improve human health and reduce infant and child mortality, prioritizing water and sanitation in national sustainable development strategies and poverty reduction strategies where they exist. ­(Article 7m WSSD)

 

9. Take joint actions and improve efforts to work together at all levels to improve access to reliable and affordable energy services

9. Take joint actions and improve efforts to work together at all levels to improve access to reliable and affordable energy services for sustainable development sufficient to facilitate the achievement of the Millennium development goals, including the goal of halving the proportion of people in poverty by 2015, and as a means to generate other important services that mitigate poverty, bearing in mind that access to energy facilitates the eradication of poverty. This would include actions at all levels to: (Article 9 WSSD)

9 e o improve access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy

Develop national energy policies and regulatory frameworks that will help to create the necessary economic, social and institutional conditions in the energy sector to improve access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services for sustainable development and poverty eradication in rural, peril-urban and urban areas; (Article 9 (e) WSSD)

9 (f), improve access to reliable socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services, as an integral part of poverty reduction programmes

9 (f) Enhance international and regional cooperation to improve access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services, as an integral part of poverty reduction programmes, by facilitating the creation of enabling environments and addressing capacity -building needs, with special attention to rural and isolated areas, as appropriate; (Article 9 (f) WSSD)

 

 

11. By 2020, achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers,

 By 2020, achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, as proposed in the “Cities without slums” initiative. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Improve access to land and property, to adequate shelter and to basic services for the urban and rural poor, with special attention to female heads of household; (b) Use low-cost and sustainable materials and appropriate technologies for the construction of adequate and secure housing for the poor, with financial and technological assistance to developing countries, taking into account their culture, climate, specific social conditions and vulnerability to natural disasters; (c) Increase decent employment, credit and income for the urban poor, through appropriate national policies, promoting equal opportunities for women and men; (d) Remove unnecessary regulatory and other obstacles for microenterprises and the informal sector; (e ) Support local authorities in elaborating slum upgrading programmes within the framework of urban development plans and facilitate access, particularly for the poor, to information on housing legislation(Article 11 WSSD)

 

WSSD 36 (a)

Provide technical and financial assistance and capacity building to developing  countries and countries with economies in transition, in accordance with the Marrakech  Accords 17 for the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate  Change;

 

WSSD 36 (b)

Build scientific and technological capabilities and networks for the exchange of  scientific data and information, especially in developing countries;

 

WSSD 36 (c)

 

Promote the systematic observation of the Earth’s atmosphere by improving ground-based  monitoring stations, increasing use of satellites, and appropriate integration of these  observations to produce high-quality data that could be disseminated for the use of all  countries, in particular developing countries;

 

WSSD 36 (d)

Implement a strategy for integrated global observations to monitor the Earth’s  atmosphere, with the cooperation of relevant international organizations, especially the United  Nations specialized agencies, in cooperation with the secretariat of the United Nations  Framework Convention on Climate Change;

 

WSSD 36 (e) Support the Arctic Council initiative to assess the environmental, social and economic  consequences of climate change on the Arctic as well as on the Antarctic, in particular the  impact on local and indigenous communities.

 

38. The UNFCCC  is the key instrument for addressing climate change, a global concern, and we reaffirm our commitment to achieving its ultimate objective of stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system …to ensure that food production is not threatened

Change in the Earth’s climate and its adverse effects are a common concern of humankind. We remain deeply concerned that all countries, particularly developing countries, including the least developed countries and small island developing States, face increased risks of negative impacts of climate change and recognize that, in this context, the problems of poverty, land degradation, access to water and food and human health remain at the centre of global attention. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 27 is the key instrument for addressing climate change, a global concern, and we reaffirm our commitment to achieving its ultimate objective of stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner, in accordance with our common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. Recalling the United Nations Millennium Declaration, in which heads of State and Government resolved to make every effort to ensure the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,28 preferably by the tenth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 2002, and to embark on the required reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases, States that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol strongly urge States that have not already done so to ratify it in a timely manner. Actions at all levels are required to:  (Article 38WSSD)

WSSD38 (a)  promoting food security and fighting hunger in combination with measures which  address poverty, consistent with the outcome of the World Food Summit

 Achieve the Millennium Declaration target to halve in the year 2015, the  proportion of the world’s people who suffer from hunger and realize the right to a standard of  living adequate for the health and well-being of themselves and their families, including food,  including by, promoting food security and fighting hunger in combination with measures which  address poverty, consistent with the outcome of the World Food Summit and, for State Parties,  with their obligations under Article 11 of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural  Rights.

 

40. Enhancing the role of women at all levels and in all aspects of rural development, agriculture, nutrition and food security is imperative

Agriculture plays a crucial role in addressing the needs of a growing global population and is inextricably linked to poverty eradication, especially in developing countries. Enhancing the role of women at all levels and in all aspects of rural development, agriculture, nutrition and food security is imperative. Sustainable agriculture and rural development are essential to the implementation of an integrated approach to increasing food production and enhancing food security and Page 23 food safety in an environmentally sustainable way. This would include actions at all levels to: (Article 40 WSSD)

40 (a) realize the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being

(a)Achieve the Millennium Declaration target to halve by the year 2015 the proportion of the world’s people who suffer from hunger and realize the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of themselves and their families, including food, including by promoting food security and fighting hunger in combination with measures which address poverty, consistent with the outcome of the World Food Summit and, for States Parties, with their obligations under article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; (Article 40  (a) WSSD)

41. Strengthen the implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought

Strengthen the implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa,7 to address causes of desertification and land degradation in order to maintain and restore land, and to address poverty resulting from land degradation. This would include actions at all levels to: (a) Mobilize adequate and predictable financial resources, transfer of technologies and capacity-building at all levels; (Article 41 WSSD)

42. integrate environmental, economic and social components of sustainable mountain development and strengthen international cooperation for its positive impacts on poverty

 Mountain ecosystems support particular livelihoods and include significant watershed resources, biological diversity and unique flora and fauna. Many are particularly fragile and vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change and need specific protection. Actions at all levels are required to: (a) Develop and promote programmes, policies and approaches that integrate environmental, economic and social components of sustainable mountain development and strengthen international cooperation for its positive impacts on poverty eradication programmes, especially in developing countries; (Article 42 WSSD)

Article  42 (f) address the poverty among people living in mountains through concrete plans, projects and programmes

Mobilize national and international support for applied research and capacity -building, provide financial and technical assistance for the effective implementation of the sustainable development of mountain ecosystems in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and address the poverty among people living in mountains through concrete plans, projects and programmes, with sufficient support from all stakeholders, taking into account the spirit of the International Year of Mountains, 2002. (Article 42 (f)WSSD)

44. Biodiversity, plays a critical role in overall sustainable development and poverty eradication, is essential to our planet human well-being and to the livelihood and cultural integrity of people

Biodiversity, which plays a critical role in overall sustainable development and poverty eradication, is essential to our planet, human well-being and to the livelihood and cultural integrity of people. However, biodiversity is currently being lost at unprecedented rates due to human activities; this trend can only be reversed if the local people benefit from the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, in particular in countries of origin of genetic resources, in accordance with article 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Convention is the key instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from use of genetic resources. A more efficient and coherent implementation of the three objectives of the Convention and the achievement by 2010 of a significant reduction in the current rate of loss of biological diversity will require the provision of new and additional financial and technical resources to developing countries, and includes actions at all levels to: (Article 44 WSSD)

44 (d) Implement the Convention and its provisions, including active follow-up

44 (d) Implement the Convention and its provisions, including active follow-up of its work programmes and decisions through national, regional and global action programmes, in particular the national biodiversity strategies and action plans, and strengthen their integration into relevant cross-sectoral strategies, programmes and policies, including those related to sustainable development and poverty eradication, including initiatives which promote community -based sustainable use of biological diversity; : (Article 44(d) WSSD)

45 halt the loss of forest biodiversity and land and resource degradation

. Forests and trees cover nearly one third of the Earth’s surface. Sustainable forest management of both natural and planted forests and for timber and non - timber products is essential to achieving sustainable development as well as a critical means to eradicate poverty, significantly reduce deforestation, halt the loss of forest biodiversity and land and resource degradation and improve food security and access to safe drinking water and affordable energy; in addition, it highlights the multiple benefits of both natural and planted forests and trees and contributes to the well-being of the planet and humanity. The achievement of sustainable forest management, nationally and globally, including through partnerships among

interested Governments and stakeholders, including the private sector, indigenous and local communities and non -governmental organizations, is an essential goal of sustainable development. This would include actions at all levels to: : (Article 45 WSSD)

45(e) Develop and implement initiatives to address  the need who suffer from poverty … highest rates of deforestation

 Develop and implement initiatives to address the needs of those parts of the world that currently suffer from poverty and the highest rates of deforestation and where international cooperation would be welcomed by affected Governments; : (Article 45 (e) WSSD)

53 The goals of sustainable development can only be achieved in the absence of a high prevalence of debilitating diseases, while obtaining health gains for the whole population requires poverty eradication.

. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development states that human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development, and that they are entitled to a healthy and productive life, in harmony with nature. The goals of sustainable development can only be achieved in the absence of a high prevalence of debilitating diseases, while obtaining health gains for the whole population requires poverty eradication. There is an urgent need to address the causes of ill health, including environmental causes, and their impact on development, with particular emphasis on women and children, as well as vulnerable groups: (Article 53 WSSD)

(a)Integrate the health concerns, including those of the most vulnerable populations, into strategies, policies and programmes for poverty eradication and sustainable development;

(Article 53  (a) WSSD)

56(e) Support the development of national programmes and strategies to promote  education within the context of nationally owned and led strategies for poverty reduction

 Support the development of national programmes and strategies to promote  education within the context of nationally owned and led strategies for poverty reduction and  strengthen research institutions in education in order to increase the capacity to fully support the  achievement of internationally agreed development goals related to education, including those  contained in the Millennium Declaration on ensuring that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and  girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling and that girls and boys will  have equal access to all levels of education relevant to national needs; (56 (e) WSSD)

 

­­­­­­­56(e) Support … strategies to promote  education within the context of nationally owned and led strategies for poverty reduction

Support the development of national programmes and strategies to promote  education within the context of nationally owned and led strategies for poverty reduction and  strengthen research institutions in education in order to increase the capacity to fully support the  achievement of internationally agreed development goals related to education, including those  contained in the Millennium Declaration on ensuring that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and  girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling and that girls and boys will  have equal access to all levels of education relevant to national needs; 

 

61. Achieve significantly improved sustainable agricultural productivity and food  security

 

Achieve significantly improved sustainable agricultural productivity and food  security in furtherance of the agreed Millennium Development Goals, including those  contained in the Millennium Declaration, in particular to halve by 2015 the proportion of  people who suffer from hunger, including through initiatives at all levels to: 

 

61 (a)   developing and implementing food security strategies, within the context of national poverty eradication programmes 

 

Support the development and implementation of national policies and programmes, including research programmes and development plans of African countries to regenerate their agricultural sector and sustainably develop their fisheries, and increase investment in infrastructure, technology and extension services, according to country needs. African countries should be in the process of developing and implementing food security strategies, within the context of national poverty eradication programmes, by 2005;( 61 (a) WSSD)

 

140 (f)   address the poverty among people living in mountains through concrete plans, projects and programmes,  

 Mobilize national and international support for applied research and capacity-building, provide financial and technical assistance for the effective implementation of sustainable development of mountain ecosystems in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and address the poverty among people living in mountains through concrete plans, projects and programmes, with sufficient support from all stakeholders, taking into account the spirit of the International Year of the Mountain 2002. (149 (f)WSSD)

 

WE  ARE LEFT WITH THE QUESTION WHY WERE THESE COMMITMENTS TO ADDRESS POVERTY NOT IMPLEMENTED, AND WILL THERE FINALLY BE THE POLITICAL WILL TO IMPLEMENT THE COMMITMENT IN SDG 1? PERHAPS WE WILL JUST KEEP ‘’REAFFIRMING OUTCOMES”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We  are left with the question why were these commitments to address poverty not implemented, and will there finally be the political will to implement the commitment in sdg 1? perhaps we will just keep ‘’reaffirming outcomes”

 

OR PERHAPS THERE ARE TOO MANY SYSTEMIC CONSTRAINTS PREVENTING POSITIVE CHANGE

 

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):the world we want is impeded by the continuation of the world we do not want

http://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10112:sustainable-development-goals-sdgsshaping-the-world-you-want-is-impeded-by-the-continuation-of-the-world-you-do-not-want&catid=74:ijustice-news&Itemid=216

 

 

****UNSUSTAINABLE PRACTICES

 

***GOAL 2: END HUNGER, ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY AND IMPROVED NUTRITION, AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE.

44. End the misappropriation of agricultural land for the growing of biofuel and contributing to food insecurity, and prohibit the purchase and use of land for biofuels to serve foreign markets and undermine food security.

 

44. End the misappropriation of agricultural land for the growing of biofuel and contributing to food insecurity, and prohibit the purchase and use of land for biofuels to serve foreign markets and undermine food security.

 

52. End land degradation, soil erosion, salinization, water logging, and soil pollution, which contribute to loss of soil fertility and food security.

 

methane gas resulting from the dependency on animal protein.

 

49. Discontinue the promoting of false "solutions" to climate change such as biofuels, large hydro projects, and nuclear  which are not socially equitable and environmentally safe and s­­­ound renewable energy sources. Abandon the market based proposal of the so-called Green Economy that could lead to the  commodifying  nature

 

50. End the failure of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to investigate and estimate the full impact of greenhouse gas emissions by the military, and to demand that each state release information related to the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of all militarism, from military exercises, war games, weapons testing, military aviation troop transfer, military operations, and waste generation, to reconstruction after acts of violent interventions etc.

 

51. End the practice of member states relying not on the emerging scientific data, but on the IPCC 2007 report which was based on 2004 and 2005 data The emerging data now indicates the urgency of keeping the rise in temperature below the dangerous level of 1°C, [which is the point at which global systems on land, water and air will be so affected as to create vicious feedback cycles and destabilise many ecosystems and human societies]; whereas the IPCC 2007 Report had indicated that 2 degrees was the safe threshold. The emerging scientific data also indicates that there are more serious climate-induced events than anticipated in the 2007 IPCC Report.

 

52. End the climate injustice of using the atmospheric space of developing countries, and refusing to pay compensation

 

35 Eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, particularly in industrialized countries; this pattern has contributed to poverty, to the inequitable distribution of resources within countries and between countries, has increased the vulnerability to natural disasters and has threaten the well-being of future generations.

 

31. End misplaced spending priorities: on militarism, on adulterated unsafe food, on production of products and substances harmful to the environment and human health, and redirecting budgetary expenses to eradicate poverty.

 

 

57. End environmentally induced diseases, address the social determinant of health problems- such as poverty, and provide universal access to a publicly-funded not-for-profit health non-two tier health care system.

 

58. Prevent environmentally induced diseases, stop ignoring the social determinants of health problems- such as poverty/ environmentally induced diseases, etc. and end the denigration universal access to a publicly-funded not-for-profit health non-two tier health care system.

11. End the trumping of health, environment, civil and political and human rights for the sake of "militarizedsecurity, 

AVERTING ENVIRONMENTAL DEVASTATION AND HEALTH PROBLEMS

 

34.End the exploitation of Nature  and recognize rights of nature  in 1982 World Charter of Nature; every form of life is unique, warranting respect regardless of its worth to humans, and to accord other organisms such recognition's, humans must be guided by a moral code of action,

 

35 Eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, particularly in industrialized countries; this pattern has contributed to poverty, to the inequitable distribution of resources within countries and between countries, has increased the vulnerability to natural disasters and has threaten the well-being of future generations.

 

58. Prevent environmentally induced diseases, stop ignoring the social determinants of health problems- such as poverty/ environmentally induced diseases, etc. and end the denigration universal access to a publicly-funded not-for-profit health non-two tier health care system.

 

1.2.   Increasing negative impact of structural adjustment programs

The international debt crisis, which has forced nations to undergo structural adjustment programs, has undermined nation states to implement or maintain food security policies. Increased trade liberalization, with the World trade Agreement will further restrict the nation state from implementing food security policies.

The negative consequences of structural adjustment programmes have had negative consequences such as increased poverty, unemployment, social disintegration, health care decline, environmental degradation, reduced access to education, and escalation of conflict.

11. End the trumping of health, environment, civil and political and human rights for the sake of "militarized security, 

 

We  are left with the question why were these commitments to address poverty not implemented, and will there finally be the political will to implement the commitment in sdg 1? perhaps we will just keep ‘’reaffirming outcomes”

 

OR PERHAPS THERE ARE TOO MANY SYSTEMIC CONSTRAINTS PREVENTING POSITIVE CHANGE

 

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):the world we want is impeded by the continuation of the world we do not want

http://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10112:sustainable-development-goals-sdgsshaping-the-world-you-want-is-impeded-by-the-continuation-of-the-world-you-do-not-want&catid=74:ijustice-news&Itemid=216

 

SDG Goals for Transforming Our World are Impeded by Unsustainable Institutes and Practiceshttp://pejnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10366:sdg-goals-for-transforming-our-world-are-impeded-by-unsustainable-institutes-and-practices&catid=74:ijustice-news&Itemid=216

 

 

Last Updated on Monday, 19 October 2015 06:09
 

Latest News